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0 n ■> > «i » • a o B o D 


IBB « B 0' • ' — • ^ J r V 

a • 0 • • • •yrir-*'w^r*~^-:<rVri V 

A Handbook for Travellers in 
South Germany and Austria 

John Murray (Firm 

S^U of 

Mrs, Morrison Wood 






The Editor requests that travelli^rs who may, in the use of tliis Haii(ll>ook, 
detect any fjinlts or oiaibisioub ^vhuli they can correct /row prj- Loutl kni>u'li<lije 
will have the kindness to mark theia down on the sjtot with the date at ^vlnt h 
they were made, and cdminmiieate to him a notice of the same, fevouring lum 
at the same time with their iiaiiKs — nddre^sed to Mr. Murray, Albemarle 
Street. They may be reminded that by such communications they are not 
merely furuishiug the means of improving the work, bat are contriboting to the 
benefit, iii£»niuUioii» and comfort of fiUxure trayellen in general* 

rso attention can be paid to letters from innkeepers in praise of their 
own houses. 

Cauttom to Travellers BtiviNc Enolisu Books abroad. — By Act of 
Parliament the introduction into ]*lnjr1and of foreir/n pirated editions of tlie 
works of British authors, in wliich the copyright subsists, is totalhf prohibited. 
Travellers will therefore bear in mind that even a single copy is Qontrahand, 
and is liable to seizure at the F-nglifth Cnstom-hoiiae. 

Caution to iNNKEEPERd and OTHEiis. — The Editor of the Handbooks 
has learned from various qiiarters that a person or persons have been 
extorting money from inDkeepers, tradespeople, artists, and others, on the 
Continent, under pretext of procuring recommendations and favourable 
notices of tin m and their establisbme!its iu the Handbooks for Travellers. 
The Editor, therefore, warns all whom it may concern that rcconmendations 
in the Tf mdboohs are not to be obtained by payment, and that the persons alluded 
to are not only unauthorised by him, but are totally unknown to him. All 
those, therefore, who put confidenoe in aoeh promises may rest assured that 
they will be defrauded of their money without attaining their object. The 
Editor will be greatly obliged if trayelleni will expldn this to Innkeepers 
and others in remote districts, who are liable to become Tictims of this kind of 

Umoos I mxtXD n wiuiam cixn^^-rs Axn sons, limixbd, tHAuMQab stasETi 

L^iyui^LL; GoOglc 
















Digitized by Google 

■ • 1 





Digitized by Gopgle 


T lOl I 

FKB80NAL Jonmeys and oareful rauaibhesy oomlimed with the very use* 

ful and obliging hints and corrections supplied by many persons who havo 
made notes on this Handbook, have enabled the Editor to improve 
this new edition most materially ; and it has been corrected as far as 
possible down to the time of publioa^on. New maps and plans have 
been inserted, and a lar^ numher of the loates have been xe-wrltten 
and altered, so as to adapt them to thu new roads and railways wliich 
have been constructed in this part of Europe. These have greatly 
increased the &cility of access to some of the finest portions of the scenery 
described in this volnma 

In this edition the Routes have been made to coincide, as far as 
jwssible, with those in the official and railway time-tables ; a system 
which, it is believed, the. traveller will ^d to bo very convenient. 

The £ditor bega to repeat his request that all who use the work will 
do him the &voar to transmit to him (through the publisher) naUcea 
any errors or omjmibns teUieA Htus mey d(sM, Ibr the benefit of 

future travellers. Hotels, shops, names of official residents, means of 
conveyance, and other mt^tters Hable to constant change, must be sought 
in the Index Directory at the end of the volume. 

For information relating to Germany generally, the reader is referred 

to the Handbook for North Germany^ of wliigli tl»o present work furins 
a coutiauatiou. 

l40«W3(s, Avgus$ 1889, 



{rt,') ngkif (J,) left The right bank of a river is that which lk$ on the 
right hand of a person descending the stream. 

N. S. E. W. for the points of the compass. These letters are made use of at 
the commencement of each route to indicate its direction. 

kil. for kilometer. 

m. for English mile, 
Inhab. for inhabitajnts. 
cent, for century, 
Bte. for Route, 
p. for page, 
mk. for Mark. 
Pop. for population. 
Stat for iiailway btatiou. 

B. for breakfast. 

D. for dinner. 

R. for room and bed. 

* as a mark of commendation, in the 

case of Inns, works of art, or 


NG. refers to the Handbook to North 

Figures within braekets^ imme^ately after the name of a town or TUlage» 
indicate population*; when followed by ft, they denote hi^gbt aboTe the s^s. 

See also explanatory notes on pages 7, 8, and 10« 

Digitized by Google 






§ 2. I^roXKY ... 

§ A. rAssrm;T8 

§ 4. InN8 . 

S 5. Weights and Measukks 

§ 7. The Gehman Vqituuieu 
§ 8. Railways. Luguaqk, &c. 
§ 9. German \VATKiuxG-i'LACEti 





The names are printed in black in those Routes where the places arc described. 

I . MaycTice to Aschaffcnlmri^ . 7 
'J. Frankfurt to Asctiaffi^ - 

burg 7 

n. I'rankfurt to Eberbach . . 7 
4. Hausac h to Eutiiif^en . . . 8 
.*">. neulL'lberfi to Ja^stfeld, by 

Wimpfen • 8 

C. Jap^stfeUl to Neckarclz. — 

Dt'sct^nt of tho Nook^r . . 9 

7. Wurzbiirg to Heidelberg, hy 
Eberbach 9 

8. Carlsruhe to Miihlacker, by 
Pforzheim U 

9. Osterburkcii to Bictigbeim, 

by Heilbronn . . . . ."11 
^0. Bieti{^h(;iin to Backnaii;; . . 12 

II. J^niehsal to Ulm, by Maul- 
bronn and StnttgafTt ', T lil 

12. Wertheim to Ulin, by Crails- 
heim 2^ 

I3j Crgilsbeim to Carlsrube^ by 
Hall 25 

U. Stuttgart to liorb. direct 2fi 

15. Stuttgart to Immendiiigen, by 

Tubingen ■ « ■ ■ • » 27 
IT). iTottweil to Villingen . . 30 

17. Uhn to liadolf/ell, by Blau- 
beuren ....... 30 

18. Sebwackcnrenthe to AIt$ - 

haiisen 31 

19. Stuttgart to Horb, by Calw . 31 
^0. Pforzheim to Cahv ... ~32 

21. Pforzheim to Wildbad . . 32 

22. Baden-Baden to Wildbad, by 
Carriage road . . . . 34 

03. Baden-Baden to the l^athsof 
RippoldBan — Carriage road . .34 

24. Illm to Friedriohshafen . , 35 

25. Tubingen to Sigmaringen, 

by HohenzoUern 

26. Herbertingen to Isny » . . 38 

27. Stutt^zart to ^ordhngen, by 

fimiind in Swabia 

28. Stuttgart to Hall, by Hcs- 

29. Npc.karelz to Me* >ltAah<»itn 


d by Google 


Skotion U.— BAVARIA. 


Beer .......... 

[Sketch op the Chief Objects of Cuuiobity in Bavabia . 



37. Aschaffenburg to HuxLich, by 
Wurzburgt Ochsenfort, Ans- 
bach, £iclisttitt, and Ingol- 
■tadt 44 

38. Steinach to B«thin1nirg-aii- 
der-TaiibcT ..... 85 

39. Aschaffenburg to Amorbach 80 

40. Lohr to Wertheim ... 87 

41. Neufttadt-an-der-Saale to Bis- 
chofididm 87 

42. Wiirzburg to Bamberg, by 
Schweinfurt and Ilassfurt . 88 

43 Meiniogen to Kissingen . . 91 

44. Obemdorf - Schweinfurt to 
Eiisingen 93 

45. Wflrsbiirg to Pasmit, by 
Nuremberg ! Ecg-ensbnig 93 

46. rreniiinden to Obemdorf- 
hchweiiifurt 113 

47. Gemunden to Hammelburg . 113 

48. Roth to Oroding • . • • 114 

49. Neumarkt-aa^der-Snlz to 
Beilnirnes 1 14 

50. Straubing to Neufahm , .114 

51. Nuremberg to Kgcr . . .114 

52. Sdraabelwaid to Bayieuth .115 

53. Crailsheim to Furth, by 
Heilsbroxm and Nuremberg . 117 

54. Weiden to Neukirchen . .118 

55. Hof to Treucbtlingen, by 
Bamberg and Nuremberg . 118 

56. Hoehstadt *> Mftrktzeuln to 

Saalfeld 120 

57* Erlangen to Giafeuberg • • 120 

. 41 
. 42 


58. Hof to Stehen V20 

59. Munchberg to Ilehnbreehts . 120 

60. Munich to Hof, by Frelsing 
and Landihttt 121 

61. Bayreuth to Alexandcrsbad, 
by the Ficht«lge1iirge.~-Gar> 
ri age-road 122 

Gli. Forchheim to Peguitz, by 
Carriage-rood,— The Ittn- 
coniaa Switierland . . .124 

63. Eger to Wiesau .... 126 

64, Munich to T.iiidau, by Buch- 
ioe, Kempten, and Imnien- 
stadt 120 

05. Pleinfeld to Bachloe, by 

Nordlingen and Augsburg . 128 

66. Nordlingen to Dombiihl . . 133 

67. Augsburg to Schongau . . 133 

68. Neuoffingen to Ingolstadt, by 
Beaauwdrtli and Blenheim . 134 

69. Ulm to Munich . , . .135 

70. Munich to Simbacli . . .136 

71. Hof to Eger, by Franzensbad 136 

72. Neuenmarkt to Weiden, by 
Bayreuth 137 

73. Rosenheim to EiseDstein, hy 
Plattling and the Bavarian 
Forest ,138 

74. T.andau to Landshut . . 139 

75. Ulm to Kemptem, by Mem- 

mingen .130 

76. Nenmarkt to Pocking . . 140 

77. Augsburg to Regensburg . 140 

78. Bachloe to Memmingen . • 142 

Digitized by Google 




Frontikr and Ci'STosi-iior.sES . 




Money ..... 



Railways .... 


• ••••• 




• ••«•• 


t A K 

Austria : Its Inhauitants and Sceneby : OBJEcra op Interest 

1 AK 

Tour of Saij^burg 


• ••••* 

1 ,< '7 

1 ^ a 

Salt-works .... 


1 'SO 

Cabintuia and Carniola 


1 1n 

The Forest .... 


^ K^ 

Austrian Inns and Cookery . 





65. Salzburf^ to Viennft, by Lms 


100. Pochlarn to Kienberg- 

8fi. Simbach to Wels . 




87. Wels to Aschach . 


101. Vienna to Miirzzuschlag, 

88. Linz to Micheldorf 


by Neustadt .... 


89. Linz to Gaisbach-Wartbcrg 


102. Vienna to Lazenburg, by 

90. Wesely to St. Valentiii, by 


103. Vienna to Gratz, by the 



91. Braimau to Steindorf . . 


104. Gratz to Trieste, by Mar- 
burg, Cilli, Laibach, and 

92. Vienna to St. Pciltcu . . 


93. St. Polten to Till In . . . 



94. Vienna to Krems, by Klos- 


105. Vienna to Aspang, by Sol- 
lenau and Neustadt 


95. Vienna to Maunersdorf • 


106. Trieste to Venice, by Mon- 

96. Vienna to Neustadt, by 


falcone, Ooruda, and Udine 


107. St. Peter to Fiume . . . 


97. Ainstetten to Klein-Reifling 

98. Leobersdort to St. Polten . 


108. Pas.sau to Neumarkt . . 224 


109. Passau to Vienna, by the 

99. Sclieibmiihl to Schrambach 


Danube . .... 


>S'^ Germ. 




IJl. Vieuua to Cracow, by 



14U. Bodenliacb to Ivuiuotau, by 


Freraa and Oderbcr^z: . . 



122. Weisskirchen to Wsetin . 


15u. Eger to Prague, by Carls- 

123. Kojetcin to Kulwarya, by 

bad and Komotau . 



151. Komotau to Wiepcrt . 


124. Ziegeuhals to Olmiitz, by 

152. AVejIiybka to Wehvarn 




153. Klingenthal to Falkenau . 


125. Riihinische-Triibaii to Ol- 

151. Prague to Moidau, byliriijc 



15.5. Ilakonitz to Protivin . . 


12'«. Ilohenstadt to Zciptau . • 


156. Eis«insteia to Dux, by Pil- 

I K 

127. Briinii to Vienna, by Lun- 



157. Kasoliitz to Radonitz . 


12^. Preraii to Briinn 


158. Furtli to Prague, \^s Pilsen 

129. Briinn to Un^yariscbe Bred, 
by Austerlitz .... 

C y Q ~ * 

and Karlstein • • • • 



159. Eger to Vienna, by Marien- 

1?.0. Sternberg to Wichstadl- 

bad, Budweis, and Gmiind 

Z 1 




160. Gmiind to Prague, by 

131. Lundenbiirg to Zellerndorf 




132. Granica to Trzpbinia . 


161. Wesely to Iglau . . . 


133. Liebau to Deutschbrod, by 

162. Prague to Mitti-hvalde, by 

Nimburg and Kuniggriitz . 


131-. (^iidtzeii to lirannan 


163. Cracow to Lemberg . • 


135. Parschnitz to Cliluuiotz . 243 

lC4. Lemberg to Roman , . 


13C. Seidenberg to Josephstadt 


165, Demblea to Jiozwadow 


137. Vienna to Tetschen, l)y 

166. Jaroslau to Sokal ... 


Ueutsclibrod .... 


1G7. Hliboka to Ik-rliometb . . 


138. Claslau to Zawratetz-Tro- 

168. Lemberg to Batyu . . • 




169. I^'mherg to Woloezysk 


139. Rodenbacb to Vienna, by 

170. Tarnow to Abos, by Epo- 
1 — * * — 

Prague and Chotzen . 
140. Pecek to Gross-Bt^cvar 





171. Przemysl to Legen} e-Mili- 

141. Porican to Jicin . . . 


alyi ••...»• 


142. Bn'iiin to Okriscbko . 


172. Sillein to Husiatyn . . . 


143. Prague to Turnau . . . 


173- Sucha to Skawina . . . 


1 U. Bodeubacb to Warnsdorf . 


174. Oswiecim to Podgorase. 


145. Biihmisch Leipa to Boden- 

175. Debreeziu to Kiralybaza . 



176. rs'agy-Karoly to Zilah . . 


14G. Georgswalde-Ebersbach to 

177. Nyviegyliaza to Lnghvar . 



147. Aussig to Komotau, by 


178. Szerenes to Marmaros - 

Szigetli, by Kiralybaza . 


Tepliiz and Dux . . . 


179. Oberberg to Kascbau, by 

148. Kouiggriitz to Wostromer . 








iNNri ; liE<jUiaiTEfl FOIl TitAVJBLLlNa ; HUNGARIAN CoST UM E : 



. 289 

HiANGUAGES ......... 


. 290 


. 291 

UuNGAiiY: Inuabitants and ScekekY . • • • 


. 292 





1U3. Vienna to Buda-Pest, by 

29: J 

1 94. Bnick - an - der - Loitha to 



195. Vienna to Verciorova, by 

Pressburff, Temesvar, Her- 
cules-Bad, and Orsova . 


19G. Oran-Nana to Leva . . 


l^iT. Tt'mesvar to Kasiascb . 


198. iJuda-Pest to Predeal, by 

Grosswardein, Klausen- 

burff, and Kronstadt . 


199. Kis-Kapiis to llennanii- 


200. Klausenburg to Ristritz , 


201. Kocsard to Szas-Ue;^en 


202. Tot-Megyer to Nagy-lielicz 


203. Buda-Pest to Kaschau . 


204. Liispiik - Ladany to Mis- 

kolcz, by Tokay 


205. Buda-Pest to Kuttka, by 

Altsohl and Kremnitz . 


206. Kis-Terenne to Kisujszallas 


207. Predeal to Bucharest . . 


208. Fiilek to Miskolcz . . . 


2n0. Buda-Pest to Belgrad . . 


210. Neustadt to Bares, by 

SteinamaxLflrer and Kani^a 


211. Buda-Pest to Ueszoff , . 


21-'. Zakany to P)attaszek 

21;;. Zakany to Fiume, by Ag^am 


214-. Csakaturn to Agram . 


215. SSteinbriick to Sissek, by 




216. Galantha to Sillein, by 
Leopoldstadt . . T 328 

217. Pressburg to Leopoldstadt 328 

218. Sissek to Nen-Gradiskfl . 329 

219. Buda-Pest to Con.stanti - 
110 pie, by the Orient l^x - 
press 322. 

220. Buda-l*est to Pragerbof, by 
Btuhlweissenburg ~. 7 331 

221. Buda-Pest to TOvis, by 
Arad and Karlsburg . . 332 

222. Grosswardein to Villany» 
by Maria Theresiopel and 

Essegg . r~: : aaa 

223. Grosswardein to Er- 
jSIihalyf 3M 

224. Grosswardein to Vnskoh 3M 

225. Arad to Szegedin . . . 334 
22G. Dalja to Sarejevo . . . 334 

227. Arad to Borossebes-Buttyn 33ii 

228. Bares to Mohacs, by Fiinf- 
kirchen 335 

229. Bares to Pacracz-Lipik . 

230. Sollenau to Baab, by Eben- 
furth 336 

231. Stuhlweisscnburg to Gratz 337 

232. Fehring to Filrstenfeld . 337 

233. yeu-tSzUny toStuhlwcissen- 
burg r '. ] . 33& 

234. EK^to Klein-Zcll. , , 3.3^1 

235. Vienna to Buda-Pest, by 

tht* Danube , , , . 233 

2.36. BnHa-P.'st to Constanti- 
nople, by the Danube . , 344 

. * * 






241. Tries to to Told 

242. Spalato to St'henico 


243. Motkovit.scli to Mostar . ~36l 

244. Trieste to Pota, ])y FarengQ. 

— Stf.amkr ■ . . . . Ml 

245. Trieste to Flume, by Paren- 

zo and Pola. — Steamer . :')o3 

246. Trieste to Cattaro, by Zara, 
^2 Sebenioo, and Spadato. — 

Steamer , . . . . 363 


247. Trieste to Corfti, by Spalato, 

Gravosg (Kagusa), Uattiiro 
and I)urax/o. — Steamer . 368 

248. Fiuiiie to CatUiro, by Zara, 
Sebeiiico, Trau, Spalato, 

and Curzola — Steamer . :>71 

249. Fiame to Zara, by Arbe. — 

Steamer . . 

250. Spalato to Metkovitsch, by 

Almissa. — Stj::ami£B • • 373 

( ) 



Stattf^rt .. .. .. .. .. 

. • 



to face 


The Besidenz, Blunich .. 

• • 


The Glyptothek, Munich 

• • 


The Old Pinakothek, Munich .. 

• • 


The New Pinakothek, Munich .. .. .. 73 

TlAVftri/in ^ntioTial ATiiQi^iiin \Tiitiipli 

1 1 Y*0 Ytl r\/i T* IT 

urciiiucrg • • • • • . • • • • 

lO J (let 

Q 1 

iVCJ^dloUUJ^ ^xvcLllo IKJJl^ 


1 Ort 
1 uo 

X^SSSHll •« 

• • 


Munich and the Upper Valley of the Danube 

to facf 




View of the Salzkammergut Alps 

• • 


^i^lCXlXlCt •« 

to face 


Imperial Palace and Gardens, Vienna 

• • 


Schaukammer, Vienna .. 

« • 


Belvedere Gallery, Vienna 

• • 


Environs of Vienna 

to fare 


Caldron of the Steiner Alp 

f » 


Grotto of Adelsberg 

• • 


Styria and Carinthia, — Trieste, &c. .. 

/() face 


C>r3>COVF mm •• 



Vienna and the Lower Valley of the Danuhe 



Prague •* *• *• 



Pest and Bnda . . 


Dalmatian Coast.. 



General Map .. pocket at the end of Part I. 

The Alps, from Coire to Gratz 

to face 








Hegi on of the Dolomites 



Langkofel, in the Grodenthal 

« . 


Ortlerspitz to Adamello 

to face 


The Austrian Tyrol .. at (he end of Part II. 


Ly Google 








1. Territorial Divisions, — 2. Mcmey, — 3. Passports. — 4. Inns. — 5, Weights 
and Measures. — 6. Diligences. — 7. The German Voiturier, — 8. Railways, 
Luggage, ^c. — 9. German Watering-places. — 10. Explanation of Signs. 


Railway throughont, unless otherwise specified. Places are described in those Routes 

iu which their nameB are lound printed m Black type. 


1. Mayence 

burg . 

2. Frankfurt 


to Asphaffen- 

IQ Aschaffen- 

burg . » . » . . 
Frankfurt to Eberbach . 



4. Hausach to Eutingea 


5. Heidelberg to Jagstfeld, by 

Wimpfen • » • ■ » • 8 
Jagstfeld to Neckarelz. — 


)esr(^nt of the INeclcar" 

7. Wurzburg to Heidelberg, by 

8. Carlsruhe to Miihlacker. by 

Pforzheim 11 

9. Osterburken to Bietighcim, 

by Heilbronn, .... 
10. Bietigheim to Backnang . 
LL Bruchsal to TJlnit by Maul- 

bronn and Stuttgart . . 
12* Wertheim to Ulm, by Crails- 

hfiini . . . • c • 1 

I3u Crailsheim to Carlsnihe, by 


lA, Stuttffirt to Horb, direct . 
S. Germ. 







15. Stuttgart to Immendingen, 

by Tiibingen. .... 27 

16. Rottweil to yilliDgen . . 30 

17. Ulm to Radollzell, by 

Blanbenren ..... 3 

18. Schwackeiireuthe to Alts- 

bauseu ...... 31 

19. Stuttgart to Horb, by Calw 31 

20. Pforzheim to Calw ... 32 

21. Pforzheim to Wildbad . . .^2 

22. Baden-Baden to Wildbad, 

by Carriage road ... 34 

23. Baden-Badea to the Baths 

ofBippoldaan. — Carriage 
road 34 


Ulm to triednchshafen. . 
Tubingen to Si^aringexif 


by Hohenzollem . . . 



Herbertiugen to Isny . . 



Stuttgart to Nordlingen, 

by Omiind in Swabia . . 



Stuttgart to Hall, by Hes- 



Neckarelz to Meckesheim . 


2 1. — Terriiwial Divkiona, 2. — Moikeg, Seot. L 

[ET»B^For genenl information, moIi as:— -Ifajoms and Hinii £ir TntTelling — 

Language — Goixrienh— CSamaspM^Bequisites for Travellmg— Luggage, Dress 
— Lnndin? on tho Continent; Ciistom -houses and Commisgionnaires — British 
Custom-liouse ; Trnnsniission of Baggage or Goods from the Continent to 
Enghuid— Skeleton Tours, &c., see Hcmdbook for Hottand and Belgimi. For 
BoDiaifcB on pecuHaritiaa of Geman auauMm, amaie, fto. ^ aee Hamdkoo k 
ffgr North Oermamfy and for spaeul matter ralatng |o tibie particular oawcliry, 
aee tha Awliauiunrj Infoimatioii piraoediiig emik aal af Bootaa im tUa Tohniie.} 

I 1. TBRarroRiAL Divisions. 

Recent events have tended to render the term ** Germany ' no longer a mere 
geographical expression, and hj the lYeaties concluded after the Franco-German 
War between wb North Geimaii Oonibderatioi^ the Grand Duchies of Baden 
and HaaM, and the Kingdoms of Bavazxa nd Wiirttembca;g, the King of Prussia 
acquired the licrcditarj^ dignity of T!mpcror of Germany, to the exclusion of 
Anstcia, and the presidency of the Empize was settled on the Urown of f^wuna. 

( 2. HoifST* 

The estabUahauni of the Qenotan Empire has led to ll&a iaIrodiioClon, bv the 

law of D( c ( n iher 1871^ of a new uniform decimal monetary system, of w hicn the 
unit is the Mark or shilling, and gold a legal tender and the stand. i it! of vultic. 
The lruj)( rial j^old coin?? are 20 and 10 Mark pieces, having a couimk ii. obverse 
of tile imporiui uaglo with, the w oidd '"Deutsohes Keieh" (German. JEImpire), 
and tiie x8?«M6 Tarr ing aboording to the State ▼hioh nunla the pieoe* The 

GoLD^Piecc of 20 Marks 
10 „ 

5 Marlca 









48. lO^cf. 

2«. (stricay Is. lli<l.) 
iiH' • 




^]^.^^ Austrian 


10 Mailca • • « 

20 n • • • • 

ill i i 

3 10 5 $0 
'6 do 1 11 40 

£ $, d. 

0 a 

0 1^ 7 

a ■ 

Wui'ttomberg* . 2. — Monej^, . 3 

MoMfi¥ Tablb. 



German T. 
y yr Imperiia 



£. s. d. 



Mkt. Pfg. 




0 0 1 



0 8 





0 0 2 



0 IG 





0 0 3 



0 26 





0 U 4 



0 83 





0 0 5. 



0 42 







0 50 





0 0 7- 



0 58 





0 0 6 



0 ()/ 





0 0 ^ 



0 75 





0 0 10 



0 84 





0 O'll 



0 92 





0 1 0 



1 0 





0 2 0 



2 0 





0 3 0 



3 0 





0 4 0 



4 0 





0- 5 0 



5 0 





0 6 0 



6 0 





0 7 0 



7 0 





0 8 0 



8 0 





0 9 0 



9 0 





0 10 0 



10 0 





0 11 0 



11 0 





0 12 0 



12 0 





0 13 0 



13 0 





0 14 0 



t M A 

14 0 





0 15 0 



15 0 





0 16 0 



V A A 

16 0 





0 17 0 



17 0 





0 18 0 



18 0 





0 19 0 

4 ' 


19 0 





10 0 



20 0 





2 0 0 



40 0 





3 0 0 



60 0 





4 0 0 

80 0 





5 0 0 



100 0 





6 0 0 



120 0 





7 0 0 



140 0 





8 0 0 



160 0 





9 0 0 



180 0 





10 0 0 



200 0 





20 0 0 



400 0 





30 0 0 



600 0 





40 0 0 



800 0 





50 0 0 



1000 0 






B 2 


139^ ten-mark piecet oontein t ZoUTorcin pound, 500 grammes, or 7716 
troy grains of pure gold. 

Imperial Banknotes for the whole of the Germttk Alipiie m iMoed for 910^ 

50, ion, 200, 500, and 1000 marks and upwards. 

The tai'i'st and iuust convenient way of carrying large Bums to meet the 
ejq>en6€S oi a Ions joumev i& in the form of Circular I^ates, whicli are now 
imed 1^ all the leading Moken inthovl charge, but the tnKfdler will gei»e- 
rally get a better exchange for hi Bank of England Notes ^ and Tft*^*^*^' 8em»9igm» 
usually command at least tlieir full value all over Europe. The new German 
Gold Coins of 20 and 10 Mark pieces arc very usefuli and ara neacly e^uiyalent 
in vaiuo to sovereigns and half-sovereigns. 

$3. PimOBTS. 

ThxMf^ na kmgar oiBdaUy requred in Central Eniope, the tmveUer ia 
leoommended never to leave hia native conntiy wHhoat ft F^iffn Office 

Pass])ort. Tt mny he obtained at a trifling cost on application to Mr. Edw. 
Stanford, Charing Cross; Messrs. Lee and Carter, 440 West Strain! ; and other 
agents. For Servia (Belgrad), and other Eastern countries, it is an absolute 
necessity, and should be ahown to the British Conaul at Ptoth or Vieima 
belbie ftardng. 

^ 4. Inns. 

The fliBt-dass hotels in Southern Germany differ little fh>m those of odior 

countries, except that the table d'hote is almost invariably at one o*clork. In 
Austria, with tlie cxct ptiou of a few Alpine Centres or bathing-places, where 
persons remain a long time en jpensim, there is no table d'hote at all, but 
everybody dinea )t la eaite» and pays for hia ^Unner or Itmcheeii at the time, 
giving a fee of a few kreuzers to the waiter. This custom is so Ar to tlie 
traveller's advantage, that it enables him to order what he pleases, and to 
restrict the number of dishes according to his appetite or faucy ; but in the 
case of persons not thoroughly familiar both with the cookery and the language 
of country, a really aafflcienDt dinner ordered on this prlnd^e will be found 
decidedly ezpouiTe. The portions are small, and every item, ewea down to 
Ae broad, is separately charged. A delicious cup of coffee and milk, with a 
roll and a piece of hiittcr, may be generally had for about 40 kr. = 75 c. ; but 
the tola! quantity supplied will certainly not amount to a fourth part of that 
which any Swiss waiter would bring as a matter of course for i ir. 50 c. 

In &Taria» and other diatrida where the more aaoal ayatem of a hotel bill 
is adopted, the account is generally aent in ereiy day, ao that miatakea on 
either aide may be avoided* 

§ 5* WEiQKitt AMD MsAeinuEa. 

A meter = 3d* 37 Eng. inches ; a kilometer = *621 of an Eng. mile. For 
roogh calealation, 8 kilom.=5 Eng. milea. A new German miles 7i kllom, 
A liter s approximately an Eng. pint. 

A kilogram — 2*206 Eng. pounds avoir. ; 25 kiL, whieh ia the vaoal allow* 
ance on Austrian raiiroads, = about 55 Iba, 

§ 6« DxUOJBMCfiS* 

t towns not aitnated on a line of railwav may be reached by diligence 
I, or JKZiMiyeii), whioh mmally carry only three peraona, and are 

.u cy Google 

Wurttemberg* 7. — Genmn Voiiurier, 8. — MaUwa^s^ 5 

slow. Luggage, unless carried in the hsaiAf is almost always charged sepa- 
rately. Extra-Post in Austria costs jz:pnerally 5 florins; for every 10 Eng. miles, 
the rate being fixed by tariflE, In this way foui- jM isons may secure a car- 
riage to themselves, spending less than the united diligence fares. 

I 7. Tbb Gebiuh Voxtubibe (Lohmkvtschbr). 

Vettorino travelling for long distances is a thing of the uai>ty but on cross* 
roads off the great lailway lines, and Ibr a fiew days at atmte, it is still tiie 
best and often the only trajr of r^ly seeing and enjoving the country. 

The usual Vettarino carriage is a light sort of caleche, capable of being shut 
in with leather curtains or glass windows, and of accommodaiing 4 or 5 persons, 
and one un the box. The coachman undertakes the care and transport of 
haggage without ai^ additional charge. Attaohed to Ibothoaid heldnd Is 
a large wieker bosket fiir holdiBg In^ptge* which Is seemd in its plaoe by a 


The usual cost per diem for the entire use of a caleche, drawn by 2 horses, 
is trom 18 to 20 marks, but along much traversed roads the rate is sometimes 
higher. The driver, if he behave well, recmTcs a Triiikgeld of 1 mark per 
diem. In tiiis is included every charge for tolls, barriers, wnitB, &e., and the 
driver provides for himself and horses. When forage is dear or tolls heavy, 
some little difference may be made ; hut the above may be considered an 
average of the charges. As a further scale by which to calculate a Lohn- 
kutscher's charge it may be mentioned that the hire of a carriage for 4 persons 
shofUd not exceed § or | the fiae of 4 /or As some dkianee in uie E&wagsn. 

Upon much frequented roads the German Lohnkntwher has no light to 
claim ha<;k fare, as he hanlly fails to pick up passengers on his return ; and 
indeed he will not hesitate to go to the most distant comer of Europe if he 
meets with a good offer. 

Befiire hiring a carriage expressly for a journey, it is adTisable to ascertain 
▼hether there be no retnm carriages (Betoerehaasen) about to take the same 
route, as such may be engaged at a rery reduced rate. 

§ 8. Railways. 

The almost martial authority assumed hy the guard of a German train, and 
the somewhat rigid discipline which he enforces, though occasionally a source 
of amusement tu the English traveller, have at least the advantage of securing 
ihir play Ibr all passengers alike, and of maintaining that respect for rules 
and Dy-laws which is the chief ingredient of eomlbrt in railntey trayelling. 
Germany and Austria are, for instance, the only countries in Europe, England 
not excepted, in which a traveller may be quite certain that nobody will be 
permitted to smoke, or will even attempt to smoke, in a non-smoking com- 
partment. ^ The conductor looks after his passengers with almost pastoral 
yigUance, inibrming them of any change of carriage, fto., and usually collects 
ti elects at the station preceding that at which the traveller proposes to alight 
It is considered a great offence, in most parts of Grermauy, to put your feet 
upon the o|)posite st at or cushion. 

The average speed of an express traiu is about 25 m. an hour, and the fare 
and 1^ a mile, for first and second class respestlTely. Only hand 
^^ee^fiB free in Wiirttember^ and Bavaria; in Austria, 25 kilo. = 65 lbs. 
Every Important Junction Station has an excellent BefreBhrnent room. 


6 9. — German Watering Places, 10. — McBfianation o/Sign». 

The watering-places in Germany seem natnrnTly groTiperl ao(*nn!ing to the 
Tolcanic soil or other peculiarities of the mountain chains near which most 
of them are situate. The principal groups are the following : — 

A. The Cis-Rhenane Baths, round the Eifel, and its cognate hills the 
Ardenn^ tu. — 1. Aiz-l»>ChapeUe, ot Aachen ^ 2. Bnrtsehdd, or Borcette ; 

3. Bertrich, neir the Motel ; 4. KreiiznAch, on tfao Nahe,; 5. Neuenabr, on 
the Ahr. 

For Spa, see Handbook for TTolhnul an'l Bel^jium \ Introd. Hemarlf*, § 28. 

ii. Tiie Baths of the Tauuus, round whicii they circle in Xsabsau and ilei»8e, 
T».~l. Ems; 2. Schwslbsieh ; 8. Sohlaagenbttdt 4. Wlcshltdea ; 5. WeUbach; 
G. Soden ; 7. Sdten-Fachiiigeii (iviten); 8. HomlniTg;. 9. Maiilieuii; 10. 

C. The Baths of Franconia, at theibot of the BhiiQgebirge» Tis.— Briicken* 
au; 2. Kissingen; 3. Bocklet. 

D. The Bathb of the Black Forest, \iz.— 1. Badea-Baden: 2. Wildhad ; 
d* liippoldsKU y 4. duuutadt* 

E. The Baths of Bohe]n]a,vis.-4« OBrlsbadjS. Marienbad; 8. Xitbewerda; 

4. Franzensbad ; 5. Teplitz. 

F. The Baths of Silesia, viz. — I. Charlottenbrunn : 2. Warmbruun ; 3, 
Landecky county of Giatz; 4. Beinerz, county of Glatz. 5. Grfi.&uberg 
(Waiserkur). p 

G. The Baths of the Alps, Tic«— 1. Gastein; ii. Ischl: 8. Baden, near 
Vienna ; 4. Kreuth, liavaria. 

II. The Baths of AVi'stplmlia and Central Germany, viz. — 1. Dribnrfi;; 2. 
Pyrmont ; S. Eiisenj 4. ilolt-Geismar ; 6, jNeundorf ; (>. Kehburg ; 7. Alexj»bad. 

1 10. BZ?£AVA1I0V 4kr 8IW8. 

K.B. — Each Route is headed with a list of important stations, a column of 
distances, and a eolomn of references to eroes Rontes. Beneath the list of 
stations is given the direction (N., E., S., or W.) which the Route takes. See 
Rte. 1. Black figures (e.g. 38) indicate the number of the Route in which 
a place is described* N.O. = Northern Oemmny. See also note to pp, 8 
and 10. 

Digitized by Google 




5 BiwiidMwim n.g. 98 

12 Orossg^erau . k.g. 96a 

22 Darmstadt n.q. 105 

39 BabenliauBeii . . 3 

48 AMthaflbnlmrg 2, 37. 99 

This rly. runs due E., and is part of 
the direct line from Cologne to Prague, 
Munich, and Vienna. Through-car- 
riages and aleeping-can. 

%• This information will henceforward be 
fflYen at the beading of each Route in a shorter 
form, and is intended to indicate (1) the general 
direction taken by the rly., and (2) the lines 
, sorveil l>y express train f, which run, for the 
! most i^aiti only on important tbroasb-rootMU 
i ualeas » uumigh-roate is menUoned^tbe IMf 
veller may afsume that all the trains are slow. 

First-class larei^ may be reckoned at about 
1 ». 30 i^. for every 10 BtaS* HOM* iHi 
secnnd-claas at 85 pf. Express fares are 
usually 20 per cent, higher. No luggage is 
ft-ee in Wurttemberg and Bavaria, except 
liaodtMgii, «(c, to th« amount of 10 kilo. 
(9 Bug. Ha.). Tbe diavgs ftr luggage 
booked and sent in the van is very high, and 
the tariff for porterage at many of the ily. 

The large town on the opposito tank 

of the river is OffenboA (N. O. 86). 

Wilhelmsbad has agreeable and 
much frequented promenades. Ou 
the rt bank of tlie Main, ^ m. S., is 
the CMteau of Philippsmhe, belonging 
to the LandgntTe Erneil «f Hnae. 

Hanau ^29,000), the more modem 
part of which was founded in 1597 by- 
Protestant refugees from I.i&ge and 
various Flemish towns, has some trade 
in rilky woolt and triakeli of gold and 
silver. Wm. Grimm was bom here 
in 1 786, and his brother Jacob in the 
previous year. Beyond the stat., the 
castle and town of Steinheim are con- 
spicuous on the rt« 

The ilf • erofliea Ita BiTaiian 
frontier to 

Dettingen, celebrated for the victory 
gained by. the Austrians and English 
oter Hm Vreneh fat 1748. This was 
the last engagement in'vrtddi a king 
of England appeared in person on llie 
field. On this occasion George II, 
displayed considerable skill as com- 
mander of the army, and his son, the 
Doke of CNuntamidt dittingiiished 
himself hf kls Talonr. Dil. to (4 nu 
E.) ^?2:erMiM, whence the Hahnenkamm 
may be ascended in f hr. Fine view. 

fiOUTE 2. 

iniMk stations. Routes. 

Frankfdrti £ast Stat. 

H.Q. 96 

9 ▼flkelnuAad 

10 HanaTi, West 

11 Hanan^East . ]r.a 86 

19 Dettingen 

26 Aschaffenbnrg 1, 37, 39 

S.E.E. - Frankfurt tO Vicnnai 
Mnniob, and Wiirxbarg. . 



Miles. Stations. BooMi. 
Frankfort, £. Stat. ir.a 85 

10 Hanau, West 

11 BaaniifSait. . .m.g.86 . 
24 Babenhausen 

33 WiebelBtaek-HeabaelL\ k.g. 

47 Erhaoh / 105 

66 Eberbaeh .... 7 

S.S.E.— Exp. from Berlin to Str' 
gart fails in at Uanao. iklow ^ 

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belsbach, « the highly picturesque 
*Odenwald is traversed. Tuunei of 
8400 yds., tlie Mooiid liNigetl in Ger- 


MilM. Stations. RoQtM. 

Hansadi . . N.0. 102 

8 WolfiMk 

9 ScMltaoli 
14 Alpirsbach 
24 Freudenstadt 
40 Hoehdorf. . . 19 
40 B UTJ U i ttElt . . 14^ 19 

N.E. — The rly. winds considerably, 
traversing the Black Forest, and 
crossing several valleys on loAy via 

WoUmIl Dil. thrice daily in the 
leason to (14 m. N.N.E.) Rippoldsau 

Schiltach, the last place in liaden, 
lies at the confluence of the Schiltach 
and KInzig (28). 

AlpiiiMMi, a town actively engaged 
in the straw-hat and timber trade, 
with a church of the 12th cent. Dil 
to (15 m. S.E.E.) Oberndorf, and 
(20 m. £.) Sulz (16> 

Treudenstadt (2300 ft.), a town of 
6000 Inhab. ; founded in 1599, by a 
Duke of Wiirttemberg, for Protestants 
driven from Styria and Carinthia by 
ifligioas peiMcntion. There ii a ein- 
golar church (1608) ]im» eo eon* 
trived that the men and women cannot 
see each other. Near the Rora. Cath. 
ch. is a *fine view. Dil. to (II m. 
W.) Rippoldsau (28). 

t StAtiooB pxinted in soiall capitals bave a 



Stations. Iloutes. 

Heidelberg . k.q. 105 

t Xarlithor 

4 Schlierbedt 

6 Heokargemitad7,llAllO 

12 Meckesheim . • 29 

18 Sinsheim 

21 Steinsfutk ] 

80 Rappenan 

34 "Wimpfen 

86 Jegetfeld ... 6^9 

8.E.B.— The rly. ikirti the Unwu 

and passes through a long tannel 
under the Castle Hill. Opposite 
Schlierbach is the abbey of Neuburg. 
At Neckargemund the river is quitted, 
and the train turns S. along the 

Siniheim (2800% with the ruins of a 
once wealthy abbey, of which one 
octagon tower (Stiftsthurm) is still 
perfect, and dates probably firom 1099. 
Torenn* defeated the Imperial nrmy 
here in 1674, and 16 years later the 
town was almoat enliiely deitioyed by 

the French. 

Steinsfurth. Dil to (9 S.) 
Eppingen (13). 

Bappenan supplies the whole of 
Baden with salt, from brine spiingi 
obtained by borings. 

WimpfeAt where the rly. again 
joins the Neckar. Thia mall town, 
which belongf to HeMO-Darmstadt, 
consists of two parts, Wimpfen in the 
Valley, and Wimpfen on the Hill. 
Their united population is 2600. The 
Sti/takirchej in L#ower Wimpfen, dis- 
tingniahed by ila three spires, is a 
noble Gothic edifice, built by a French 
architect (1262-78), in the Transition 
style, but much injured. At the rt. 
side of its curiouslv carved portal is a 
representadon of a Jewiih child 
suckled by a sow. WimpHen on the 
Hill is believed to stand on the site of 
the Roman Cornelia (named after 
Julius Cesar's wife)* which was de- 

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WfirttemLerg. Route 7. — Wiirzburg $0 Heidelberg* 9 

gtrayed by Attila and the Huns. In 
ascending to it two ancient towers are 
passed, the Rothe and Blaue Thurm, 
with foundations apparently liomau. 
Batncd IMfieatioDs nm aUng liie 
edge of iho fltoep wooded bank of the 
Neckar. The FJahlgrdben^ the re- 
markable rampart raised by the Erap. 
Probus, to restrain the barbarians, 
extended from Wimpl<eiitotbeDaiiiibe 
a little above Batisbon. The Stadt- 
hirche (1499) contains some curious 
carvings and paintings. Close to 
Wimpfen am Berg are the salt-works 
of Ladwigshally mated, like fluMe of 
Friedrichshall and Klemenshall, on 
the Muschelkalk« The brine ia on* 
ployed for baths. 

Jagitfeld, a small bathing- place at 
tbe mouth of the Jagst Close by, to 
Ae 8Jt.9 lie the important eel^works 
of Irieaittluhall. The jfagrdmulic 
machinery employed in raising the 
brine to the surface from the saline 
springs, sometimes 600 ft. below the 
groondy li very interesting. 



Mllei. StellockB. Bontea. 
JagirtfUd ... 6,9 

. 8 Eeinsheim 

5 Gundelsheim 

7 Hassmersheim 

8 Neokarzimmem 

U Veekmbi . . 7,S9 

N.N.W. — As there are neither 
■teamers on the river, nor continuous 
eannage loada ilong its banki^ the 
heaaties <tf the Neekar are aecessible 
only to thoee who walk or detQend in 
a boatf 

The finest scenery is below Hom- 
bure, where the rirer winds among 
thii&hr wooded hills (chiefly beech), 
theskfaaofthe Odenwald ami Black 

t A Itoome liver nugr he hid at BddBl- 
In^S er HmBhobii. 

Forest, alternating with red seams or 
cliffs of sandstone. The most pic- 
turesque Castles are Mittelberg, Zwin- 
genberg, Uornberg, and Ehrenberg. 

1. BSyond the Tillage of Heinsheim 
rise the mins <Mr the Knigktly Castle 
of Ehrenberg", one of the most pictu- 
resque on the river. The walls of its 
quadrangular donjon are 12 ft. thick. 

Oinidelshehn, a walled town.~-The 
Castle of Homefffff above it, became 
in the 13th centy. a stronghold of the 
Teutonic Knights, and residence of 
the Grand Masters of the order, whose 
effigies may be seen in the chapel. 
On the L hank is the ruin of OuUm' 
hurg, A tunnel more than i m. long 
pierces the Michelsberg, crowned 
with the very ancient chapel of St. 

nsssmerihslnii near whieh gypeom 
is exteoiiTely worked in the Mnsdiel- 
kalk, by meana both of quarries and 


Neckarzimmem. Above it rises the 
Oaafile of EemlMrg, sorraonnted by 
a tall semi-eylindrieal tower and pie- 

turesquely overgrown with trees and 
ivy. It was tlie favourite residence 
and stronghold of Gotz of the Iron 
Hand. Hm he wrote his memoirs, 
and ^ed in 1568. His armour is still 
preserved here. 

Neckarelz, where the Elz falls into 
the Neckar. The font in the parish 
church was a Koman altar. The 
course of the riw bdow Neekarda is 
described in the next Route. 



Mtlet. StatkOS. Routes. 
Wiirzburg . S7,42»45 
3 Heidingflfeld 
7 £eiohenberg 

28 Oriinsfeld 

27 LAUDA .... 12 

29 Konigshote . . 12 
M Boasbery 

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' ! j 
. / 

/ 1 




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ft A 




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{ bJH 



• a. vlt— 

\ 3 t il 

• y ^ 

V' 1 x*i 



BouU 7. — Heidingsfdd — Neckargemimd. Sect. I. 





Adelslieuii . • 




18 A* wMWimi 





Keckarelz . , 

















S.W.— Berlin to Basel. The Main 
is crossed on leaving Wurzburg, and 
the train followa, the same line oi^ 
fite. 37 until vnching SbldiaiMd, 
«BOo» IhvtreHb Here tbM m tro 

stations, f tti. apart. 

Reichenberg, a pretty village, lying 
iii a valley to the 1. The riy. now 
quits Etevsria and enten Bedes. 

GrtLnsfeld has remains of anoient 
■walls. In the chnrch is a fine momi- 
mojxi to a Countt ss of Wertheim, by 
TiUnan Miemcimchiieider (1503). The 
TadMr ii eroMed to.Landa. Rte.-l2 
is followed henee S.K to Konigsho- 
fen, an old town at the eoaflnenee 
of the Unipfer and Tauber. 

Boxberg - Wolehingen. At the 
former place are the ruins of a castle ; 
at the latter, on the rt., a fine *6raci- 
form 'church, in the TranntioD style. 

Osterburken is an ancient toim 
the site of a Koman camp. 

Adelsheim lies nearly 2 m. S. of 
the riy., and hae another stat in 
Rte. 9. 

Seokach, m the pretty Tallcgr of the 

same name. 

Koshach (3500) is an old and busy 
town on the £lz. 

The Neckar ia reaehed at Ketdourelz , 
and the train turns N., following its 
rt. bank. A tunnel J m. lonpr leaus to 
Keckargeraeh, wiici*^ are extensive 
quarries. Above rises tixe red ruin of 
Minnebwg, On the L la the heronry 

E wiig e nb etg, a restored feudal 

X statioatflHUiirtiiMl ai» on Aort Inmicti 

fortreei surrounded by hig^ wmlla, 

and T>v n ont of tlie 8 towers which 
onee det'end« <i the :i|ipronch of it. Its 
picturesque appearance, and iCs^ situa- 
tion Mndat 80810 oC tbe nrclllewt 
scenery of the Neckar, here 'confined 
by wooded hill?, nre very remarkable. 
After an abrupt turn of the river, 
Wimmerebacii is passed, and beyond 
it the romantie town of 

Altteeh (§000)f in a most pictu- 
resque valley, with a thriving trade in 
timber. The scales of the Cypriniis 
alburnus are collected here to make 
false pearls. 20,000 fish yield only 
one pmmd of tUa pearl einenee, aa tlte 
colouring matter which 'gives lustre to 
the scales is called. 2 hrs. distant 
rises the Katzenbuokel (1»60 ft.), the 
highest lull of the Odenwald range. 
A tower ataada on its iumadt The 
Neekar pnnmea a verv-fliattOBs course 
for 6 m. between M&i eovered with 

^Hirschhorn (1500), an ancient town 
with a ruined church which has some 
good tracery in the windows* 

Neekar-Steinach, at the junction of 
the Stein ach witli the Neckar. Its 
lour picturesque castles belonged to tht; 
family of Landschaden — literally, 
'* bane of the land ; " a name given to 
the founder of the family, a robber- 
kiiifrht. A pathway leads up the hill 
to the four castles. The first, Vorder- 
burg, consists of little besides a square 
donjon ; the second, Miltelburg^ mora 
extensive and picturesque, has been 
restored; thethiid, Hinterburg, shows 
evident marks of having been de- 
stroyed by violence, thou^' from its 
position, the thickness <tf its NraUly and 
the deep ditch arooad it, peftly out hi 
the ro(»B:, it must have been a place of 
grent <?trength during the feudal times ; 
ilie fourth and oldest overlooks all the 
rest, and is distant from tbe lowest 
about a mile ; it ia ealled. by ihe 
peasantry Swallows* Ned (Stikwalben- 
nest), from its position on a pointed 
rock, with an inaccessible precipice 
extending below it towards the river. 
On the o^[KNdle bank of the rWer liam 
the castle of DOaftergr. 

Neckargemtlnd* The Elsenz enters 
,the Neckar here, and ia spanned i)y a 

Wurttemberg. Moaie 9. — Oatei'burkm to JBietigJieim. 11 

haAge of ooe aroh. Hie 1. bank of 
the rvm Ib now IbUowM to AUbal- 



BOUTfi 8. 

8 DvrlMk* 

5 Grotzmgen 

19 Pforzheim 

.N.a. 106 
« . 18 

. . 13 
• 20,21 
, • U 

E. — Orient Exp., Paris to Constan- 
tinople. Beyond Durlaoh (7400), the 
ancient residence of the Margraves of 
Baden, our line bears S.£. up the 
yalley of the Pfinz, and winds con- 
ndierMjt Bkirting the Black Foratt. 

Pforxheim (24,500>, an active manu- 
facturing town near the junction of the 
Eii2, WUrm, and Nagold, three streams 
taking their rue in the Blade Forest 
It haa ironworks, cloth manufiustories, 
and a considerable timber trade. Its 
gold and 5;ilver wares are known all 
over Germany, The *S<^OMkirfihe, 
on a height, oontidns some 10 or 12 
monuments, with m^ble Staines, &c., 
of the princes of Baden, besides that of 
Margraves Albreclit of Brandenburg, 
the famous warrior, and Albrecht 
Alcibiades of Baireuth. who died here 
under ban of ^e linpire in 1657. In 
the town is a monument erected in 
1834 by the Grand Duke of Baden to 
the memory of 400 men of Pforzheim, 
who fell at the battle of Wmipfen in 
162^. The market-pbwe haa a atatoe 
of Margrave Ernest (1558), Benehtiny 
the friend of Melanehtfaon» was horn 
here in li54. 



. . 7 


Adelsheim . 

. . 7 




. . 5,6 




Hoilbronn , 

. * 18 









. 10,11 

S.S,W.— Berlin to Stutt^u 
Aielahsiin haa another mat^ 8 m* N., 

in Rfe. 7. 

KockmtLhl is an ancient walled 
town, with the family castle of the 
celebrated robber-knight, Gotz von 
Beriichin»en (1519), the Knighlwtth 
the Ink Hand. 

HEILBKONN (28,000), on the rf. 
bank of the Neckar, here crossed by 
an iron bridge, is a picturesque old 
town, with pointed towers, gablshlheed 
houses, and pleasant promenades oocn* 
pyiTif^ the site of the old fortifications. 
It iiiis regained much of its formeJ' 
importance in trade andmanii&ctures. 

The *flbimh ef n. BHaaiaremavk*' 
aMeforxts beautlfal tower (225 ft.), the 
lowerpart of which was built in the 13th 
oenty. : the upper part, where it b^us 
to be octagonal, dates from 1529, and 
is in a richly ornamented variety of 
RsnaisBiBae. The naye finished 
in 1037; aMeag tha oldbH portions 
are the (Quadrangular towers rising 
over the aisles at the beginning of the 
choir. The latter was not com- 
pleted tiU the eaa of the 16th eenty. 
The *alt»fpleoa hf Mmenachnmd^ 
(1498) is a rich example of painting 
and wood-carving ; on its wings are 
the Birth of Christ, with the Kesur» 
xMiion, and Ileath «f tht ¥ii|sin. 
T%e chnseh coatiaiai sobbo ewious 
I uioiniments and fragments of old 
1 painted glass. The tower effocds a 


Moute 10. — Bietigimm to Backfm^* 

good Tiev \ within it it a linely toned 

and very massive bell (1479). 

Behind the church, flowing out of 7 

pipes, is the " holy sprinG-/* from 
'which the city derives its uaiuc. 

The Town Hall (1540), with a com- 
plicated clock (1579), contains amonp; 
Its records several Imperial CIku u rs 
and Panal Bulls, alb > a declaration ot 
war (Fehdebrief) agaiost the town 
from Gotz von Berlichiogen, whose 
history is so well told in the dnoBa of 

Another memorial of him is the 
tall sauare red Th^f*8 Tower (der 
DiebBtnnrm), or Gtttaenatfaami— on 
the bank of the Neckar, above its 

bridge — in which Gopthe places the 
scpne of his death, although he was 
shut up in it only one uight (1519). 
It is Teiy eonsplenons from the rly. 

The Swedish Chancellor Oxenstiema 
summoned hither (April 1633; the 
leaders of tlie Protestant Stattis of 
Germany, tu renew the Lea|i;ue jeo- 
pardised hf the death of Gnslayns 
Adolphus. The contract was signed 
in the Deutsche Hans, about 200 yds. 
S.W. of St. Kilian's, formerly a royal 
palace, with a chapel which still re- 
tains its ancient tower. Opposite is a 
Restaimaty with an inscription oom- 
memora^g the visit of Ghferlea Y. to 

200 yds. N.E. of St. Kilian's is the 
tower of the Franciscan ch., destroyed 
the Freneh in 1688. E. of it mns 

e broad AlUiSf in whidi is the Con- 
cert room of tlie Harmony Club, with 
an exhibition of modern pictures. 
Further S. is the Moorish Sutiagogue. 
Near the rrwer, W. of St. Lilian's, is 
Ae Historical Museiun, containing a 
number of antiqatties and pxe^historic 

The best view of Heilbronn and the 
Neckar valley is to be obtained fiom 
the *Wnlb«r9 (Watefa Tower Hill), 
i hr. N.B. of the town, and 520 ft 
above the river. On the summit is an 
Inn, with a tower behind it, 60 ft. high. 

At its base are the town Waterwarks, 
admirably eng^neeiad. The baakt of 
the river are clothed witli ymeywi&B 

xidocing a toletable wine. 

The Sehwd&sbevg (820 ft.) rialn^ 
to the flLp may be aseended in an hour 
and commands a fine view, booadod 
by lofty hills on every ^ide. 

On leaving Heilbronn, the Wariberg 
Is TisiUe on the 1. The rly. miia 
along the L bank of the Neckar, over 
the Tiarrow strip nf plain between it 
and the vine-clad hills, to Lanifan, 
with an old castle and church, placed 
Qo rodts by the river. Then poMiiig 
through a tunnel, it reaches Xiroh- 
heim. On the 1. stands the castle of 
Liehensteiny with a chapel worth notico. 

Beaigheim. (2350), the C<istrum Va- 
leriantm of the Bomans. 

6 ai. N*W. rises the WMulUhng 
(1S80 ft), erowiu d with an aneient 
chapel, fonnerly a Roman temple. 

A little beyond this the railway 
cross^ the river Kuz by a lattice- 
bridge, and kares the valley of tbe 
Neckar, following that of the Bus to 

BOUT£ 10. 


UilflS. Stations. K ntos. 

Bietigheim , • ,9, 10 
4 JBeihingen ? 

3 8. Ludwigsbnrg . 11 \ 
8 Marbaeh 

16 Baoknaag ... 28 

E. — The line crosses the Neckar on 
a lofty viaduct to BeUiliigfB. 

Marbaoh is a village on the rt. bank 
of the Neckar, where Schiller was 
bom (Nov. 10, 1759). His cottage 
has been turned into a small Mnsevm 
of personal relics. In the Sckillen^ 
hShe, a park close to the village, is a 
bronze statue of the poet by Bau 
(1876). The rly. now follows the 
valley of theMnrr. 

Baeknan^ has large tanneries, and 
a fine Transition church of 1 1 20. 8 m. 
distant are tbe fiaths of i^^etonoii. 


B<mte 11. — Bruchsal to Ulm. 


BOUTS 11. 





Bbttchbal . 

N.G. 105 


Bretten . . 

. . 13 




Uiflilaoker • 

• . 6 


Bietigheim . 

. 9,10 



. . 10 



. . 19 





14, 15, 19 

27, 28 


Gannstatt . 








. . 16 


FlooMxLgn . 





00 CO 



mm . • 


S.E. — Cologne to Munich or Vienna. 
The Orient Ezp. iUlf i&at Millilaoker. 
Frequent local trains between Statt- 
gart and EssUngen. 

Bruchsal (12,000) has a castellated 
prison, 10 min. walk from the stat. on 
the 1. The Schloss, formerly a palace 
of the bidiope of Speyer, is ▼orth 
Yiritiag. A short tunnel leads into 
tiie valley of the Salzach. 

Bretten (2800), with its ancient 
watch-tower, was the birthplace of 
Meiaaeiitbini (1497), to whm a 
monument was erected in front of tiie 
school-house in 1864. 

Maulbronn. The town lies 2 m. 
N.E., in a wooded valley. Omn. three 
times daily in ^ hr. 

Here is a wdi-^reserved and most 
interesling ^Abbey Church (1137) of 
basilica form, with late Gothic addi- 
tions, recently restored. It is ap- 
proadied by a beautiful W. atrium, 
with rieh ansade and wdting. In the 
CRmmx^ sepaiaisd from the nave by a 
Romanesque screen, are some fine 
-Yindows and elaborately carved stalls. 

To the N. lie the ♦Cloisters, of 
which the side nearest the ch. is of 
good Transition work. A woll-cliamber 
projects into the court, and out of the 
cloisten open the refectory, chapter- 
house^ sna oAer halls, of extreme 
beauty and interest. 

Beyond Maulbronn a short tunnel 
carries the rly. out of the valley of the 
Bidne Into that of the Neekar. 

Milhladnr. The deep valley of the 
Enz is crossed on a *viaduct of 21 
arches in two tiers, well seen from the 
Stat, just before arriving at Bietigheim. 
Near Asperg, the rly. winds round 
the base of the fertren of foAsfMurper^^t 
situated on an isolated hill on the rt, 
and now nsed as a state prison. The 
poet Schubart was confined here from 
1777 to 1787, for writing a satirical 
epigram on Diiko Chailes of Wflrtlem- 
berg. Fine view from the ramparts. 

Ludwigshurg (16,500), about a mile 
W. of tlie Neckar, was once the resi- 
dence of the sovereigns of Wurttem- 
berg. It owes its rise to Dnke Bher^ 
hard Lewis* who built it (1780) to 
gratify the caprice of an extravagant 
mistress, and to revenge himself upon 
his wife and the Estates of Wiirttem- 
berg, with whom he had quarrelled, 
intending to make it his capital instead 
of Stuttgart. It has a military arsenal, 
staff college for officers, cannon foundry, 
and a garrison of 4000 men. The de- 
serted FdUuse, one of the largest in 
Germany, eontahis a gallery of paint- 
ings of no value. The FBltnee Qardmitf 
at one time celebratfd over Germany, 
are falling into neglect. The view 
from the Emidmhurg, an artihciai ruin 
in the Go^e style, is iniB. 11m 
ch.-yd. at the SJB. end of the Bohloss- 
Garten is Dannecker's monument to 
Count Zeppelen (1801). Adjoining 
the Schloss-Garten on the N. is the park 
of La Favorite, and a mile further the 
royal diftteaa and frrm of JliNirepos, 
where is preserved a fine monument 
by Peter Vischer to Walter v. Kron- 
berg. Grand Master of the Teutonic 
Order, brought from Mergentheim. 

Beyond FeuexlMMlt the rly. passes 
through the Prag tunnel, 924 yards 
long, and runs side by side with the 
Gannstatt line to Stuttgart Stat.. 

U nitized by Google 


handsome bnilding 
strasse, close to the 
firont of the Palace. 

in the Schlos- 
great square in 

STTTrrajJIrT (890 ft.), the capital of 

Wiirttcmberg, residence of the Court, 
and seat of the Chambers, contains 
with its suburbs 130,000 Inhab. (16,000 
Bml Oath.), indwiing ganiiQB and 
Btnungers. It is prettily ailMted in 
tbA HDall valley of the Nesenbach, sur- 
rounded by hills of no great height, 
entirely covered ou their slopes with 

2 m. from Stuttgart, near Cannstatt, 
and is navigable for barges thence to 
the Rhine. Stuttgart, it is said, owes 
iU origin aad ill mm to a Stod, 
StuteTUfarten, establighfld here by a 
Duke of Wurttemberg in the K3th 
century. It is chiefly indebted for 
any importance it ha^ attained to the 
NadeBoe of • ^^^iH, Ibo l«te king 
having expended his immense wealth 
in beautifying and extending his capi- 
tal. Its handsome public building 
are with two exceptions (the old cha- 
teau and Stiftskirche) modem, a large 
part of tlw torn haviiig bow bnilt aiiioe 


1. Rejiidtnz Schloas 

2. Alt0»SchIosa 

3. Palace of Prince Frt^wMt 
^Statue of SchUler 
S. AiNh9 Oohmm 

G. Palace of the Crown Prince^ 
7. Wilhelmt PcUact " 

9. Spital Church 

It. Library 

15. Piciun Oalimg 

16. Theatre 

17. Hou$e ofPardami 


n. Museum (Club) 

ia05» when Hio aomngn of WUrttem- 
bM WM nused by Napoleon ftom the 

nxik of Duke to that of King. The 
town is travei-sed from S.W. to N.E, 
by a fine street, the Kiinigsstrassey 
passing along one side of the S<j[uare 
(8Memplatz% in which ore ritoaled 
the Old and New Palace and the 
Theatre. Parallel with the Konigs- 
strasse is the N6ckanU'a$89, lined with 
fine buildings. 

The Hew Polaeo (Boitdopz-Sehloss) 
is » vast and handwmo ftoeftoae 
edifice, in the Renaissance style (1746- 
1807), wilh two prqjeoting wiags. 

The roof, immediately above the 
grand .etttrano^ is suniMHiulid b^ an 

enormous gilt crown, of doubtful 
taste. The interior is handsomely 
furnished, but now exhibits a some- 
, what faded splendour. Adm. daily, 
by oaid fton Ao TOiidoiit otowavd* 
It contafni SIMfooms, and is decorated 
with numerous works of art, a Bac- 
chante and a Venus by Dannccher^ a 
Gladiator by Canova^ a Bacchus and 
Bacchante by Thorwaldaent and fres- 
coes on historical saljootif by Oegm^ 
haur. There is also a collection of 
Sbvret andMeiMeaolrfna; andtatho 

Wiiri^berg. Bmde 11.— Old JMaee ; SimMani. 16 

king's private rooms are some fine 
yases ox Urbino ware^ only shown 
spedal ^emiBsum. 

The side of the ScUoesplaiz oppo- 
site the palace is occupied by the 
Konigsbau, a handsome building with 
arcaUeSy erected by the architect Leins 
in 19480^ eontaming coooert-iooms 
above, and below the Exchange, a 
cafiS, and shops. 

To the S.W., or on the rt. hand as 
you face the palace, and separated 
firom it by an agreeable avenue of 
trees, Iiei the Old Palace (Altec 
Schloss), a massive and picturesque 
building, (1553-1570) bearing the 
aspect of a feudal fortress, now occu- 
med by officers of the Court or 
uovenunent. The inner ^ixnurC, witii 
open galleries and twisted columns, is 
curious, as is also the old Court 
chapel, restored for public worship. 
In this court is au equestrian JStatue 
of ChurU Eberhmrd, the Bearded, first 
duke (d. 1496), erected in 1859. W. 
of the Old Palace^ and on the same 
side of the square, is the Prinzenshau, 
inhabited by Prince William of Wiirt- 
tembei]e. finder this palace is the 
Mofkmeru (Boyyl cellar), where 
private persons may purchase wine 
(but not in small quantities) well 
known for its purity and cheapness. 

Close to the old palace, towards the 
is the FMestant late-GoHiic 
Stiftskirche (1434-1495). Over the 
S.E. portal are two reliefs of the 15th 
century; in the tympanum, Christ 
bearing His cross, and in niches above, 
Christ with the twelve Apostles. The 
interior vas restored in 1841 by 
Beiddofn In it is a 'verr organ. 
The reigning family of Wiirttemberg 
were for centuries buried in a vault 
under the choir. Their monuments, 
bearing 11 elBs^in stoae,ftomCoant 
Ulrioli in 1265 to Count Henry in 
1519, are arranged along the 1. side of 
the choir. The stone pulpit is sculp- 
ture4 with reliefs. In the N. aisle 
is a stone relief of Christ as Judce, 
and ilie 10 Virgins. A little a of tbs 
oIl is the market-place and Bathhaus, 
occupying the centre of the old town. 

Hence the Markt Strasse leads S.E. 
to the late-Gothic ch. of S. Leonhard, 

outside which is a colossal Crucifix 
inththe three Maries. ^ . . ; ,, 
In tfaie open 'tpM' heiweaii the M 

palace and the Stiftskirehe stands a 
bronze Statue of Schiller, designed by 
Thoricaldsen and cast at Munich in 
1839. The general eilect i^ poor, but 
the head is fine. , 

The building on the N.E. side of 
the Schlossphitz, and connected by a 
covered gallery with the New Palace, 
is the Theaircf redecorated in 1846. 

In the centre of the squaie, in front 
of the palace (Schlossplata), stands the 
/ uhtldurMsdule, a Colimm, designed b^ 
Jloftr^ and erected on the 'iHth anni- 
versary of tlie accession of King Wni. 
Frederick Chailes in 1841. It is of 
grey granite, 59 ft. high, sonnonnted 
by a:bsoBse.wipged Concord!^ the four 
figures at the' angles of the pedestal 
represent the Instructing, Working, 
Militaiy. and Commercial classes. Ou 
three aoB^ in brenae relief^ are scenes 
from the campaigns of 1814, in wluch 
the king as crown prince commanded 
the Wiirttemberg troops, by Wagner. 
On each side of this column is a 
handsome bronze fountain, which 
jdays^ during the greater pert of the 
day.;^f) The Schlossplatz, which was 
transformed by the late king into a 
j)ublic garden, is now one of the 
greatest attractions in Stuttgart. JMi- 
uliiry Inuid every day at noon. 

To the N. of the theatre, in the 
Unter-Konigsstrasse, is the McwttaU 
or MewSf and in the buildings adjoin- 
ing the Palace is tin- Ki'<niijliche 
Lcibstcdl, or Boyal StudJiouscf which 
contains some fine horses, including 
many pure Arabians. 

Close to the N. end of the Kron- 
priiizensstrasse, whieh is the next 
st^'eet running parallel to the Konigs- 
^lasse, to the westward, is the 
, BtSnJehattS— House of Parliament 
Entrance into the lower chamher by 
tickets given by the mewhep^ or, h|y 
officers of the house. 

The Hospital Chorsli i|i the N.W. 
part of the town, w}i^ fopmpleted in 
1471, except the tower* added in 
1738. It was restored in 1835-41. 
It contains the cla^ model of the 
colossal statue of Chrjst, by Dannecker, 

L/iyui^ud-igy Google 


Sect. 1 

at Katisbon, In the cloister is a ceno- 
taph of Reuchlin, who died at Stutt- 
gurt in 1522. 

At the 8. end of the Neokarstrasse, 
No. 6, opposite to the rear of the 
Palace, and next to Princess Mary's 
Palace, stands the Naturalienoal/inetf 
or *MnMam of Natnznl History, 
erected in 1827 (epen duly 11 to 12 
and 2 to 3). The lower story is occu- 
pied by the public archives The 
most Tal liable part of the Zoological 
collections are tlie acquisitions of 
Profewor Lodwig, flronei the Cape of 
Good Hope, and of Prince Paul of 
Wiirttemberg, from Brazil, made by 
them dnring their travels in those 
countries. The Natural History of 
Wilrttemberg is reaey eomidetdy ulns- 
trated in every department A general 
notion of its geological structure may 
bo formed from a series of specimens 
of the rocks. There is a verv remark- 
able grou]^ of 12 MamiwotW tusks, 
embedded in a mass of dttnrial deposit 
not more than 5 ft. square, from Cann- 
statt; Ichthyosauri from the lias of 
Boll ; a Mastodonsaurus Salamandrius, 
from an alum slate quarry, near 
Sohirilbisoh-Hall ; impressions of leaTes 
of plants from the fresh-water fittma- 
tioii of Cannstatt, others from the 
Keuper formation near Stuttgart ; 
leaves and lish from Oehningen, aud a 
nnmerooa coUeotion of bones and teeth 
from caves in Wfirttemberg. A por« 
tinn of the skin and hair of the Mam- 
moth found in the ice in Siberia merits 
notice. There is also a mineralogical 
and anatomical calrinet. Next to this, 
No. 8 in the Neckarstraase, ia the 
Public Library (open daily from 10 to 
12, and from 2 to 5, except Saturdays). 
It contains about 50(»,000 printed 
volumes and 3820 MSS., of which 
about 1850 are more or less rare. 
The collection of Bibles is said to be 
tho largest in the world, amounting to 
80U0 volumes, in 100 different langu- 
ages. A yearly sum is allowed by the 
Government fcr pureha^g books, 
and a copy of all works pnblished in 
Wilrttemberg must be sent here. 
Among other curiosities, it contains a 
''ue folio MS. of 1297, written at 
\yes, containing Bible histories in 

French. Persons who are koown, or 
reconunended by kuowu persons, are 
allowed 10 lake away books Ibr 6 

Tn the same building is the Ck>lleo- 
tion of Antiquities, open daily ejosept 
Monday, Ironi 11 to 1 and 2 to 4. It 
containi pre-liietarie and early Boman 
curiosi^ea; otjeda In gold, bronse, 
and iron from the royal tombs ; relies 
of mediaeval warfare and domestic 
life ; weapons and ornaments of the 
Renaissance J costumes, embroiderieS| 
drareh fbmitofe, jewellery, and a 
large assortment of tileNrtores^ poree* 
lain, and terrn-cotta ware. 

Nearly opposite are the extensive 
buildings oi tiie Academy, once the 
seat of m C3Ws Bekule, where Schiller 
was edncated. 

Beyond the Library are the Law 
Courts, 300 ft. long, and excellently 
contrived. The two large statues are 
by Kopp, 

Further on in the same stiL* t, No. 
16, is the Eoyal Cabinet of Hedala 
(MiinTvnd Medaillcn'Cahinei), Open 
Saturday 2-4, at other times ticketa 
obtidnedat the Library. It contidns 
above 20,000 specimens; the most 
valuable of which are 700 Greek 
600 Roman, 5300 of the Wilrttemberg 
mint, 1200 of the middle ages (those 
called Bracteate), and about sooo 
modem. Here are also antiquities, 
bronzes, and gems; and ol^eotsof art 
from America, India, &c. 

Still further, on the same side of 
the Neckarstrasse, No. 32, is the 
Mnsetim of Art {Museum der h&dendm^ 
KiinsU). Open free. Bund. 1 1 to 3— 
Tues., Wed., Thurs., Frid. 10 to 
Engravings and Von Mulier Collection 
on Tues., Wed., Thurs., 2 to 4; other 
days at same bra., small fee. In fhmt 
is a ^ded bronze equestrian statue of 
William T. hy Tjudvig Hofer (18S4). 
Four rooms on tlie ground-floor con- 
tain casts from the most celebrated 
woAs of ancient sculpture. In three 
others are casts from the WOlltS of 
Thorwaldsen (a very interesting od- 
]<?ction presented by himselO, Tan- 
uecker, Bauch, Schwauthaler, &c. 
The pictures, nearly 800 in uumber, 

Wurttemberg. BaiUe ll.^List of Pictures. 

are arrauged lu a iiaud^me suite of 
roonui on the fint fioor (Catalogue of 
1888, 80 pf.). The third department 

contains drawings, &:c., by Albert 
Diirer, Nantenil, &c. ; and etchings by 
Wachter, Uetsch, &c. 


In the following lift of Pictures, 

the modern painters are distinguished 
by the date affixed to their names. 

AchenbMk (b. 1815): Dutch land- 

Aiwniowiky (b. 1817): Stormy Sea. 

BeUini (Qiov.) : Pietk — Virgin and 
Child —Yirmn and Child, with SS. 
Peter and runtaleone presenting a 
donor (School-piece). 

Boniliiio (Senior) : Holy I'amily, 
with 8S. Elizabeth and Catharine, 
much repainted ; called Paljna. 

BonlCazio (Jmimr): Virgin and 
Child with S. Peter; a good picture 
utterly ruined by repainting (cuiied 

Bnekel^r (b. 1818): ? Peasants 

dritilvinu, with a girl re:uling. 

Braith (b. 1836): bheep returning 

Brion (1824-77): Wedding in 

Braeghel (Peter, the Eider): Entry 

into Jerusalem. 

Burkel (1802-69): Pass in the 

CtMure da Betto: Virgin and Child, 
with 8* Jerome. 
Cranaeh (Lneas): Jndith.*— Male 


Decker : Yiilage scene. 

Befregger (b. 1835) : The wounded 

Bietrich : Small landscape, on wood. 

Does (J. van der); Sheep, with a 
girl niilkinc^; Inr^^e 

Dutch School (Old): Depobiliou 
fiom the Cross. 

Srerdiagen: Norwegian landscape 

in a thrcntcninrr ?torm. 

Flemish School (Old): Virgin and 
Child in a landscape. 

Geest (W. van): Dutch fiimily 

Ckyen (J. van): Small landscape. 
Oude (b. 1825) : Calm Sea. 
Hals (Prans) : Portrait of a Man 
holding a falcon. 
8, Chrm, 

Hobbema: Dutch village, ou a 

Hondekoeter: Fowls and Ducks. 

Jordaens : Vertumnus and Pomona. 
Koch (J 7(18-1842) : Landscape after 
a storm. — Landscape with river. 

Knitbaver (1840-79): The first 

Lauphaimer (b. 1846) : The hashfal 


Lessing (1808-81): Landscape in 
the Franconian Switzerland. 
Uer (1827-82): Scottish ooast- 


ibffts (b. 1845): Erasmus of Rot- 

Memling: Bathsheba. 

Morales : Ecce Homo. 

Morgenstem(1805^)! Moonlight 
on the EH)e. 

MoTicheron: Landscape. 

Near (Aart van der): Landscape by 

Oswald : Female portrait. 

Palma : Holy Family, with S Bar* 
bara, Tobias, and the Archangel, re- 
painted; **a very early work" 

Penni (CI Fattore) : Holy Family, 

Bembrandt : S. Paul in prison ; an 
early work — Boy holding an apple 


Scha^iier: S. Nicolas of Bari. — 8. 

fleheadel (1806-70): Woman selling 

Spanish School: Pope Clement XIL 
Swabian School : Altar-piece carved 
in wood, with painted wings and a 
predelia.— Virgin and Child with SS. 
Anna, Helen, Elizabeth of Ilunffary, 
Catharine, and Gertrude. — Duke We'lf 
of Swabia, lioIdiiHj n church in liis 
hand, and his wife, J udith of Flanders. 
Tiesenhansen (1837-76) : Scene on 

llie HaUie. 

trim (School oO: Lucius, first 
Christian king of Great Uritaiu, the 
prophet Elijah, and S. Vitus. 

Vandyck: Adam and Eve driven 
out of Paradise. 

Waterloo (Antonie) : Wooded land- 
scape \v\th figures. 

Zeitblom: The Visitation, S. John 
Evan., S. John Bapt., Amiuuciation, 

Digitized by Google 



SS. George, Florian, Margaret, Valen- 
tine, and the four Latin Fathers ; a 
series of fine single figures. — Nativity 
of Christ. — S. John Baptist. 

Snmiflniaim (b. 1809)*. The Obeiv 
see, near Berebtesgnden. 

In the Alleenitraaee l» the WoLj- 
teehnio fidiool, a fine stone bnildiBg 

by Egle (1865). Flanking the door 
aro statQCS of iSiirer and Kepler, and 
above are allegorical statues, reliefe, 
and medallions. W. of this is the 
Stadtgarteta (frequent concerts, 50 pt.\ 
fteing whieh ore the hand^me Real- 
Qymnamim and the Agricultural 
School. W. of the latter stands the 
domed red-brick Garrison Churchy 
wad finther on the UetehaUe^fleid to 
contain the largest concert-room in 
Germany, and built by Leins in 1875. 
The garden has a bust of Ufiland in 
bronze, and one of Schubert iu marble. 

The Jewiah Synagogae in the Hoe- 
pUaktrasse, in the Moorish aiyle 
(1861), is one of the most gorgeously 
finished structures of the kind. It 
may be seen at all times on payment 
of a small fee: on Friday evening, 
during sennee, it is open to the 

The *Falace Gardens (Anlagen), to 

which the public are admitted, form 
one of the most agreeable features of 
Stuttgart, They extend along the 
bottom of the valley to (2 m.) Mosen- 
etein, and are trayened br carriage- 
roads shaded by trees, and by irlnding 
footpaths, ornamented with groups of 
statuary. Bome of the orang^e-trees 
placed here in the summer are 300 
years old. Adtoiningthe Palace Oar- 
dens on the E. aide is tiie Boianie 


At the S. end of tlie Konij^trasse 
is the Indnstriai Museum, an interest- 
ing collection of uative products, open 
daily firom 10 to 12 and 3 to 6. 
Nearly ^ m. "W. stands the modem 
Gothic ch. of St. John (Leins), sur- 
rounded by water. Another fine ch. 
is the R. G. Marieukirche, near tlie S. 
extremity of the town, an carly-Qothic 
building by Egle^ with twin spirea. 
* -^iacent, on the S., is a fine Gymna- 
^ or grammar-school* About 

Sect- I. 

i m. further on, bearing tip hill to the 
1., IS the Stat, of the Zahnradbahn 
(toothed rly.), whence frequent trains 
ascend iu 15 niiu. to Begerloeh, a 
pretty Tillage, 400 ft. above ik» level 
of the valley, and a popular resort on 
Sundays. At the foot of the liill to 
the W. lies the suburb of Heslach, 
with a new Romanesque ch. by Wolf, 
Beyond it ri8eathe]Iaaenberg(Rte.6). 
The Central CemetaKjr on we Prag, 

1 m. N. of the rly. stat,, is wortll a 
yisiti and commands a good view* 

In the Fangelsbach Oemetery, j ust 
outside the town to the S.E., ia a War 

Moimment of 1871. N.E. of it, on 
the Mopser, is the Schillerhdhe ; and 
a mile further N. the TJhlandshtJhe, 
both affording uuigiiiliceiit views over 
the town and valley of the Neekar. 

Environs.— Cards of admission to 
the Royal Villas should be applied for 
in Stuttgart at the office of the Oberst- 
hofineister, on the ground-floor of the 
Alte Schloss, between 8 and 9 a.h. 

EosensteiUf a modem Grecian villa, 
contains a few pictures, copies in 
marble of celebrated statues, and some 
works of modem sculptors. Among 
these the best are Iktnnecker*8 Cupid, 
Wagner'§ Payehe, and J3jafer>$ mgry 

Berg, a suburb of Stuttgart, nearly 

2 m. N., may be reaciicd by tramway. 
The Boiyal TlUa, a renaiseanoe buOd* 

ing by Leins (1853), has a few pictures 
and Ftatues. The beautiful gardens 
command extensive views. 

BbhaiBiMiBii 6 m. S. of Stottgart 
(omnibus aerenJ times daily), a de- 
serted palace, built by Duke Charles 

in 1768, is now a celebrated school of 
agriculture, with nearly 1000 acres, 
a large stock of cattle and sheep, and 
agricultural implements for the ose 
and instruction of 100 pupils. In the 
neighbourhood is Weil, where there is 
a considerable breeding stud, and at 
Scluirnhav^n, a Swiss dairy farm. 

Meet of the other points of interest 
in the neighbourhood are conveniently 
reached from stations on the following 
rly* The valleys of the Neckar and 

Moutc 11. — Stuiiyiui : EmiroU8» 

Wttretembei^. Btmie 11.— (hmdaH^mUerlMAeim^ 19 

Fils, along which tlie rly. runs as far 
as Geislmgen, are two of the most 
beanttfol in Saabia. 

I/eaving Stuttgart, the line skirts the 
Aniagen, descends along the N.W. 
side of the palace gardens, and passes 
through a tunnel 398 yards long, 
under the royal villa of Rosenstein, on 
eoming out of wbioh it eroeaes the 

CANNSTATT (18,500) is prettily situ- 
ated on both banks of the Neckar, 
eonneeted by ^ etone bridge. It iras 
Ibunded by the Bomans, and numerous 
antiquities discovered here are in the 
Museums at Stuttgart. It is the seat 
of considerable trade and manufactur- 
ing industry, and has four fairs, be- 
sides an important popular featiTal, 
held every alternate Auohaelmas. It 
forms a more pleasant summer sojourn 
than Stuttgart, and is chiefly remark- 
able for its mineral springs, of which 
neatly 40 burst f&nh in and about the 
town, discharging 800,000 cubic feet 
of water in the 24 hrs. Only a few 
are employed for medicinal purposes. 
They contain carbonic acid, sulphur, 
salts, and a small quantity of iron, the 
Ultter bein^ bere called Sulzen. They 
are efficacious in disorders of the 
digestion, and are resorted to by in- 
creasin^numbers of patients from all 
part*. The country about Cannstatt is 
volcanic, and was much dSstnrbed at 
the time of the earthquake of Lisbon 
in 1755. One Spring is tepid, the rest 
are cold. The principal is the Wil- 
helmsbrunnen on the Sulzerrain, about 
^m. beyond the town, A large 
Xoxsaal has been erected liere, ap- 
proached by an avenue of trees. In 
front of it is a bronze e(|Ut'Strian 
Statue of William I. (18G4) by HaWig, 
erected in 1875. Agreeable walks are 
laid out on the hill behind it, from the 
summit of which are beautiful views 
of Stuttgart and the valley of the 

The Inselqiitfllle/^'rleliest'fai car^ 
bonic acid and iron, is in the island 
ftrmed by the Neckar between Cann- 
statt and Berg. Close by is the 
Soch'sche Spradel. At the Carlsbad 

is a Jloating hath, in the Neckar, a 
iittle above the stone bridge. The 
afone-qundes near QaiuisCaM dinlosa 
some singular ftish-wtttcr ftesils, 

plants, &c. 

The favourite resort of the late 
king Wilhelm I. was the Wilhelma 
Palace, S.W. of the town. On this 
gorgeous atmelm he escMBded nove 
than 8 million florins* Tickets of ad- 
mission are given on application at the 
Alte Schloss in Stuttgart between 8 and 
9 ▲.M. The palace, completed in 1851, 
is built in the Moorish style, and the 
ditting-hall, ball-room, &c., resemble, 
on a much larger scale, the Alhambra 
Court at the Crystal Palace. (Fee to 
the attendant.) The gardens and 
grounds are tastefully laid out, and 
very extensive. 

2 m. W. of Cannstatt rises the 
*Burgholz, from which a grand view 
is obtained of the valley of the 
Neckar. 4 m. further W., reached by 
carriage from Slattgart, k the 

Solitude, an abandoned palace huUt 
by Duke Charles in 17G7, on a seclu- 
ded summit. View extensive; red 
deer and wild boar in the park. The 
buMnga adjoining Jagdseldess 
were oocQpfed by the Garlsschnle 
previous to its transference to the 
Akademie in the Neckarstrasse at 
Stuttgart; and here (1773-5; Schiller 
studied law against his will by order 
of DukeChanes. 

On leaving Cannstatt the rly. 
ascends the rt. bank of the Neckar. 
Both sides of the valley are com- 
pletely lined with viueyaids, while 
on the lower ground $en orchards and 
rich fields of maize. 

XTntertiirkhiem(3 1 65).— This village 
and the Kotheuberg give their names 
to two of the best wines of tl^e neigh- 
bourhood of Stuttgart 

On the 1. rises the hill of Bothenberg 
(1350 ft.) crowned by the Greek chapel 
erected in 1824, by Silucci, for King 
William 1.^ to contain the remains of 
hi§ first wife, Katharina Panlowna, a 
Russian frrineess.* The king hisuelf 
is also buried lum The Molding, a 
rotunda with three porticoes, contains 
statues of the four Evangelists, by 
Dannecker. It stands on the spot 

^ ^lyiti^uo uy Google 

20 . SoiUe n.^E9$Um0mH-Chi9lMgmL, Seat. I. 

once occupied by the ieadal castle of 
Wfirttmberg» um «ndle of the pre- 
MBt regal frmOyt all trM<t of which 

have been cleared away to make room 
for this chapel. Fine yiew. Greek 
ch. service on Sunday. 

i »• &W. of UntertOiUwIm b tho 
TiUtgo of Waiigen, from which a 
pleasant footpath daaeanda to Stott* 
gart in I i hr. 

ObertiLrkheim, whence a longer but 
more agreeable path ascends to the 

B0th tBD fll)g« 

ESBLIKOEir (21,000) a manu&ctur- 
ing town ou the rt. bank of the Neckar, 
formerly an Imperial city, and inper- 
potaallMd witiithe diikM of Wttrt- 
temberg; It was ceded to thorn at 
the peace of Liineville (1802). It 
i^tains its old walls, built by the 
Emp. Frederick II. in 1216, and 
atill bears a pietureaqiio nodieral 
aipeet, but soilbrad mim Ikom fire in 
1701. Its mannfftctures are of wool, 
cotton, hardware, and of a sparkling 
wine (Neckar-Schaumwein) imitating 
Champagne. It has a beautiful 
Gothic dtoeh, the *Lliihfca«flPhirthe, 
with mlielii over the doorways and a 
tower surmounted by an elegant octa- 
gonal open spire, 245 ft. high. The 
cb. was begun in 1406, and completely 
TMloied by Egle in 186S. Within 
are the tombs of the avidiiteeti» Hans 
and Matthew Boblinger. 

The Stndtkirclie of St. Dionysins, in 
Komanesque style, has a lofty choir, 
and towers of the 18th century : it 
was enlarged in the 15th. It has 
some painted glass, a rood-screen, and 
a Sacramenfshausfchen of 1486. The 
Byzantine St. Paul's Ch. (1268), re- 
stored for the use of the Catholics, is 
spoilt bj an ineongruons modem 
wooden tower. The Wolfsthor is of 
the age of the Hohenstaufen. The old 
Bathhaus dates from 1430, and bears 
their lion carved in the stone. The 
Tiew from Sehloss PerMed, whose 
walls deieend to the town, is fine. 

An island in the l^eckar, called the 
XaiUs^ is laid oat |« a Promenade* 

Flochingen (2000), at the junction 
vf the Flls with the Neekar, which 

latter stream is SlOised by a curious 
wooden bridge^ eoostameled ia 1777 
by a oarpenter of Stnttgart, namnd 


Here the rly. quits the valley of the 
Neckar, and follows that of the Fils 
as fhr as GeisUngen. 

THiingen, near whi^ rises the eaade 

of Filseck. 

Near the river, to the rt. is the 
village of Faumdau, with a remark- 
able Romanesque Church. 

Goppingen (18,000), a flonrishing 

modern town on the Pils. At the 
S.W. comer of the court in the Sch Joftf 
(1562) is a winding stone staircase, in 
the ftshionof avuie (Tranbenstieg). 
Abont 5 m. S. of this lies Boll, a fie- 
quented watering-place, prettily situ- 
ated at the foot of the Rauhe Alb. 
Its springs are cold and sulphureous. 

Soon after Quitting Goppingen, the 
eje is attracted b^ the Hohenstavte, 
a remarkable conical hill, about 8 m. 
to the 1. of the rly. On its summit 
once stood the Castle of tlie noble 
family of that name, who, from simple 
barons and owners of a single tower, 
became emperors of Germany (the 
House of Swabia) from 1138 to 1254. 
The only vestiges now to be discovered 
of the ruins are a few stunted walls 
barely projecting abore the turf. It 
owes its destmction to the ''Peasant 
War" of 1525, and its Stones were 
afterwards employed to bnild the 
Castle at Goppingen. On the slope of 
the hill lies the village of Staufen 
(5 m. from Goppingen ; carriage 4 
marks). Within its httle Church may 
be seen a rude painting of the Empr. 
Frederick Barbarossa, and the words 

Hie transibat Caesar," inscribed over 
an andent doorway, to marie the way 
the emperor went to mass. The *i^iew 
from tne summit (2240 ft.) is most 
extensive. Behind the Hohenstaufen, 
at some distance on the N.£.| rises 
the Beehberg (2315 ft.). 

Sttssen. Onmibns twiee drily in 3 
hrs, to Omund (Rte. 7). 

Oingen, 3 m. S. of which rises the 
KuchaG) (fine view). The rly. m ^ir^ 
a great sweep before reaching 

QeifUngeni picturesc^uely situated 


' Wiirttemberg. 

Boule 11. — Ulm, 


in a narrow glen at the foot of the 
Banhe Alb, with the domineering ronnd 
tower of the decayed Castle {ffeJ/n}- 
stein), destroyed in 1552. A crowd ol 
ptiB and old women olfor fbr sale toys 
IB bone, woody and ivory, which are 
manufactTired on the spot. Here is a 
pumping st;ition for the supply of the 
&auhe Alb with water (Ete. 5). In the 
Marienkin^ (\A24} are flsdj eanred 
stalls. The upper end of the deep 
defile in which the town lies is singu- 
larly beautiful, — clothed with rich 
foliage on the one side, overhung by 
fficantic rocks on the other, while the 
Fm, here a mere mUlstream, mnt at 
the bottom* 

A good rond ascends the valley S.W. 
to (12 m.) Wiesensteig, f hr. beyond 
which rises the pictures^jue *£eusseii- 
tUtakt with a nimed castle.' An hour 
farther N.W, is the '^Breitenstelli 
(2592 ft.), a spur of the Swabian Alb, 
projecting boldly into the plain. 
Thence to (I hr.) Teck, and hr.) 
Owen (Rte. 9). 

The rly. is carried op a eteep incline 
of I in 50, along a fine terrace built 
up against the hills on the E. side of 
the valley, on to the high land called 
the Schwabische Alb, dividing the 
waters which jdn the Neckar fiom 
those which now into tiie Dannbe. 
The country becomes open and some- 
what dreary. On descending into the 
yalley ui tlie Danube, the rly. passes 
several detached ibrts or towers, iin 
eluding the citadel of W^eknOmrg, 
before reachiag 

VLH ( 1 205 ft), a fortress and frontier 
city of Wiirttemberg, on the 1. bank 
of the Danube, here natlgsiile and 

joined by the Bian> connected by 
two bridges with Neu-Ulm on the 
rt. bank, which is Bavarian. It has 
34,000 Inhab. ^aud some trade and 
mannfiictares, though not enough to 
give it the appearance of activity and 
prosperity. From the 14tb to tlie end 
of the 16th centuries Ulm was au 
Imperial Free city. In 1803 it was 
HsTarian, bat in 1806 trsasfbrrsd to 
Wiirttemberg, and ftom to 1866 
a Bunde^ftstung. The manufacture 
of linen alone employed 400 master 

weavers, whereas at praent ftute aiv 

but 68. It still carries on a great 
tmde in corn. Among tlie exports are 
gilts (^Gersten) and suaiis (Hdix 
pomaHnyx theuMsr^beliigfttlSMdiii 
the sun-ocmding district, are packed 
in c'us^^s to the extent of 4 niillions 
annually, and exported to Austria and 
other Itom. Catholic countries, where 
they are esteemed a great delicacy 
for the table, e^cially during Lrait 
A great quantity of pipe-beMs ate 
made here. The streets are narrow ; 
the houses fbr the most part have 
pointed gables turned to the street. 

Ulm is inglorkusly distingstshed in 
modem history, through the surrender 
of the place to the French by (roneral 
Mack in 1805, when 3U,00U Austrians, 
througii the incapacity of their leader, 
capittttaled witbottt strlldnjr a blow, 
and were made prisoneit of war. A 

body of 3 2, 000, commanded by the 
Archduke Ferdinand of i^te, made a 
bold attempt to break out, bat all his 
ittfieailary tSad the greater part of his 
cavalry were shun or eaptiued, and a 
few hundred men alone succeeded in 
cutting' their way through the enemy 
into Bohemia. 

The Fortifications, already at that 
time dilapidated, and disnuurtled after 
the stirrender^ base been replaced 
since 1842 by works on a vast scale 
from plans by Prussian engineers, in- 
cluding 12 detached forts or towers, 
and m diadel (Wilhehnsburg), cbh 
bracing both banks of the Danube in 
a wide circuit. Thus Ulm is auain a 
lirst-cJa<=s fortress, and a bulwark to 
Germany and the yallev of the Da- 
nnbe against France. It nas a garrison 
of 6000 men. 

The most interesting object in Ulm is 
the MUNSTER. one of the finest Gothic 
cathedrals m Germany, and the largest 
Protestant ch. in the world. It was 
begun in 1877, and eontlniisd down 
to 1494« when war and eonunerdal 
ruin arrested the prop:ress of the work. 
It wns erected entirely at tiie expense 
of the citizens., without the aid of 
coDtribntions Hfoia abroad, papal in- 
dulgenoeSy or remisnon of taxes. In 
1841 a committee "wn?^ formed for its 
completioni with the King of Wiirt* 

cy Google 

Btmie 11.— ITfai.* ik$ MSMUf. 


temberg at .its head, and the archi- 
tooU Thriin, Schem, and Beyer, sue- 
ii^y took inhaod it! r8tl0fatkMi,t 

The Tower, a bold structure, 317 
Eng. ft. high, is in process of com- 
pletion, and will rise to the height of 
495 ft. The view from the top ex- 
tcMk at M thfi Alps in clear 
weatlMMV and includes a large part of 
Swabia and Bavaria, with the fields 
of Blenheim and Hochstddt. The 
coufipicuous Benedictine moua&tery of 
Wiblingen, setn to tha £L» ia now a 
dra^n baimak. 

Six doorways lead into the church, 
of which the finest is the principal 
portal on the W. It consists of three 
soiatad arehea, 46 ft. hi^h and 6 ft 
flUep* recessed within ipiUkre, moald- 
ingi^ and niches occupied by statues. 
The tympanum reliefe illustrate the 
flrst chapter of Genesis. The sculp- 
tare over the 4 portala on the N. and 
S. eidet belongid to the aid ehoreh 
which stood OS the aite of the preaaat 

The exterior length of the church is 
4IU» ft.; the internal length is 391 ft. 
The nave, 146 ft. high, simple in 
effect, rests on 12 clustered columns 
of huge size bearing lancet pier-arches, 
without triforium, flanked by double 
aisles on slender shafts. The main 
anpporl^ Iho mf oanas fimn huge 
external bnttresses. The aisles were 
originally single, and of the same 
breadth as the nave, but in 1507 a row 
of slender pillars doubled them. The 
aboir and nave are built partly of 
hiiek. In the ehoiraaa aeveaal win- 
dows of rich painted glass, executed 
in 1480, by Hans Wild and Cramer: 
the two finest contain the genealogical 
tree of Christ, the Life of the Virgin 
lfaiT» and the lafe and BmSoa ef 
the Saviour. The "^winged pietme at 
the altar is by Martin Schaffner, an 
artist of Ulm (1521). The *carved 
oaken stalls in the choir, by JOrg 
SnnUmt also of Ulm, are in a quaint 

, t TUhateweUng little book " Ulms Kunst- 
I^tti to imielalter,*' by Prof. GrUiielscn. ono 
of thp w.-xrmesi proinoters of this Society, is 
* .coQtribttttoq to tiM Wmmj of the 

style of art, adopting the local cos* 
tumes of the artist's time. (Casts at S. 
Buenabgton.) Bnata supply the place 
of poppy-heads : on the 1. (N'.^aida 
of the choir the 7 heathen sages, 
including Pythagoras, Pliny, Cicert* 
(in a hat), and the artist himself in 
the comer, wiUi name and date 1469. 
Behind these, against the wall, aie 
20 heads of saints and prophets of 
the Old Testament. Above these, 
smaller, are apostles and saints. Thf 
opposite or S. side of the choir has in 
the lowaal^ row the 7 Sibyls, aad 
Syrlin's wilb; the middle row, cele- 
brated women of the Bible ; the upper 
row, holy women and virgins, flanked 
by two doctors. St. Cosma and St. 
Lake, tlie tal, in the 8. aisle, near 
the aaeristy, resting on 4 lions, and 
surrounded with 8 busts of prophets 
of the Old Testament, is by an un- 
known sculptor of 1470. The stone 
pulpit is by Engelberger (1500), and 
Its carved canopy of lime wood by 
Syrlin the younger (1510). The 
Sacraments-Hauslein, a remarkable 
fretted Gothic pinnacle of filigree 
stone-work, 90 ft. high, witli statues 
of St. Sahastian and St. Christopher 
below the stairs, and numerous sta- 
tuettes and figures in niches above, 
is by the Master of Wei nparten (1409). 
The chapel of the Besserer family, S, 
of the oioir, contains 6 painted win- 
dows of the Romanesque period^ 
placed in it at its foundation in the 16th 
century, and a good portrait of a bur- 
gomaster of the family by Schafiner 
(1516). The ehureh contains some 
remarkable 14th«eent. BramB* The 
organ is first-rate, and the largest in 
Germanv — 100 stops ; built in 1856 
by Walker of Ludwigsburg. In the 
Saoristy is a folding altar-piece with 
a Crocifixion oarvd in wood, and 
Passion Scenes on the wings, painted 
by Schon (^1460). On the walls, the 
Annunciation, Assumption, and Virgin 
and Child, with the Magdalene and S. 
Eliaabetlt of Hungary, by Schaffner, 
Opponte are several panels by ZeU- 
blom, a portrait of Conrad Dietrich 
(1575-1639), and a large Trinity by 
Hans Schieten, The church is under- 
going judicious repairs and restora- 

uiyiii^uLi Uy Google 


Bouie 12.-^Wert]wua to Ulm. 23 


tions^ wluok advBDiM dovlj moat 
of fimds. 

The Eathhaus is a late Gothic 
IwUding wiUi Bmtkmam ftitares, 
mad repudm of early frescoes. In. the 
market square before it is a very 
liandsoine Fountain (Fischkasten), 
wreathed with flowers, and bearing 
on each face the statae of a knight 
by Jorg Syrlin the elder (1482). 100 
yds. to the E., on the S. side of the 
Taubengasse, is the Industrial Mu- 
seum, containing fragments of sculp- 
ture, iron'Workf old lurniture, and a 
ftw paintings. The JPw rfw ifl t Haus, 
half-way to Ibe stat., which existed 
before the year 1226, but was tho- 
roughly repaired in 172^6, is a pictu- 
resque edifice. 

. BOUTB 12. 


JOki. BMkm. BoalM. 

Wertheim « • 

« 40 






LATJSA . . . 

. 7 


KonigshoiBm « 

. 7 










Hiitli tiB He# 


Crailaheim. • 

as, 68 




Goldahdfe . 

• 27 




Aalmt . • . 

. 27 
















mm • . . 11, 17, 2^1 

Weslktim (4570), an aiident tow» 

beautifully situated at the ocHifluence 
of the Main and Tauber, is the resi- 
dence of Prince Lowenstein>Freudeu- 
berg, wlme dominions are now ia- 
corponted in the duchy of Baden. 
On a wooded hill are the fine ruins of 
the ancient castle, which was destroyed 
in the Thirty- Years' War. The ancient 
and interesting ch. contains a singular 
rood-foreen and a noUe 14tb-ooiit» 
*numament, in red stone, to tlie me* 
mory of George Count of Wertheim 
and his two wives. A foot-path leads 
up to the ruins, which cover more 
ground, with the eroeptioB of Heidel* 
berg, thiui any other in oootih Germany. 
The keep and chapel are of the 14th 
cent. ; the outer walls and towers of 
the 16th. A remarkable feature of 
th0 MMto is fhe^jUtaa,"* tort of 
haloooy tupported on an arcade^afford- 
ing beautinil views. Pleasant walk 
along the hill to the modern SchJoss, 
half way to which is an interesting 
monument to a former prince and 
princess, wbo M Ae pocnw mhabit* 
ants during a severe famine. A 
Roman Catholic church has been built 
from the designs of Gartner. In the 
first week of October a Yolksfest is 
held at Wettheim* in the meadow 
below the towB, between the month 
of the Tauber and the village of 
Bestenheid. It lasts three days. This 
is perhaps the prettiest spot on the 
whole course of the Main, and the 
most conyenient centre for excursions 
on the banks of thai liTW tad in the 
valley of the Tauber. 

[Dil. along the 1. bank to (13 m. W.) 
Freudenherg, a beautiful spot, with 
aaeieBt walls and the rnfaif of a eaade 
destroyed in the Thirty Years' War, 
and (18 m.) Miltenberg (3700^ at the 
junction of the Mudau with the Main. 
The ruins above the town are those of a 
castle destroyed by Albert of Branden- 
burg in 1 552. It contains a collection 
<of antiquities and works of art (adm. 
free). There is another collection in 
the town, where also are several fine 
examples of timber architecture, and 
some remains of aaciiBl Atewajf. 
h hr. E. of Klein*Heube eh is an 
a b a ndone d iUmn qunj, with 

uiyiii<-u^|jy Google 


BotUe 12.— Bronnbaeh—Ulm. 

Sect. I. 

brg0 eolonms of syenite. Two views 
liere are worth being particularised ; — 

one from a spot immediately oTer the 
town, -v^^hicb is reached by passing 
through the old castle, — the other 
About a mite and a half from llilteo^ 
berg, on the rt. bank of tkaihF)erȣrom 
the front of the Frnnciscan monastery 
of Engelsberg, S.E. of Gross- Heubach, 
with a pilgrimage ch., to which you 
aaoend by 676 8feep8.3 

Leaving Wertheim, the rly. ptooeeds 

thrrm^rli l^ar^crt territory to 

Bronnhach, ^vith the interesting 
12th-ceDt. ch. of a Cistercian abbey, 
passes through two tunnels, and cMMses 
Tkuber twice before reaching 
Qambnrgi vbm is' an old^ castle. 
Thence along the pleasant valley to 
Xanda, whenee Rte. 7 is followed as 
far as Konigshofeu. Here the line 
tttniB S.6. to 

XergexLtheim (4260), an old town 
on tlio Tauber, with the Palace of the 
Grand Master of the Tevffmlc Order 
(1527-1809), now a barrack. The 
late Priaea Paol of Wfirttemberg 
formed in it a Museum of Natural 
History, partly collected by himself 
in his travels. The two corksrre%v 
staircases and a well in the inner 
court deserve notice. The late Roman* 
eeqae Oik. of 8. John u interesting. 
Mergentheim is frequented in the 
season for its mineral waters, saline 
chalybeate, containing Glauber salt. 
The Batiihouse, outside the town, is 
called CSarlsbad. 

Proceeding E. hj MarkeUMmf cele- 
br:it((l for its vineyards, we reach 
Weikersheim on the Tauber, with 
a fine ch&teau. Dil. to (12 m. £.) 
Creglingen ^87). The rly. now resumes 
its S. direction. 

Hiederstetten, an old walled town, 
is the residence of Prince Hohenlohe- 

Schrozberg is the nearest point to 
Rothenburg (38). Carriage in 2 hrs., 
7 marks, besides Trmkgcld. From 
Both-am-See a dil. runs to (14 m. 
N.E.) Kothenbnrp', in 3 brs. 

Crailsheim (47UU) has a haudsome 
toini*]iaU and Sefaloss, now occn]iied 
ta txne bnUdtngs. The late Gothic 
Ohwreh<f8* Jokkhtm a winged altaT> 

pieoe with paintings by WtMgmm^, 

and a tabernacle oi 1498. 

The rly. now nseends the vallov of 
the Jacrst, and cr(»sst's the river before 
reaching £llwangen (4800), ruled by 
a prince hiahop imUl IMS. Tbe 
*at^fttkifdi« (770), rebuilt in im, ia 
a Romnncsque basilica, with an un- 
altered ci*ypt. Broji/.e in^jcriptions by 
Peter Vischer of Nuremberg. Less 
than a mile dlatant are the BaAa of 
SehfttMm. At Wasserattigen are 
important ironworks, in connection 
with which a little toothed rly. afoenda 
the liill-side. 

Afllen (6600), onoe a Dree town of 
the Empire, lies at the confinenoe of 

the Aal and Kocher. 

TTnterkochen. EHl. to (12 m. S.E.) 
Neresheim, H. of which, on tbe Ulrichs- 
berg, is a palace of tiie Prinoe of 
Thurn and Taxis, nntii 1803 a Bene* 

dictiiir CoTiveiit. 

Konigsbronn, witii important iron- 
works, at the source of the Brenz. 

Hddmheim (6200), an i^4ustrioas 

town, above which rise the picture que 
ruins of Ilellenstein, destroyed in 1821. 
Good road to (25 m. N.K.) NordUn' 
gtii, passing Neresheim half-way (see 
above). 'The Brensthal is fbliowed 
hence, passing Herbrechtlngen, whose 
church has an early Gothic choir, nntl 
Qiengen, where is- a Gothic church 
with two towers. 5 m. further the 
rly. quits the valley of the Brenz, and 
turns S.W. to Langenati (3700), a 
pleasant little town. 

TJnter - Elchingen. Here Marshal 
Ney won his ducal title in Oct. liJOfi. 
The Danube is crossed to Ulm. 

wiy u^Lu cy Google 

i Wuritemberg, Boute 13. — Orcuhheim to Oarlaruhe. 


ROUTE 13. 




UnllihAiin. . 

12. 53 





Hessenthal • 

. . 28 


Hall . . . 

• • 28 














fieilbronn . 

. . 9 




Bretten • « 

. « 11 



OrStEingoi « 

. . 8 



Durlach . . 

« • 8 


Carlsrulio . 

.K.G. 105 

W. — Exp. as far as Hellbronn. 
The rly. winds considerably, travers- 
ing a picturesque and hiiijr country. 

Batting ¥aiifa«h, wifli a chaly- 
beate spring, and Snlsdot^ where the 

Buhleibach is crossed, we reach 
Eeftseutbalt where the line turns 
N. to 

Hall (9300), apictoresqae old town, 

on the steep banks of the Kocher, 
formerly a free Imperial city, with a 
territory containing in the 13th cent. 
16,000 Inhab.: some of the old towers 
and walls still remain* As its name 
implies, it possesses considerable salt- 
works. The money called Heller 
(Haller) is said to have been first 
coined here, aud heuce to have 
derired its name. 8t. VUhaePi, the 
principal church, appproached by a 
lofty flight of steps on the W. suie, 
dates from 1424-1525. The line tower 
is of the 12th cent. The interior con- 
tains much cvrioaa coloufcd wooden 
sculpture; in the S. aide is the 
Ibtoinbment, with figarcs life-slie. 

Another wood-earring has old paint* 
inga on the shutters: l. Bearing the 
Cross; 2. Crucifixion; 3. Deposition. 
The SacramenUkauSt with good carv- 
ing, has been much damaged by 
wwtewash. The church of sL OaGh 
arine, on the 1. bank of the riyer, has 
a fine high altar. 

The brine evaporated In the exten- 
sive salt works is brought in pipes 
from (9 m. S.) Wilhelmsgliiok ^,28), 
where the rock*aalt oocnrs in large 
masses in which great chambers are 
excavated. It is accessible either by 
a staircase ol 680 steps, or by a sort 
of tramway, and is worth a visit when 
lighted np. 

A pleasant road up the banks of the 
Kocher lends to (^2 m. 9^.) Sfrinhach, 
above which rise the putmesque 
buildiogs of Xombnxg, ' formerly a 
Beae^tine ibrtreas-monastery, now a 
hospital fbr iatralided soldiers. A 
covered way runs round its walls, 
from which are pleasing views of 
the surrounding scenery. The church 
lias 8 towers, for Ihe most part Roman- 
esiiite. The nave is modem, but con- 
tains some works of the 12th and 15th 
centuries; an altar frontal of copper 
(1130), embossed and gilt, and a 
branched candelabrum. Close by is 
the llth«cent. haailica of Khfn Kcm* 
hurg, with some early ftescoes, re- 

About 5 m. N.W. of Hall is the 
Cistercian Nunnery of (xnadenthalf of 
the 18th cent, with a choir having a 
quadrangular apse. 

Two tunnels arc now passed, and 
the rly. mounts to its ?nmmit-!('Vo1 of 
1380 ft., and descends to Waldenburg, 
with a conspicuous Schloss of Prince 
Hohenlohe- Waldenburg* Another 
SohhMs ia seen at VsMUrtaiiu 

Oehringen (3700), the residence of 
tiie princes of liohenlohe-Oehriuceu. 
The church comtidna aorae antient 
monuments of the Hohenlohe family, 
and at the E. end a relieli erected by 
one of the princes in commemoration 
of liis Golden Wedding. In the dois- 
tera is a group of fte Virgin and 
Child with the four Latin docl-»— 
beneath a canopy of elaborate 


Ly Google 


Boute 14. — StuUgart to Horh* 

Sect. I 

work, all carved in wood* Unte the 

town are laree cellars. 

Near Willshach rises on the 1. the 
little town of LoweaBteixu with a 
nuned CMfle. M the N.W« loot d! 
the hiU m ibft nringt of ISUbwfMv 

Weinflberg. On the summit of a 
bill stands the shattered Tiiiiit of the 
OoiOe Hi Wmruherg, caUed WeShut* 
tvene (woman's fidelity), from a story 
connected with it, which may be 
found ill liie * Spectator/ No. 499, and 
which has also furnished the subject 
of one of Biirger'e ballads. Daring 
ibA irars of Guelph end . Ghibelline 
the castle was bcsiefre(! in 1140 by 
Conrad III, of HuhLnstaulcn, who 
became at length so irritated at tiie 
rewCMMo ofliMcd Iw the gumto% tbst 
be voired to put all the nen In it to 
the sword, permitting the >vonien, 
however, to depart in safety, carrying 
with them their most valuable pro- 
perty. The gates were opened for 
tliis purpose^ lad^ oat mardied the 
women, each canying on her back her 
husband or lover. Here lived and 
died 0862) Justinus Kerner, M.D., 
poet and ghostseer. Near Uie pretty 
uttlo Boimanei^tte Ghvxdi » hm 
monument. Within tbo bidlding a 
picture of 1659 repreMtttt the pro- 
cession of the women. 

The passes through a tunuei 
§ m. long, skirts the Wartberg Tower, 
and crosses sevml branohes of the 
Neckar to Heilbronn. From XppiigHi, 
dil. to (9 m. N.) Steimfurth (5). At 
Grotzin^en we join Kte. 8, and ifoliow 
it to Carlsxtthe. 

£OUT£; 14. 


IDlfli. Si.'it;>iii>. TloQtes. 
SXUZTOA&X 111 15, 19, 


6 Hasenberg 

9 Talhiign 

16 Bb^lla|r«a 

19 Ehningen 

26 Henenberg 

36 Eatingen . . 4,19 

4t Hozb . . . 15,19 

S.W. — Berlin to Zurich. Beyond a 
short tunnel the rly. ascen(!s steeply, 
atl'ordiug hue views ou the 1., and 
croseei ue Togelsang Tbnl on « lofty 
viaduet to 

Hasenberg (1210 ft.), one of the 
Diost attractive spots in the neiglilxmr- 
hood of Stuttgart, risiug 4U0 ft. aUove 
the ci^. 250 ft. higher up ii the 
*JigonMU, and near it the Belvedere, 
a stone tower from which a *magni- 
ficent view is gained. A direct path 
leads from the J^erhaus to Stuttgart 
in less than ^ hr. 

The rly. now anends the flanks 
r f \v coded hills, crossing a succession 
of tltn^p ravines, to it?; snmmit level at 

Vaihingen. on the Fildem. 6 m. 
E. lies MohenJtcim (11). Woods are 
traversed to Bdblingen, an old town 
with a castle and some weaving fac- 
tories. Extensive *view from the 
Waldburg, \ vn. outside the to^n. 
The rly. erosscs the river Wurm at 
Ehningen, and proceeds to 

Sananberg, an ancient town Sn m 
channing situation. Beyond Satingen 
the nanow Kfiblan-Tbal is dflieended 

Herb (2300), on the 1, bank of the 
Neckar, with a large ch. worth notice* 
On the hill above it li lUi old tower 
and a chapeL 

i^iy u^Lu cy Google 

Wurttembeig. BovOe 16.^8Migart to Immendingen. 


EOUTE 16. 


Miles. StatioDs. R< ntes. 

STUTTGAEI 11, 14, 19, 

27 28 

2 Cannstatt . 11, 2?! 28 
14 Piocliingen . . . U 
18 Unterboilimgeii ? 

4 Kirclilieim y 
' M Vtirtingen 

24 IfaolniTthftllfiBgm 
31 MetzingexL > 

7 Uracil 3 
86 Reutling-en 
41 Xirchenteilmsfart 
40 TflMngwi . . .25 
52 Eottenbug 
54 Niederuau 
60 Eyacli 

65 Horb . . . 14,19 
74 0ii]i am Neckar 
81 OhmAmt 
92 Bottweil . • « 16 

101 Spaich.iiigen 
106 Wnrmlin^eil 
109 Xuttlingeja 
115 fimmcndiiigea ir.o» 108 

S. — At Uorb, the main line is joined 
between Carlsruhe and Zurich. 

Uaterboihingen. On the opposite 
bank of the Meckar, near Kongen, is 
an ancient stone bridge from which 
Duke Ulrich is said to have leaped 
."When pursued by Swabiaii troops in 
1516. [Kiy. S.E. to Kirchheim unter 
Teek^ with an important wool market ; 
a good starting-point for excursions 
in the Swabian Alb (see below)].^ 

Kurtin^en (5370), a busy town, 
ftom wbldi the *Hohenn€uffen (2400 
ft), crowned with its imposing ruins, 
may be ascended in 2 hrs. 

Keckartailflngen. Here the rly. 
turns due S., away from the river, 
and fine views of the Hohenneoffen 
and the Teokberg are gained on the 1. 

Het^ingen. Fine views £x>m tUo 
*Fhriait3>erg (1 600 ft.), l hr. N.B. 
[My. SJL to ITiaoll (1510 ft.), m in- 
dustrious town engaged it the linen 
trade, and a good centre for pedes- 
trians (see below). The Chnrch of 
SL Amandm retains the beautifully 
carved oak throne of Duke Eber- 
hard (1472). The ocutZe, builtjpardy 
of wood (1443) possesses in the Kittcr- 
saal gilt cai'viDijs and armorial bear- 
ings. In the iiiiitkeL-piace a good 
Gothic FamUain, like that at Ulm. 
On the rt. of the road ris^s the ruined 
IToheii-Urarh, the residence of the 
Dokes of Wiirttemberg before Shitt- 
l^rt. ^ m. distant through the forest 
18 the pretty water/all of liriihlbach.J 

The rly, skirts the base of the 
Achalm (-2300 ft.) and continues W. to 

Eeutlingen (17,500), during the 
middle ages constantly at war with 
the princes of Wfirttemoerg, Itretaips 
many picturesque old houses, and the 
waters of the Echaz are carried 
thronj?h its streets. The weaving of 
Wire webs for sieves is carried on, and 
Lucas' Pomological Institute was 
founded here in 1858. The noble 
Gothic * Ch u rch of 8t, Mary (1247- 
1343), restored in 1844, with tower 
325 ft. high, contains a beautiful 
Font (1499) and a well-carved group 
of the Entombment. Friedrich Ust, 
the ptditieal economist, was born here, 
and his stdtne, erected in 1863, stands 
in front of the stat. 

The Castle of Lichtenstein, 2^ hrs. 
S. of Reutlingen, is a mimic feudal 
stronghold, built in 1842 by HeidelofF, 

perched on the apex of a towering 
rock, on the edge of precipices 800 ft. 
above the valley, and approached only 
by a drawbridge. It belongs to Giaf 
Wilhelm von Wurttemberg, who has 
decorated the interior with frescoes 
illustrating the story of Prince Ulric, 
as told in Ilaufif's charming romance 
named after this castle. It contains 
many interesting Old-^SeniianjNi^fit- 
ings by Holbein^ Schaufelein, Wohlge- 
muth, &c. ; an armoury, library, and 
chapel. The site is very romuu- 
tic, and the view in clear weather 

Digitized by Google 


Boute 16. — KirchenteUinsfwt — TuUnyen, Sect. !• 

embraces the Alps of Tjrrol tmi 
Switiarlaiid. Cards of admission at 
the mansion of the Duchess of UracU, 
hi the Neckarstrasse, Stuttgart. 3 m. 
W. is the NebeWihle, a stalactite 
grotto, hestTisited from Oberhaiiteii. 
A smaller cave, the OhjahSKISf near 
Honau, at the foot of Lirhtrnstein, is 
more easily accessible. An hour S.W. 
of the castle is a third cavern, the 
OarUihSKle, to whleh a d roi d to ns 
carriage road through the Honauer 
Thai also leads. The stalactites here 
are ffintastic in form, and the effects 
of illumination beautiful. Admission 
to all these grottoes is ilxed by tariff. 

ZirohexLtdttniflurl. Hite*1lM r^. 
re-enters the YtXkff of the Neekar* 

Tubingen (12,700). This ancient 
and pietoiwiw town, of 10,000 Inhab., 
sitnated on uio Nsekar, in one of the 

prettiest and most fertile distncts of 
Swabia, is built on very irregular 
ground, sloping down to the river. It 
as chtedy remarkable as being the seat 
of the uMoenUy of the kingdom of 
Wfirttemherg, founded in 1477, and 
nnrabcring anion ? its earliest professors 
Keuchlin nnd Meianchthon. It main- 
tains both a Catholic and Piolebtant 
theological Ihonltj, and possesses i^ 
endowments, supporting fellows and 
scholars. It is jittcnded by about l(>no 
students. There are also two large 
Semlnari^: one for 100 Protestant 
stodeatsin diTinity, csMed das Sti/t ; 
the other for 130 Roman Catholic 
students, called das Wilhelmsstift. 

The plain but substantial building 
for the Vnivernty stands on the E. 
side of the town, in the modern Wil- 
helmsstrasse. It eontains a smsll 
cabinet of jpietnrcs hy old masters, 
including Correggio, Mnrillo, and 
L. Cranach. The 6 adjoining rooms 
contain portraits of the; eminent pro- 
liBisors mm. the first rector Johannes 
Nanderos (1477) dow n w a r ds ; and in 
the entrance hall are busts of Dan- 
necker, He^el, Schelling, Wieland, 
Kepler, Schiller and Uhlaud. The 
collection of FosaiU in the Old Uni- 
versity, near the ch., deserves a visit. 

of fiC Oeorge contains 12 momuiieDtik 

chiefly of princes of Wiirttemberg^ 
who are represented in full armour 
on their tombs: two — that of Duke 
Ludwm, d. and of his wife — are 
ridilT deomtid with seidpttire ; Ooimt 
£berhard, d. 1496, founder of the 
University; also, Duke John ofSchles- 
wig-Holstein (d, 1613). Many of 
the monuments have been much in- 
jored. The painted glass In the choir 
dates from 1420, and there is here also 
an ancient painting by Lazarus Bertsch, 
of Wiirttombnre (1574). The vault- 
ing of the nave is curious, the ceiling 
bemg made up of flower-pots em- 
hedded In cement. 

At the end of ^ mailte^aoe, 
where is to be seen every Tariety of 
Swabian costume, is the Town llaU 
(1508), restored in 1G98. with iu 
ancient wooden pulpit projecting ffoai 
the first story, for IniUBgniag the 
townspeople. Storka are to he aeeii on 

the chimrif V tops. 

The Cmtle ot Hohen-Tiibingen, on 
the height of the W. of the town, -was 
hnilt in 1535, in the plaee of the old 
stronghold of ^ preceding Pfalz- 
graves of Tubingen. Their family 
became extinct in 1631, and the castle 
lias been conceded by the Government 
to the nse of the Univmity, and con* 
tains an Obseryatory, Laboratory, and 
collf'ction of Casts. Ascend through 
the decorated gateway, in the style of 
the Kenaissance (built about IGOO), 
with the &9ade a triumphal arch, 
and hearing the insignia of the Order 
of the Garter. Proceed through a 
second rntoway, in the simie style, 
and thus enter the qiiadrnngie, on the 
N. side of which is the valuable Uni* 
versity Library of 140,000 volumes. 
There are also here vast cdlars aad a 
giant tun. 

On the W. side of the quadrangle, 
a low, vaulted passage leads to a high 
pohit ontilde the castle mdl, fmi 
which there is an excellent view of 
the Talleys of the Neckar, Ammer, 
and Steinlach, and of the chain of the 
Swabian Alb, S.E. and K But the 
view from the Oeaterhergf E. of the 
town, on which stands Lndwlg 
The choir of the Protestant ciinr^h i Uhland's honse^ is the 4nest, Asoesi 

^lyui^Lu cy Google 

Wiirttcmberg. JBdUte 15.— BdWewhu^flSitofe of TeA. 29 

qilitetothe top through the vineyards 
or orchards, when the sun is in the 
W. The range of the Swabian Alb 
li then seen finely lighted up. Tbe 
ctsde of HoliensoUem rises against 
the sky* iMtring S.S.W. Below lies 
Tubingen, with the castle above it, 
and far to the W. stretch the slightly 
diverging valleys of the Meckar and 
the Amiiir. 

Uhland mB bom here in 1787, and 
died in 1862. A granite slab marks 
his grave in the cemetery. Wurm- 
Ungen chapel, alluded to in the well- 
known Vam of Ua— 

Droben stehet die Kapelle, 
SdiMHl allB tns That fatauhk 

stands on a height about 1 hr. N.W., 
and commanJii a fine Tiew« 
8 m. N.W. of Tubingm, on the old 

Stuttgart road, is the Cistercian con- 
vent of Bebenhansen, one of the finest 
Gothic edifices of Swabia, founded in 
1183. Tower of open work (1409), 
eloiBter and fine raie-windoir. The 
building hafl hean raatoccd as a royal 
shooting-box, and contains valuable 
collections of armour, tapestry, and 

Bettflidnur (7200). Tlie Arohi- 
episcopal see of Wiirtteniberg, pic- 
turesquely situated on the banks of 
the Neckar, and connected by a bridge 
-with the suburb of Bhingen. A large 
and valuable collection of Roman 
antiquities, found in the neighbour- 
hood on the site of the Roman station 
Sumeloeennis, is to be seen in the 
Bischofshof, the former college of 
tiie JeanitB. 8L MmMb Chnieh, a 
late-Gothie structure, la worth a visit. 
Here is a Peiiiteiifianj, admirably 
or^nized. A large proportion of the 
prisoners are employed iu silk-spiu- 
ning. The tnSAymtm of hops li 
carried on here to a very great extent. 
The Neckar is crossed to Neidemau, 
not far from which, on the other side 
of the river, lie the Baih$ of the same 
name. The Neckar is crossed again, 
and a Umg tmnel entered, beyond 
which on the rt, k the ohitean of 

Sjaohi aboYe which on the 1. stands 

the ruin of Frondech. Omn. to 
(3 m. S.) Bad Imnau, well fitted up, 
with prettv walks, and a chalybeate 
spring. Beyond Boih, the Tall^ 
contraets, and the run of Wehntein 
is passed on the 1. 

Sul* am Neckar, with a Gothic ch., 
beyond which, on issuing from a 
tmind, the rain of OenliMok is seen 
on the 1. 

Obemdorf. The royal gun foundry 
occupies the former Augustine mon- 
astery. The line now becomes very 
pictui ebque, traversing several bridges 
and tunnels to Bofetwdlt ^ 
walled town (6000) on the Neckar. 
It fell to Wurttemberg in 1802. The 
Kreuzkirche is a fine edifice of the 
1 4th cent,, nearly destroved by fire 
in 1696, hnt wdl restored by Heide> 
loff. The picture on the high altar 
is by Christoph. Krafft, 1669. The 
Kapellenkirchey rebuilt in 1723, has 
a fine tower of 1374, *View from 
the ffoehthurm to the W. of tiielown, 
an old watch-tower, the Ibondationa 
of which are Roman. In the ceme- 
tery chapel of S. Laurence are some 
good mediseval carvings. Our line 
turns £., crossing the Neckar, tra- 
▼ersing a froitful popaloos plain, with 
pretty gUmpsea of the apors of the 

Spaichingen, from which the lieu- 
berg (2895 ft.) on the 1. may be 
aseenaed in U hr. Splendid ^ew. 
Beyond WurmUngen the ily. de- 
scribes a wide curve, and crosses the 
Danube to Tuttlingen (8400), on the 
rt. bank of the Danube, f m. from 
the rly., rebuilt since a lire in 1803. 
Above the town ia the rained QuUe 
of Honhuirgt dcatioyed in tin Thirty 
Years* War. 

From Urach (see below) the pedes- 
trian may follow the picturesque 
Uraeher Thai to Beebnrg, in a roman- 
tic situation at the entrance to a rocky 
valley. ^ hr. above Urach ia a fine 

From Kirchheim a road leads to 
(5 m. S.) Owen, whence the beautiful 
Lenninger Thai may be ftUowed to 
Gutenberg. An hour above Owen 
rises the ruined ""Castle of Teck (2550 
ft.)» commanding a magnificent view*> 

uiyiii^uoijy Google 

KOUTE 16. 

mieB. Stations. BoutCfl* 

Bottweil . . • 15 
11 Sehwenningeii 
19 Marbaoh 

Thw rly. runs S.W.. connecting 
Rte. 15 with the lilack Forest iiue 
betw^i Offenburg and Oonttuiee. 
d a. a of 8okw6imiBgeii k Hm ioniM 
of flie Keolcar. Between this stat. 
and ^farftocfc the train crosses the 
frontier, and liters the duchy of 

EOUTE 17. 

mJI VO BAI>0LMIX» »r BliiOBBimBN. 

Stations. BouteH. 

mm . . . 11, 12, 24 
10 Blaubenm 

21 Ehingen 

83 Bechtensteiu 

41 Biedlingen 

48 Herbertingen . . 26 

08 Mengoi 

0V Kranchenwies ) 
6 SigmaringAiL • 25 > 

63 Mcsskirch 

70 Schwackeareuthe . 18^ 

76 'Stoekaeh 

87 BiuioUiMU 

8.W., striking at firgt due W. into 
the romantic yalley of the Bim. 

BlaulMUfen (2600). In the old 
dnmh of tho BMiadioUoe 6onT«iit ve 


tino w(mm1 -carvings, consisting of a 
bishop s throne, stalls in the choir, 
and an ^aUar'tcreen nearly 40 ft. hi^h, 
trtfh fimei oT tho IS Apo^les (14TO), 
dotod IB front with double doors, 
also carved with figures, ^tc, hy Jorg 
Syrlin. The inner central frame is 
occupied vriiU btaiuei» m niches of the 
Viijgtn and Chad with 0 t^tt. On 
either side the Nativity and AdorM 
tiou of the Magi in relief. Tt Is one 
of the finest and most elaborate wood- 
carviugs in Germauy. Four subjects 
on the exterior of the ttmm repre- 
sent Uie history of the Passion : 16 
within, the history of John the Bap> 
tist. The paintings at the beok^ of 
saints, are hy ZeUmom. 

Cl<^ to the convent is the small 
blue lake eiUed the Skmtopf, fKmi 
which the Bin issues. At Bhui- 
beuren is one of the principal pump- 
ing-stations by which the formerly 
barren liauhe Alb is supplied with 
water, from springs 1000 II. hdow iti 
leTdl«->4t teost important engineering 
work, estahUihed in 1870* (See 

Eiimgen (4200), at the junction of 
the Sehmiechen with the Danube. 
The ehareh of 8t. Bta#(«s has a 

Gothic tower. T])'' line now n^ccnds 
the va!e of tlu' Danube to Bechten- 
Btein, with a ruined castle, where it 
crosses and allerwaidi reonMMa the 

Biedlingeii, on the 1. hank of the 
Danube, whence r cnrriage road leads 
in livs. to the Bussen (2485 ft.), an 
isolated hill with a pilgrimage ch., 
eommatiding an *eiteiiiiTe Tiew. At 
its foot Ues the Federsee. 

Mengen, on the Albach C2.500). 
Rly. W. to Sigmaririfjen, forminpr a 
triangle with the mam line and the 
hraaeh from Krandienwiee. 

Kranchenwies, with an old castle 
and park belonging to Prince Hohen- 
zolleni. Kly. ^. to Sigmaringen. 

MessMrch, with a chateau of Piince 
Furstenberg, and some Roman le* 
loainB. In ike chnveh hi an altai^ 
piece by Sch'infeldn. 

Stockach, in a wooded vrtllcy, near 
which the Archduke Charles deleated 


WilrUembeig. Amid 19.-^iuttgaH to SM. 


the Jb'reucb under Jourdaiu in 1799. 
DiL S.E. to (4. in.) LudrngsJuifeji, or 
(11 m.) VebetUMmf on the Boden* 
See (64). 

Eadolfzell, an old town ^ith a late 
Gothic church of 1436. Ely. to 
(13 m.) CWttonce (Northern Germany, 
Rte. 108). 

BOUT£ 18. 


Mile*. stations. R > 

SchwackenreuUie • 17 
10 Pfullendorf 
20 Hosgkirck-Kouigaegg 
S6 AMuMtmt ... 26 

E.— The ily. tread» a little N. 
before reaching 

Ffulleiidort an aneiMt town mhk 

a church tower -worth Dotice. ITonre 
coach to (9 m.) Heiligeaberg, a 
ch&teau of Prince Fiirsteuberg, with 
a magnificent Renaissance ceiling 
and la isteNstmg chapel. Beantlm 
view over the lake of CoMtaiUse, 
which lies lonn ft. hcloir. A few nilii. 
N.VV. of the iim are the interesting 

g'Ottoes of the FreuncUcJta/ts-Hdhlen. 
il. to (15 m« S.) Meeraburg on the 
lake, passing Sftlam, a Cistercian con- 
•vcni uith a modernized but sump- 
tuous church, containing a iixM late 
Gothic ^acramentshaus, 

XMnbuig is a pleasant little town 
'with an ancient castle, formerly the 
residence of the powerful biahiqpa of 
Constance, in which has been arranged 
a vnlnable collection of mediaeval 
antiquitiea. The Heue Schioss, au 
epiieopal palace of about 1740, » now 
an admirably conducted Aiyllia for 
Deaf and Dumb ChiWrcn, open to 
Catholic and Protestants without dis- 
tincUon, and containiu[£ more than 
60 boys and 40 girls. Meersburg li 

celebrated for its wine. In the chnrch- 
vardwas boned Menner (1815), the 
mvenUir of Mesmerism. 1 1 c n c c t he 
steamer etottws the lake due W. to 

(4 m.) 

Mainau, a beautiful little island, 
once a Teutonic lodge, and now laid 
ottt in pleasure grounds. A long bridge 
connects it witiii tibe Baden shore. 
The steamer re-crosses the lake to 
Ueberlingen (4000. -'^( 0 Protestants), 
an ancient town, with almost perfect 
walls, and eeveial bnikUngi of in- 
terest. The Uth-cent. ^ekliroh, with 
double aisles and fine wood-carvinir, 
and the hall of the Gothic *Eathiiaus, 
adorned with 43 statuettes of Mar- 
graves and Electors, and several por- 
traits of Emperors, are worthy of 
notice. The Steinhaus Museum has 
various local collections. An immense 
trench, dug for defence against the 
Swedes on the land side of the city 
walls, has been conTcrted 'into a 
charming Promenade. "DHL K.W. to 

BOUTE 19. 
■nmoABr to mmm, bt cui,ir. 

Mike. srMtionp. Rouftta, 
SlUTTaAET 11, 1^, 15 


4 ZuffenhausMi • • 11 

8 Kornthal 

13 Leonberg 

20 Weil der Stadt 

84 Calw 20 

87 Teisaeh 

41 Wildberg 

43 ThalmtOiie 

46 Nagold 

62 Hochdorf ... 4 

06 Xnlinsea •4,14 

61 Horb. • » . 14,15 

S.W. — The riv'. runs, however, due 
N« 18 ftr at Z^ftw to t s i m * 

82 Soutee 20, 2h^P/orzhem to Calw and Wildbad. Sect. I* 

Komtlial 19 tbe seat of a Protettmnt 

sect r^emblmg tbe Morayians, and 

rtinintaniiti^ several good school?. At 
Leonberg is a church of 1414. Here 
Schelliiig was born (U. 1854). The 

olace is noted for its fine breed of 

Weil der Stadt (2100) has a late- 
Gothic church of SS. Peter and Paul. 
Kepler wasbom lieie in 1630, and his 
*statae adonis the market-place. 

Calw (4700), on the NagolJ — of 
considerable importance as the centre 
of the timber trade the liiack 
Forest with HoUand. 

The rly. now follows the ytJUsy of 
the Nngold, passing throufrh several 
tunnels, and crossmg the strtiam a 
number of times. 

Teinaeb. Omn. in 85 mis. up a 
lateral valley to the ])leasantly situ- 
ated Baths of Teinach, where there is 
an acidulo'is mul a chalybeate spritig-, 
much freuueuted in the summer. 
Fine view from ZaveUtein, on a height 
above, irith a rained castle (SI). 

Thalmllhle. Closely, in the woods, 
is Burg Waldeclt. 

The mountains are for the most 
part composed oi granite, and are 
covered to their snuumits wHh forests 
of black firs, miied with beech and 
birch . 

Wildberg, on a hill, nearly sur- 
rounded by tlie stream. 

Kagold (2700), a busy town, w!lh 
the ruins of the Castle of Hohen- 
Nagold on the Schlossberg. The 
rly. now leaves the Nafr<^'ld-Thnl, 
which bends W., and comimios due 
S. through the vaiiey of the Steinach, 
passes thnmjgh a long tunnel, and 
reaches its hig^hest point at 

Hochdorf (1650 ft. , ^v hence it de- 
scends to Eutingen and Horb. 

ROUTE 20. 







8, 21 
. 21 



Calw . 


S. — Beyond Brdtzingm the rly. 
passes through a tunnel, and enters 
the beautiful Nagoldthal. Another 
tunnel leads to Weissenstein, with a 
piotnresque ndn on a height, and a 
third is passed throo^ on the way to 
Unterreichenbacht near which the rly • 
crosses the river. 

Lieben^eii, an old-established water- 
ing-place, in a charming sitnatioD, with 
a minad easdsk 

1 5 m. Hirsau, with the remains of 
a Beuedictine monastery, destroyed 
by the French under Kelac in 1692. 
The Nagold rly. ftllt in on the 1, 
before leaohing Mw. 

KOtJTB 21. 


Ifitet. fltetioDS. 

0 Brotzingen 
7 Neuenbiirg 
32 Caimbach 


. 20 

S.W. — ^Exp. from Paris, Mayence, 
and Vienna. The rly. ascends the 
Talley of the Exkz, 

^lyui^uu cy Google 

Wiirttemberg. Boute 21, — Nettenburg — Wildhad. 

Neuenbtirg (2000) is nn oM to-\vn, 
mostly rebuilt since a lire in 17S3,witli 
a ruined castle (JFruc^Upeicher) of 
Boman origin, and a Schloss of 1658. 
DiL to (14 m. &W.) Heireoalb (22). 
Calmbfteh has a faandaonM moaern 

The retired but famous watering- 
place of Wildbad (3600 Inliab.; 6500 

Tisitors) lies on the rL iNmk of the 

Enz i''1475 ft ). 

The principal building is the haiul- 
some KurhoMi with reading and as- 
4Bembl J looms. It contaiw SO frivate 
and 2 pnlilic iMlihs, one for men, the 
other for vomen, holding 20 each. 
Hours, 5, 7, 9, and 11 a.m. ; and 3, 5, 
and Iv.^i. Tariff, public bath, 1 mark ; 
private, 1 m. 80 pf. 

The BtJMunm U a grand estabUsh- 
ment In Byaomtine style, ^vith coloored 
decorations, and cost 100,000?. 

Wildbad is a cripple's bath. The 
natural hot waters are considered 
beofiAeial for rheamatiem, goat, stiff- 
ness of the limbs after rounds or 
fmctnrcf;, paralysis, and alfio for some 
<iifieases of the skin. 

The waters are nearly pure} their 
principal chemical ingredient is 
«oiBiiion salt The mean temperature 
varies from 26<^ to 30^ K^omnr (a 90^ 
to 100° Fahr.). 

The baths coiibist oi basins foriii*Ml 
round the springs as tlicy bubble 
€oTih from the eieviees of the grsnitic 
rocks, which are covered with a layer 
of saud for tho comfort of the bathers. 
The water is continually running 
through the basins, but every horn 
the greater part is allowed to ran ofP, 
smd the saim stirred up by sweeping 
it, and some time allowed to elapse 
before the bath is again filled for a 
new j>atient. They are therefore used 
only every other hour. Twice a day 
the baths are emptied altogether. The 
number of places being limited, h is 
advisable to secure tickets in good 
time. The baths are the property of 
the Government. There is a special 
Bath, the KaJOkoirinmstift, for the use 
of the poor. 

The season lasts from May 15 to 
September 15, The place is 4}ui«t and 

8» Germ* 


well adapted for 5nvn1ir!=;. Instead of 
donkeys or mules the invalids make 
use of Bath chairs (Tragsessel). There 
is music from 8 to 9 A.M., and from 
6 to 7 P.M., on the KurplaU. 

EngUtk Ohmrt^ service ereiy 

'I'he situation is romantic, and the 
neighbourhood has some pleasant rides 
and walks. A shady patn leads is an^ 
hoar by the ride of the bfook Ens, 

here running rapidly among large 
stones, up to the Windhof on the S. 
side, and to the KUhk Bruniietk on 
the N. 

The TsUey is 'narrow; in the middle 
are meadows, oil the steep sides thick 
bbck firwoods. The snow sometimes 
lies on the neighbouring hills from 
November to May. In the streams 
betwesD Wildbad and Cahnbach some 
itomi and grayUag fishing may be had. 

Excursions. — On foot or in a 
carriage (9 marks, two horses 15 m.) 
to (9 m.) Calmbaeh (8 Rothen^ 
bach and (11 nu) Z(wM§m CkuiUt an 

imj)osing ruin; send round carriage 
to (13 m.) TeinaehJBafh^ (19) ; return 
by Calw, Hirsan, and Liebensell 
(5 hrs'. walk). 

^v the wider Beet a monntain tarn 
in the midst of a peat^bog, in which 
the fhrarf pine (Fimts iwmilio) grows 
abundantly, to (9 m.) Kalt. ubrunn, a 
shooting lodge in the forest; thence 
to the (i lu .) mMiOmnik (3625 ft) ; 
fine view. 

By carriage-road up the valley of 
the EnJ5 to Freudenstadt (lite. 16), 
d^cending the picturesque Murgtbal 
to Baden. (See Xites. 15 and 16*} 

34 Boate 2^.'-B0denrBade» io WUdbad. 

EOUTE 22. 


HlUs. Stations. Bootes. 

Baden • • • v.o, 106 

8 Oos 

9 Eastatt . . N.r,. 105 
Id Qemsbftdi » . ir.G. 106 

The fly. may be taken as far as 
GemslMielt. On Ikying Baden the 
eiflpriage-road runs throngh a fine 
ayenue of oaks for 2 m. \ip the pretty 
lichtenthal. Soou after begins the 
asoent orer the moantam ndge di- 
viding tlik TBlleT fitnn that of the 
Murg. The road is skilfully con- 
ducted, rising by a long and f^y 
ascent through pleasant forest scenery, 
iritfa glimpses of the valleys belirr. 
Soon after eroBsing the summit it 
leads by the gate of Schloss Elberstein 
(N. G. lUG), whence the descent is 
rather rough and steep, to (10 m.) 
Oemsbach, where the river Murg is 

Henceanaltemativr road, somewhat 
less steep, passes through JRetcheiihach, 
a small village on an affluent of the 
Murg, mounts, by a series uf skilful 
mSi&om^ to & staiBll JagMkXau of 
m Grand Dolce of Baoeiii en the 
summit of the chain, commanding 
boantifnl views, and descends into 
Wiidbad. The high road (dil. twice 
daily in 2 J hi s., IJ in the reverse di- 
rectioOy as &r as Heerenalt) crosses 
the fh>ntier of Wiirttemberg to 

15 m. Loffenau; in the hill near 
the Tillage are several caverns, called 
Teufelskammern, formed apparently 
1^ the foree of running water. A 
little way abo^e them is the Tcu- 
fclgmithhy a promini nt and project- 
ing heif^ht, commanding a fine view 
from ii^ top (2 hrs/ walk), which is 
covered 'with a confined heap of 
lUlen rocks of sandstone. 

Seot. L 

Croadttg a steep hiU called tfte 
Capeile^ we reach 

17 m. Horrenalb, a small hamtet 

grouped round the buildings of a ODce 
celebrated cMey, founded in 1148, 
destroyed in the Thii-ty Years* War. 
Near the inn Is a fine nun of a ehlipel. 
In the churchyard axe many tomh- 
stones of the abbots. 

Hence n oo!Uinued ascent leada to 
24 m. Sobez (2425 ft.), conunandi^ 
a line view over the Tidley of llm 
Rhinew Flosant woods are traYCned 
on the df'scoTit to "Wiidbad (Rte. 8), 
which lies about 1000 ft, higher ^um 
Baden (21). 



The first stage from Baden is to 
10 m. QwBsbaeh (M)* DiL twice 

daily to 

19 m. Forbach (in 2 hrs.), the road, 
good but hilly, ascending the valley 
of tlie Mnrg, mst on the 1. bank, under 
the castle of Neu-Eb^tein (N* G. 
106), nnd afterwards crossing the 
river at Hilpertsau. At the bottom of 
the deep, winding valley, whose sides 
are dollied to the top with Inznriant 
forests of pine and beech, runs a clear 
and lively mountain stream, its banks 
alternately bold cliff and green meadow, 
fringed with trees and shrubs. The 
road passes Weissenbach, Langen* 
brand, occupying a atrfking pootkm 
on a lofty granite rock, andGausbach, 
where the wooden thotises resemble 
those of Switzerland. 

TFootpath from Forbi^h to Baden la 
3f hrs., by Bemenbaeh, fiehnmlbaeh, 
Geisbachy and over the Kehberg to 
Ober-Beuem and Lichtenthal— puide 
advisnble.X The dil. prooeeUs to 

25 m. Sckbnmuxuach, uii a small 
tri^ntary of the ^rg, paaM the 
mine of KMg9waH,^n tiae top «f a 

Wfirttemberg. Boute 24. — Ulm to Friedri€k$ha/en, 


of their lioaKfl, as well as Ibr its eon* 

stant variety of pleasing prospect. DiL 
twice daily (3 times in the season) to 
(14 m. S.) Wol/ach Stat. (4). Dil. in 
summer to (15 m. W.) Petersthdlf chief 
place of the Kniebis Baths ; thence 
3 times daily to (5 m. N.W.) Oppenau 
Stat. (N. 6. 105). 

lock, and the ahhey of Sei^eiAaeh, 
and reaches 

35 m. Baiersbronn (3000), where 
the scenery becomes less striking. 
The valley opens, several glass-houses 
and other mairafketories are passed, 
and at the end of a long ascent a sort 
of table-land is reached, on which 
stands the town of Freiidenstndt. From 
this point the view is gained of the 
Vorarlberg mountains in Tyrol. 

38 m. routastadt (4) lies nearly 
a mile distant fhim its rly. stat., to 
-which the dil. proceeds. Another 
dil. plies daily between the stat. aud 
Bippoidsau, passing through the town, 
but the two coaches are not In eorre- 
spondeoce. Our road still follows up 
the Murg, which dwindles to a rill 
as we approach the summit of the 
Kniebis. The scenery is wild and 
wooded, the valley and its stream 
dvlndlhig nnlU a wide open heath is 
raehed ^1000 ft). Here we re-enter 
Bad on, and soon after the road to 
Kippoldsan turns off abruptly to the 
L, and plunges at once, by a well- 
wooded descent, into the Talley of 
the Schappach. In about 2 hrs. from 
Freudenstadt '^ve reach the baths at 

48 ra. Rippoldsaa, "one of the most 
attractive but least known of the 
Brunnen of Germany, utoated nearly 
in the centre of the Slaek Forest It 
is a small tillage, or rather collection 
of accommodatioi!s for travellers. All 
the food supplies are brought on 
women's heads from Freudenstadt. 
The property belonged originally to 
the Grand Duchj of Baden, but was 
purchased of Prince FiirstcTiberg by 
the proprietor. Few similar places, 
in point of scenery, mineralogy, and 
mineral waters, can rival tUs seunded 
spot "^StanUff, The BaG^Simse is a 
very handsome establishment. There 
arc 5 mineral springs, all cold. 
Sulphate of soda aud carbonate of 
lime are the chief ingredients. The 
w&ters are oonsidered very efficadotis 
in aflb^ons of Ae stomach, glandular 
system, and skin. The vale of Schap- 
pach, at the head of which Kippoldsau 
IS situated, is distinguished for the pic- 
turesque, or rather grotesque, costume 
of its inhabitants, and the mstiefUUoD 

liOUTE 24. 
ULM TO noxraiciBSHAiEii. 

Miles. StatiouH. Routes. 

mm . . .11, 12, 17 
7 Jbrbaeh 
21 Warthanssn 
23 Bib era ch 
31 Essendorf 
36 Sokusseniied 
99 Aniendocf • • • 
49 KiederbiigaaN 
63 Ravensburg- 
69 Meckenbeuiea 
65 Fiiedrichshafen, Town Stat. 

Friedrichshafen, Harb. Stat. 

'Berlin to Basel. 

On quitting Ulm this rlv. proceeds 
up the 1. bank of tlie Dsnuie (passing 
on It. one of the detaohed forts) as 

far as 

Erbacb. Shortly after thh it crosses 
the Danube and runs for some dis- 
tance in a perfectly straight line oyer 
the lowlands, which is watered li^ 
many small streams and contains 
peat bog. On the rt. rises tlie castle 
of Warthaiisen, 2 m. before reaching 
Eiberach (7500), a picturesque old 
town, formerly a tree Imperial dty. 
Children's toys an manufactured 
here. The poet Wieland ^vas !)orn in 
the neighbouring Tillage o£ Ober- 
Hobheim, in 1733. 

awaadoff. The rly. now leaTSS 
tfaa valley of the Itteii, and erossc 

_ Digiti*ed-by CjOOgie 

36 BoiUe 2tl. — Bavemburfg — Lake of Comtance. Sect. L 

the watenlied between Hie streams 

which flow to the Danube and those 
■wliich feed the Lake of Constance. 
Fine distant views of the iVlps of 
Switzerland and the Vorarlberg are 
obtained towards tiie S.B. and the S. 

ScthniMBTied, at the source of the 
Schussen stream, which the rly. fol- 
lows to Aulendorf, where is a chiiteau 
and deer park of Count Konigsegg. 
To the 1., beyond Ni&Aefbiegenf rises 
Wemgtften (see below). 

Eavensburg (11,500)— a highly > 
picturesque place within a circlet of 
10 or 12 old towers of different shapes 
— ^fbrmerly a free Imperial city (1455 
ft). The BaJthkanu is of the 15th 
century. From the Veitsherg hr.), 
on which stood formerly a castle, 
there is a beautiful view over the 
h^e of Gonstanoe. The old lower, 
ealled the MihlsaclCf was built in the 
15th centnrj' to defend the town 
against the Veitsberg. An hr. E. is 
the * Castle of Waldburg (2500 ft.), 
the stronghold, in olden mnes, of the 
Tmcheeet of Waldbnrg, now famous 
for its magniiioent Tiew over Upper 

[Branch rly. (9 trains a day in 20 
min.) to the Benedictine Abbey of 
W^bagarten (1054), a popular place 
of pilgrimage. There is a fine Italian 
church (1725), with a dome and two 
towers. The Tomb of the Guelphs, 
its founders, was restored by the 
King of Hanorer in 18ft9, from 
Klense'a dedgn. Fine organ.] 

Meckenbeuren. About 2 m. E. is 
Tettnang (140U Inhab.) whose huge 
castle belonged to the now extinct 
ftmily of Montfort. Onin. meets 
every train. The lake it teen on ap- 

* Friedrichshafen (3200), a busy and 
ineieasing town, on the N. shore of 

the Lake of Constance (Bodensee), 
formerly the free Imperial town of 
Buchhorn. It was acquired by Wiirt- 
teuiberg in 1810, but having re- 
ceired the addition of many new- 
houses and a harbour, built by King 
Friedrioh of Wfirttemberg, it has 

chan^^ its name, and become the 
principal port ou tlie lake for goods 
shipped between Switzerland and S. 
Germany. The King of W urttemberg 
occupies, as a summer residence, the 
(Mteau, with 2 lofty towers, whieh 
was originallv the Benedictine Priory 
of Hofen, belonging to the Abbey of 
Weingarten. Friedrichshafen and its 
vicinity command splendid prosuects 
aeroM the lake orer the inflox of tiie 
Rhine, to the Alps of Tyrol (Vorarl- 
berg) on the E., and Glarus and Ap- 
penzell on the S. Interesting Museum 
of pre-historic antiquities and Na- 
tonil Hietory at the mms of 
Bodemee- Verein. 

Branch rly. to the port, in connec- 
tion with the steamhoata €ot Switaar* 
land or Conatanee. 

The Aiteef OdBurtaaM (1800 ft.) ia 
more fully described in the SwUb 
TJandbook ; its N. shores consist of 
gentle slopes and grassy or vine-clad 
hills, fertile, and sprinkled with viUaa, 
hoiiee, and idOages, while abore ita 
S. shore rises the silvery onfliae of 
the Alps of Appenzell. Its greateal 
depth (912 ft.) is between Friedricli- 
schafen and Arbon (due S.) ; length 
42 m. ; breadth 8 m. Freauent steam- 
ers S.E. to (15 m.) Linaau (64) and 
(19 m.) Bregenz (279); S. to (Ij hr.) 
Rorschach in Switzerland; S.W. to 
(I hr.) liomamhorn, whence rly. to 
(13 m. N.W.) Constance; W. to 
(17 m.) Gonstanoe dueet; thenee 
N.W. to (17 m.) Ueberlingen and 
^25 m.) Ludmgsha/en, from both 
of which places a coach rnna to 
Stochach Stat., for Ulm (17). 

The banks of the lake being shared 
Switzerland, Baden, Wttrttembag* 
&Taria, and Austria, the waten are 
considered neutral, and luggage is 
liable to examination at every port. 
Travellers not proposing to land ia 
SiHtoerland or Anatria, may, however, 
obtain a ticket at any landing-place 
within the German Empire, which 
will free them from fuither trouble al 
any other. 

WMtemWg. Bauie 2B^TMngm to Sigmanngmu 





14 Bodelshauseii 
16 Heohingea 
1» ~" 

98 Frommem 
84 Lautling^ 
87 Ebingen 
il Btrauberg 
M 8igmazixig«i 



S.S.E. — Soon after leaving Tubin- 
gen, the rly. passes on the 1. the small 
BMi and Cnafd of & Bbte, and 
CTOMea the Steinlach^ ascending the 
stream. The Rossberg, Dreifiirsten- 
stein, aud other hills of the Swabian 
Alb, become conspicuous objects in 
the view. After w ew mi ug the 
Steinaeli, the Belaener CSapelle li aeen 
on a hill to the 1., and on the rt. the 
sulphur baths of Sebastiansweiler. 
The summit level of the line is 
reached at Bodelshausen, soon after 
whieli the Prosrian frontier it eroiied, 
and the castle of Hohenzollem rises 
boldly against the iky. The train 
now descends to 

Heichingen (3700; 500 Jews), a 
doll and dilapidated town until 1849, 
raidence of the Prince of Hohen- 
lollem-Uechingen, one of the oldest 
noble races of Swabia. In the prin- 
cipal ch. (1782) is a monumental 
relief by Peter Vischer to a Count v. 
Mlem and Ms wife. The new fkom 
Hie Weilerberg is fine. On the S. 
side of the town is a modem Gothic 
(Protestant), and just beyond it 
the villa Eugenia, a chateau of the 
prince, surrounded by agreeable ^ai^ 
dens and pleasore-gronnds. Carnage 
to Hohenzollem, 6 marks. The rly. 
crosses the Starzel, and through 
aeverai cuttings reaches ZoUenii which 

has a pretty stat., turreted like the 
castle. Hence a ^ood carriage-rciad, 
the zigzags of which may be est off 
by steep paths, leads to (8 m.) 

•Castle Hohensollem, the nest of 
the black eagle, the cradle of the 
royal family of Prussia. While the 
elder branch of Hechingen gradually 
lost ground and influence in perpetoal 
contests with the Dukes of Wiirttem- 
berg, till reduced to the condition of 
princes in little else but name, the 
younger branch became Burg-graves 
of Nuremberg, and, augmenting their 
influence, purehasedin 1417 the Mark 
of Brandenburg, with the electoral 
dignity, from the Emp. Sigismund. 
Two centuries' later they obtained 
kingly rank. The old Cattle (2840 ft.) 
Stands on the summit of a table»roek 
of limeitone, with precipitous sides. 
It was mined by the forces of the 
■Hanseatic League in 1423. It is now 
the property of the Emp. of Germain*, 
who hmx (185t-67) on the rite of the 
old castle a modem palace (designed 
by Stiller) — the fort by engineer 
officers. Entering by the Eagle Gate, 
with e(^uestrian relief of the Elector M 
Frederick I., and crossing a draw- ^ 
bridge, yoil are led by ingeniously • 
planned zizzags and through a curved 
tunnel to the upper Baily 75 ft. above 
it, ornamented with two lance bearers 
iu stone, and at the end of the terrace 
a bronae statne of Fred. William Iv. 
The fortress^ in plan a heptagon, 
follows the outline of the old castle, 
with bastions, and corner towers 
rising 50 or GO ft. high above the 
precipice, and forming as it were a 
continnation of it. The modem 
Schloss is a building of 5 stories, the 
two lower casemated, surmounted by 
towers. Attached to one wing is the 
B. C. Chapel of S. Micliael, the only 
aneient fragment now presenred, ana 
to the other a modern Gothic ch. (Pro- 
testant), for the Hohenzollem family 
is Catholic, but the Imperial branch 
Protestant. The place is garrisoned 
by a company of Inflmtry, and adjoin- 
ing the guard-ioom is a rettawufU, 
The mitrailleuse on the rampart was 
captured at Strassburg. The apart- 
ments (small fee) are handsome^ 



Bouie 26« — Merheriingen U> 

partienlarly the Skmitibmm' 

haUe, or baU decorated ^ith genealo- 
gical trees, the Gothic Grafemaal^ 
the iCatser7m?/e, 'and the JBischofa- 
haUe, respectively .embellished with 
statues fuidportraifs of emperors and 

Prelates. W. of the Grafensaal is the 
dhrary, adorned with Uftorisal fres- 
coes by Peters. 

The ♦view from the Wartthurm on 
three sides is extensiTe, but wants 
water. The eye ranges over the un- 
dulating district of Swabia : N. to the 
Black 1' crest, where the Feldberg is 
conspicuous ; and S., in clear weather, 
extends to the Bernese Alps. A little 
taxibsst E. rises another outlying rock 
of the Swabian Alb, the Zolierhonile, 
200 ft. lughoK^ in Wurttembeig teriir 

The rly. proceeds to Balingen on 
the Eyacn, with sulphur baths. Fine 
TieWy including the castle of Hohen- 
zollem on the N.E., from the massive 
hexagonal tower of the ch. The rly. 
now turns S.E., and ascends the slopes 
of the Swabian Alb. The Schaf berg 
and Lochenstein rise on the rt. M 
Vranmeni the gradient becomes very 

steep, and some bold cuttings carry 
the rly. to Lautlin^en, soon after 
which the highest point (2420 ft.) is 
attained, on tbe watershed between 
the Danube and the Rhine. The train 
now descends to Ebingen (2360 ft.), 
a busy old town, in a pretty situation. 
Good view from the Schlosa/eUen 
(3250 ft.), to which a path leads in 
40 min. Beyond 8tntssD«r||^ with its 
finely-placed castle on the 1^ the line 
quits Prussia, and continually crosses 
the Schmeie in its descent through 
the wild and tortuous valley. The 
rly., admirably engineered, passes 
throach two tunndu, crosses the 
Danube, and reaches 

SlQMAItlNQEN (3800), on the rt. 
bank of the Danube (1860 ft.). The 
castle, on a rock rising from the river, 

is the old Stammscliloss of the princes 
of Sigmaringen, the Catholic branch 
of the house of iioheuzolieni. The 
prince, in 1849, ceded thepiincipality 
for an indemnity to tiie King of 

armoury, alibrarywith'vilQableMBS., 

and a room with family portimite> 
dating from the 9th cent. There is a 
Museum in the modern Kujisthau 
containing a coUectiou of antiquities, 
objects m mediwral art, majolica, 
pottery, and a snsall but choice Ooi» 
lection of Pictures : — M. Scha f ner, 
Scenes from the Birth of Christ. 
Bart. ZdtWoni, Scenes from the life 
of the Virgin } similar subject by 
MOMn^ Ids fkther-in-law. Genurd 
David, Annunciation, ** a marvel of 
polished finish " (Kugler). Several 
good works of the early Cologne 

School. Adm. 
3 to4; 40 pH 

daily, 10 to 12 and 

BOUTE 26. 

IV n> XBMT* 










8 Wangen 



. 17 

. 18 


-nssia. The Schloss contains sn|i^(8i> 

S.E. — ^The rly. winds considerably. 
At Saulgau is an interesting Gothic 
church. Waldsee lies in a pretty 
situation, between two small lakes, 
and has a late Gothic church and 
castle. Pasnng on the rt. MZtw 
Wolfegg, we reach Xisslegg. BIy. 
S.W. to TTangetk whence DiL to (3 bl) 
Hergatz (64). 

Leutkirch (2500), a manufacturing 
town. Dil. to (20 m. S.£.) Kmj^ 
(64^ Here the ily. turns due S. to 

Isny, on the Argen, at the S.E. 
extremity of Wurttemberg. The 
Protestant church of St Nicfwhs has 
a finely carved altar. Dil. to (16 m. 
£.) Kemptent and ()8 sn. £LWO MKm- 

uiyiii^uLi Uy Google 

Wtlrttemberg. B(mt$ 27. Siwlifuftio Itt^ngen. 

ROUTE 27. 





14, 15, 




11. 15, 88 


"Waililin^n . 


• 8i 


Endersbaoli . 














AaIoh • 


. 12 



Goldsh^ . 


. 1ft 






Kdrdlingen . 


65, GC 

E. — Exp. as far as Aalen. The 
Remsthal rly. turns 1. from the line to 
Ulm beyoud Cannstatt, and ascends 
in long cunres above the valley of the 
Neckar, affording beaatiftilviewi. At 
Fellbach the line begins to descend, 
and enters'the Remsthal at Waiblingen 
(3000), a very old town, whence the 
family of Hohenstaufeu derived their 
mme of Waiblinger, wbieh tiie It»- 
liiQS converted into Gliibellini. The 
church outside the town (145r,-99\ 
has a fine' tower. Beyond ^dersbach 
is a fine viaduct. In a valley to the 
vt ties BeuteUhach, with an ancient 
eh., tJiA SchnaiAf botb celebrated Ibr 
their winoi ; to the L if OroU' 

Omnbach* Fine view from the 
v^^e of Buoch, on a neighbouring 

Sohomdoif (3800), vhen is a late 
Gothic ch. with a fattMlMflM chiHr 

and portal (U77). 
Waldhaa»en is the reputed birth- 


place of the Emp. fr«decic £ac- 
barossa« ^ 

LmA» In Ihe ohnaBh of. the Ben«- 
dictiM aoMslory (1108) on the Iferi- 

enber^, many of the Hohenstaufeu lie 
buried* Opposite is a bleak hill, on 
which are some slight vestiges of the 
castle of .Waschenbeuem, the original 
seat (StemiiMute) of the Hohensduite 
family. Fine views just beyond the 
Stat, of the hill of HolieustaufeD tad 
the double-peaked iUehbi^K; . 

'^msntBiiMbM An 
ancieal iovii» beautifully situated oil 

the Rems, formerly a free Imperial 
fiuuous for its jewellery. It retains 
Its ancient Gates aud Towers, many 
timhar houses (15th centv.), and 12 
eh^nhei, lefenU of whteh ese of 
great interatt. The Xreuzkir^y 
begun in 1351 by Heinrich Arler»,one 
of a family of mediaival architects, 
natives of Gmiind, was the type of 
many SwMam diorehef, a^id of the 
Dom at Prague, built by his son. It 
has a finely carved portal and altar- 
piece. The cathedral of Milan also 
was built by Peter Arler of Gmiind 
(de Gemodu); and ibis ch. shows 
some likeness to it It consists of a 
nave of 8 bays (1410) and a choir 
of 4, terminating in an apse, and 1 1 
radiating chapels. There are 4 superb 
portals, lu the N. transept chapel is 
e wonderftil altarpieoe, a tree of 
Jesse, with many figures carved ai^ 
painted. Of secular buildings, the 
n.-Geist-Spital, and Schmalz-Hall are 
worth notice. (Schmalz is melted 
hotter, in whieh Ontlind once traded^) 
The piljsrimage Ch. of St. Salvfttttv 
on a neighbouring hill, is partly ex- 
cavated in the rock. It is in two 
stories, the lower probably of the 
10th or 11th cent., the upper ^f the 
16th; at the S.W. angle, an detain 
tower. 8t» John's, is a very interesting 
Romanesque ch., with rich tower of 
later date, S(|uare below, octagon 
above. The chancel is late Pointed. 

Omnnnis t¥M dail;r (3 hrs.) to 
(15 m. fiiy BStM/i, passing the (4 m.) 
^Bechberg, the view from ^vhose 
summit (2415 ft.) is finer than that 
from the Uoheustaufenberg. F 

uiyiii^uLi Uy Google 


MoggHiBgexi the Eotenttein (^2400 ft), 
commanfling a most extensiTe yiew, 
fliay be asoended in ^ hr. 

Aalen (6600), an old Imperial city 
at the junction of the Aal with the 
Kocher. Here oar line tima N« for 
5 m., following Rte. 12. 

WtmwiliiiflM, iritfa;<KlaMif»iM- 
fumacea, to whoM fc — d er » Fabre 
da Foar, there is a monument. A 
toothed rly. mounts the hillHside. 
Hence a steep ascent to Ctoldshofo. 

BsfHid WMtliavseii, on a lidght 
tlw ttt b the Kap/enburg, a castle 
of the Teutonic Knights. Through 
a tunnel of 700 yds. the watershed 
is crossed between the Rhine and 
Danube, and the yalley of the l^er is 

Bopfingso. The Gothic ch. of 

St. Blatiut contuns a winged picture 
by F. Herlen (1477), and a tabernacle 
of 1510. AboTe the town stands the 
mined FhMerg on tiie rt, and the 
snmmit of t the Ipf (2235 ft)<in the 
I. DU. twice daily to (10 m. S.) 
Neresheim (12). The valley of the 
Bm is trayersed to Nordlingen, 


iVmrOART TO wAy^T-^ s j WlflffKW'nUili 

lOks. SbtlioiiB. Bootes. 

SVUmiBV 11,14,15 

' 19, 27 

8 Waiblingen. . . 27 
11 Kenstadt 

14 Wfanendm 

19 Backnang • • • 10 

80 Murrhardt 

83 Fomsbach 

43 Wilhelmsgltiok 

15 Tswentbsl ... 18 
* 61 &ai 18 

J^^*° 6 considerably. — 
PifigafttiiKiiNinberg. The Bemsthal 

fieo^ I. 

line is followed as far as WaibUn^ezi, 
where the Murrthal rly. turns L, 
crossing the yallflj of tba R&m» hym 
lofty -viaduct 

Kenstadt. On the 1. are the Bstfha 
of Netistddte. A tunnel leads to 

Winnenden, whose Schloss is now a 
Inaatlc asjlnm. The yallif of <h9 
Murr li cntned bsAm rfchliig 
Backnang. — — » 

The rly. now crosses the Weissach 
and descends to the level of the 
MnnrthaL :6eyefil ehilMUix are 
passed, ana a fIfCf ia ctOMcd to 

Murrhardt, an ancient and intafwl* 

ing town, whose Stadtkirche was 
formerly attached to a Benedictine 
abbey. Against the N. tower of the 
fill, ii a testiftil Into Bjmasmqne 

chapel. The Walderichekirehe is buQl 
up of fragments taken from the ruins 
of a Roman fort, the Murrthal haying 
once formed the boundary of the 
Roman Empire in this diieetion. 

Fomsbaen, beyopd which ave two 
tunnels, and a lofty bridge over the 
Kocher. Before reaching Wilhelms- 
gMck, whose salt-mines are noticed i 
in Rte. 13, the rly. turns due N,, and 

aitlMiiubBf thil omm m te Hci 

BOUTE 29. 


Idles. Stations. BoBlea 
Keokarelz • • • -7 
18 Waibstadt 
17 Keidenstein 
it VMnsheim . • 8 

W. — The rly. winds a good deal, 
crossing the Neckar, and following 
for some distance its L bank. Three 
short tnnnds arepassed, and the Hne 

turns S.W. to Waibstadtf which has 
a late Gothic church. Here the 
Schwarzbachthal is entered, and the 
ch&teau of Niedenstein rises ou tlie i. 

uiyiii^uLi Uy Google 

( 41 ) 



Frelzmikabx Iufqbmation. 

B0ar.«H6&e<a& of Oe Chief Gbje^^ of CfurioHty in Bavaria : Boentrfft Okumk 
ArehUeAuref TchermatHM^ wii AUar-piBMi, 
















Aschaffenbnrg to Uunicli, by 
Wtlrzbarg, Ocbsenfart, Ans- 
bach, Eiohstatt, and Ingol- 


Steinaieli to BotbMLbarg-an- 

der-Tauber 85 

Aschaffenbarg to Amorbttoh 86 
Lohr to Wertheim ... 87 
Neustadt an-der-Saale to Bis- 

chofsheim 87 

WHnbnrg to Bamberg, by 
ScbweiBiiirt and Hacs&t • 
Meiuingen to Zissingen . 
Oberndorf - Schweinfurt to 

Wtebarg to fiMu, by 
VmoLbmand Bcgfiitbiinr. 

Gemilnden to Obemdorf- 

Schweinfurt 113 

Gemilnden to Hammelburg 113 
Koth to Greding .... 
Neonuurkt- an •der** Sills to 


Straubing to Neafahm « , • 
Nuremberg to Eger . 
Schnabelwaid to Bayreuth . 
Cndlaheim to Ftarib, by 

HeilBbxonn and Nuremberg • 
Weiden to Neukirchen , • 
Hof to Treuchtlingen, by 

Bamberg and Nuremberg 
Hochstadt - Marktzeuln to 

Saalfeld ...... 120 

Erhagai to QMaAerg • • 120 









58. Hofto Steben 120 

59. Miinchberg to Helmbrecbts. 120 

60. Munich to Hof, by Freising 
and Landshut 121 

61. Bayreuth to Alexandeftbad, 
hj the Fiobtelgebirgo.— Gaiw 
nage-road 122 

62. Forchheim to Pegnitz, by 
Carriaire-road. — The Fran- 
conian SwiUarland . . • 124 

63. Eger to Wiesaa • • • • 196 

64. Munich to Lindan, by Bneh* 
loe, Eampten, and unmen- 
stadt 126 

65. Pleinfeld to Buchloe, by 
Kdrdltngen and Augsburg . 128 

66. Nordlingen to DombGhl • . 133 

67. Augsburg to'Schongau . . 188 

68. Neuoffingen to Ingolstadt, by 
Donauworth and Blenheim 134 

G9. Ulm to Munich .... 135 

70. Munich to Simbach • . • 186 

71. Hof toEger, byFranzensbad 186 

72. Neuenmarkt to Weiden, by 
Bayreuth 187 

73. Kosenheim to Eisensteiu, by 
Flatting and the Sawiaa 
Forest 188 

74. Landau to Landshut . . . 188 

75. Ulm to Kempten^ by Xim- 
mingen 139 

76. Neumarkt to Pockiug . • 140 

77. Annbnrgto Regensburg. • 140 

78. Buebloe to Memmmgen • • 142 


One of the characteristics of the Bavarian is his inordinate love for beer, 
to which he seems even more addicted than the natives of other parts of 
Germany. The moment the frontier is crossed this devotion to beer becomes 
perceptible in the breweries of the*greal towni» where they m almos* ' 

uy Google 


Okie/ Objects of Chrumiy tii Bamria. 

Seoi. IL 

variably the largest and most imposing buildings, and in the number of 
ceUai*s and JUerschenhe in the environs, M hitlier the citizens resort to drink 
it. Brewing is the most flourishing trade iu liavaria it employs more than 
5€00 «8tibl&hments, and 11M1I7 96 n^Uion nllons m niftda Mkiniilljr. It 
atoo forms the largest fonroe Of tetMuM to tM Hit*, fiffniihfng^ it k ttM, 
nearly } of the whole amount 

Sketch of the Chief Objects or Curiosity in Bavaria. 

Bavaria may be described as consisting of two great undulating plains, 
nearly surrounded by mountains, sloping gradually the one from the N. and 
the other from the S. towards the valley of the Danube. The country is 
more or less fertile, geueraU^^ producing com, chiefly rye and barley, but 
often lyinjpf waste and nnealtiTated» inTariably interspersed with tofts and 
patehes of flr-treei^ looking like fragments of some great forest once con- 
tinuous. They supply the place of coal-mines in a large part of the country, 
being kept up to furnish the inhabitants with fuel. The lower levels of these 
plains^ on the banks of the Danube and Isar, are occupied by extensive 
morasses. The most fertile distrieti are fhe ehde of the Besat and Vpptt 
Dannbe, the hop-garden of Bavaria; whEe the (nrele of the Lower Danube 
and the neighbourhood of Aiisbach may be termefl a vast granary, supplying 
a much larger quantity of corn than is required for the consumption of the 

Coal of an inferior quality and bcown-coal or lignite are produced in 
Southern Bavaria. 

■ To find *romantic scener}' the traveller must repair to the south of Bavaria, 
close uhder the high wall of the Alps, which bound the land from the Lake 
of Constance (P>edensee) to the territory of Salzburg; and which, though not 
belonging to the principal chain of the Alps, yet attain, in some of their 
peaks, h hdifht of nearly 10,0Q0 iSeet The'*narrow fringe of wooded bills at 
the base of this mountainous district is intersected by verdant pistotal 
valleys, penetrating deep into the interior of the chain, terminating in snow 
and glaciers ; above all, it abounds in beautiful lakes, varying in character of 
scenery from the pleasing to the sublime. Though they are inferior, on the 
whole, to those of Switzerland, Austria, and Italy, a traveller proceeding from 
Munich eastward may explore tiielr beanties with profit and pleasure, surdng 
the' Alps, and visiting in succession the hkea of Ammer, Staffel, Stamberg 
or Wiirm, Kochen, Walchen, Tegem, Chiem (the largest in Bavaria), and 
concluding with the most beautiful of all, the Kciuigssee, on tlie borders of 
Salzburg, situated iu a narrow slip of Bavaria, almost enclosed within the 
AnStrian territory. 

FtsAer/e*.— The waters of these lakes ind mountain-streams are usually let 

to different propnetors, but permission to fish in them is easily obtained. 
The regulation observed is, that all the fish caught be transferred to the 
owner's banks, or, if kept, be paid for at so much a pound. The proprietor 
sends his own servant along with the angler, to carry his fish in a small 
tenel bf water. 

The other mountainous districts of Bavaria are not wanting in pleasing 
sceuerj', especially that of ^fuggendorf, called the Franconian Switzerland, 
famed for its bone- caves, iu the north of Bavaria, between Bamberg, Nurem- 
berg, and Baireuth ; the same may be said of the Fichtelgebirge, touching 
the frontier of Bohemia* The banks of the Main are pleasing and Ibrtile, 
•ad; Wfm WftBburg, are dothed with the vineyards prodne»g the Fran- 
conian wines of Siein and Leist» eonsidased kaSmx to those of <he 
Bhlne only. 


I Bavaria. Chief ObjecU of Curiosity in Bavaria. 43 

r In ancient churcli architecture Bavaria has much to boast of. The country 
i contains a number of very ancient and venerable cities, formerly free towns 
of the Empire, in their day of prosperity focuses of wealth, the emporia of 
commerce, and the cradles of liberty, created and fostered by the extensive 
carrying-tnide oyer4aiid ftom ItalT uid ib» Eatt, to the Baltie, and to flie 
great cities of the Netherlands. They were ruined by the civil and religious 
dissensions, and the long and bloody wars which desolated Germany in the 
I5th and 16th centuries ; by the discovery of tlie Cape, aud by the rivalry of 
the maritime powers of England and Holland, whose merchants chalked out 
a flesh tnu^ s>r eommeree, and thm mmtCM of the andent posperity of 
many of the Imperial cities of Gennany irare dried up. They still, however, 
exMbit unequivocal marks of the wealth and splendour of their merchant- 
, nobles. Kuremberg, in particular, is deserving of especial mention for its 
various monuments in almost every department of the arts. Little less 
remarkable are the episcopal cities Wiirzburg and Bamberg, once capitals of 
Ecdenastical Frincipalities, although they lutre deelmed eren moie than the 
Imperial towns. The vast acquisitions of the Romish Chnreh, exhibited in 
the number, size, and splendour of the churches and monasteries (for the 
most part suppressed by the French, but in some instances restored since), 
cannot fail of exciting surprise. Such monuments of priestly wealth and 

t[>wer axe met with hoth m Fmnoonla (on the heidera of ^Ifaln) and in 
wabia at ihe fi>ot of the Alps, near the piettylakea meottoiMd ihove ; wlieie, 
within the space of a dav's journey, no less than twelve such colonies were 
planted in the middle of a fat and fertile dittriot, called^ from its monkish 
owners, the Priests' Corner (Pfaffeawinkel). 

The lUieniaeles (Sacramentahfiatehen), for holing the consecfsted wafer, 

surmounted by a spire of stone tracery, foliage, and bower-woilc, sometimes 

50 or 60 feet high, are almost peculiar to this part of Germany, and well 
deserve attention. The finest are at Nuremberg, Ulm, Regensburg, Ochsen- 
forth, and Nordlingen. They are chiefly of the 15th century, a few of 

Of the same class of work aud age are the Altar-pieces (Rcredos), of Gothic 
carved niche-work, and pinnacles of wood or stone, enclosing statues or even 
pictures of saints and sacred subjects — very often arranged as a Triptych to 
open and shut 

The central point of attracdoiL however, to the traveller in Bavaria U the 
capital. From the beginning of the reign of King Lewis, Munich became 
the chosen seat of the fine arts ; and ranks, for architectural embellishments, 
^lleries, and coUectiouA of all kmds, public and private, among the chief 
cities of Europe. 

uiyiii^uLi Uy Google 

44 B<mte Bl.^AiAajfMiiirg t9 Mwm^ Seoi. IL 


ROUTE 37. 




. 89 

Aschaffenburg . 



. 40 


Lohr ...» 


OemiiEdeii . . 



WmtM • • 

. 46 






Wilrzburg . 7,42,45 







. 88 


Steinach • 



. 53 


Ansbaoli . . 


. 65 


Imehfiliiigva • 

. 55 


pgppenheim • 






Eichstatt . . 

. 55 


IngoUtadt, Loeal 

. 55 


Ingolittdt, Ctantna 55, 





Mimicli (>5, 00, G4, 69, 70 

S,B.--Cologiie to Monicii, Wfiw- 
barg, s&d Vienna. 

ASGHATTSHBimO (13,000), on the 
ft. bank of the Main, wai a station of 
Iho 10th and 33id Legions. On the 
rnlmi of the Boman eaatie Ibe mayors 

of the palace of the Prankish kings 
built a hunting^palace. The con- 
spicooBi red loUoii, on ft eonuiHuid* 
ing cmlnmee ftbote the river, is » 
large sqaare edifice (1605-1 4), with a 
tower at ofloh angle, 190 ft. high, 
built by the Archbishop-Electors of 
Mayencc for a summer residence. 
The town has, however* belonged to 
BftTaria rinee 1814. The Schloss 
contains a gallery of 382 pictures, 
among which is a Virgin and Child, 
by Ltica$ Cramcii, and a curious 
pamting of Chriit at the Column, by 
iShribiewald; afinelrtbrary, with MSS., 
illltlH^liations and early printed books, 
and a cabinet of 20,000^ engravings. 
The most rcTnarkable miniatures are 
a missal and prayer-book, by Glochen' 
(hon of Nnrembnrg (1524). 

The *Abbey church or Stiftikiroha^ 
cm the Badberg Hill, founded a. p. 
974, has received many additions in 
different styles. The lath-cent, 
cloisters present an early example of 
the use of the pointed arch in Ger- 
many. The nave has double aisl^ 
on the S. side, and the interior has 
been well rest on 1. In the choir 'n 
the monument of Card. Albert pf 
Brandenben, eoosislliig of hronxe w 
liefs, the Caxdinars effigjr and the 
Virgin in glory, cx(*cuted in 152 5, by 
Peter Vischer, under a later canopy. 
That of Duke Otto of Bavaiia (1574), 
and a bronze monument 1^ SMkf 
are also remarkable. The three •fins 
paintings of the Resurrection, S.Valen- 
tinian, and a Pietli, bjr Griineicald, 
formed part of an altar-piece of which 
several panels are now at Munich. 

In the secularized Abbey aiiUoimiig 
the eh. is an interesting oollection « 
Boman prehistoric and inediaBfll 
aatlqiuUes, Tisible on application* 

Digitized by Google 

Boute37» — Ww-zburg: Cathedral 


Hie ehnrch of *S. Agattt betireok 

tlie Stat, and the Schloss, is a good 
trans ition building of 1115, with 
ixuriTei ous ancient tomb-stoues. 

5 iiilu. W. of this point, beyond the 
Park or SehUm'^jhirten, is ilia ^Pom- 
ylannm, a copy of tho home of 
Castor and Pollux at Pompeii, "with 
similar decorations, built in 1842 for 
>wixig Lewis of Bavaria, under the 
^UrecUon of the arehiteet QQrinw, It 
stands near the river, and comtmtiiilw 
a fine view of the old bridge. 

J hr. E. of the town is a pretty 
wood called the Fa^aaerie. 2 m. W., 
beyond the bridge, on the L bank of 
tlte Main, is tlie royal Tilla, park> and 
orangery of SohSne Buseh. 

Beyond AschaffenbnrGr the rly. soon 
enters roclc-cuttinLjs m the new red 
sandstone, gradually ascending among 
wooded hilli, crossea Qie l4»ifich,'and 
tin c ads a tnnael to 

Heigenbrflcken. Thence it de- 
scends by a clear trout stream to 
Partensteuif and follows the pretty 
X^hrthal into the valley of the Blain 
at Lolir (8700), a flourishing town on 
tlie rt. bank of the Main, with some 
trade in paper, iron, and h oat-build- 
ing. It has two rly. stations^ rather 
more than a mile apart, 

Gailatadt, a Tory pictazesqne town, 
ta&d to have been bnilt liy Charle- 
magne, has old Tvalls and towers, an 1 
the ruins of the Carlsburg, an ancient 
fortihcation of the former bishops ot 
Wfinbnrg, on whose firontier it stood* 
It is the birthplace of the fefoimer 
Bodenstein, known under the name of 
• Carlstadt, who died in 1543. 

Veitshbchheim has a royal chateau 
in a park. Further on, to the L, is 
the Steinbergs covered with vine- 
yards, which produce the Stein wine. 
Opposite lies Oherzell, forrncrly a 
» monastery of the Premoustrants, now 
a machine and engine fieuitory. 

WttefiintO (560 ft.X with 56,000 

Inhab., of whom 9000 are Protestant, is 
a clean and cheerful city, beautifully 
situated on the Main, whose hilly 
banks are covered with vines. It 
wai for move than looo years the 
cafitsl of an ecclesiatticBl yonaipaH^t 

rolfld b:^ a line of 82 bishopa» wlio 

were prince of the Empire, and hy 

their power and wealth exeroipod 

ffreat influence in Germany. This ^vill 
account Jtor the uumbtjr of chuiches 

in the tows, all of which, howaver* 

are either incomplete or have been 
injured by modern nltcrntions. The 
narrow streets, ovei haniiing houses, 
and pointed gabies^ mark the antiquity 
of the town, which contains mangr 
pletmiqao and handsooM bmldings. 

A stone bridge (1476-1607) con- 
nects the city with the suburb Msun- 
viertel ; it is ornamented with statosa 
of saints. 

A wide Street, eiOled theDomstnMe^ 
ruBi S. tcom tfat bridge to tho 

Cathedral (I>oi»), founded in St 2 on 
the spot where St. KUian suiicred 
martyrdom} he was^ an Irish mia* 
sionary, who came hither to preach 
Christianity, and is regarded as the 
apostle of Francouia. The present 
edifice^ distinguished by its four 
towers, was rebuilt between 1189 and 
1230, the two E. towers being of the 
latter date. One of these towers is 
built in alternate courses of red and 
white stone, but the other is entirely 
of white stone ; both of the western 
towers are striped* 

The small dome-eappei chapel ad« 
Joining the north transept was erected 
by Bishop Schonborn, who died in 
1721, and is buried here. The 
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was 
married in this'chnrcb. The Interior, 
modernised since 1700 and covefod 
with stucco figures and ornament^ 
with tarnished gilding, and worthless 
pictures, contains ii lung series of 
vwmmmii9 of the prelates of Wttrs- 
burg. Their marble efligies, in high 
relief, planted upright against the 
walls and piers, each bearing the 
sword of temporal rule in the right 
hand, and the crosier in the left^MO 
curious in the history of art and of 
religion. The finest are those by 
Eiemenschneiderj at the 6th and 7th 
pillars rt. Of tlie various brasses in 
the 1. aisle, the best is one of 1522 at 
the 9th pillar. To the 1. of the W. 
door ia a bnmae /oat (1270> with * 

.u cy Google 

4$ JEUe. 37.-^Wmnlmrg: Marieuka^pelk ; Faiaee. Seek IL 

UtA repfesentine erentf in the lift of 
oar BilviiMr. llie cloister! «i the 8. 

fide present one of the few examples 
of purely Perpendicular trncery to bo 
found out of England, and are further 
remarkable for their pecaliar vaulting, 
the HBgmmk forming the wfai fib. 

On the N. side of the Dom stands 
the Neumiiiiiter Church (1000), in 
the Romanesque crj pt of which — the 
ronnant of a much earlier building 
(854)— is the pimin sarcophagus toem 
of St. Kilian. The Sl pofftlea of the 
bailding, and the Tery elegant octa- 
gonal tower, are probably not earlier 
than the I3lh cent. The W. portion 
of the church is covered by a vast 
oetmooal dine nd kiiltni, completed 
in 1731. Ootdde, at the E. end of 
the church, a monument was erected 
(1843) to Walther vou der Vogelweide 
(d. 1230), the most popular of the 
Minnesingers, who WM uevied In tilie 
cMflten. He left a sum of monej to 
bvf com to feed the birds at his tomb 
every day at noon ; a vase was placed 
on the top for that purpose; the Ger- 
man epitaph, by King .Lewis I., and 
tl»» ifjiief refcrlo ihle $ hat the numey 
hei been loo^ rinee epplM by the 
chapter to their own use. On the N. 
side of the church are some remark- 
able cloisters. 

N. of the DomBtmie Is Hm Market- 
pbiee^ a very gaj a&d anhnated aoene 
oa a market morning ; on the N. 
side of it stands the *Marienkapelle, 
the finest church in Wiirzburg, an 
elegant pointed Gothic building (1377- 
1479), with a lower of red atone in 
tiie same etjle. It has tall lancet 
windows, sculpture over the portals, 
and statues attached to the piers 
within. It was built on the site of a 
Jewish synagogue, destroyed in 1348, 
irlMen the Jews were barnt, with their 
wHet and ehildreo, in their liooaee, 
by the zealous Christians. 

S.W. of the market-place is the 
Bathhaos, the oldest part of which 
(1456) faces the Domstnm. 

About i m, N.E., on the way to 
the Rly. Stat., stands the Julius- 
Spital, a magnificent asylum for poor, 
infirm, and sick, and at the same 
time a school of medicine ; it is named 

alter Bishop JoHoi Echter Ton Mes- 
pelbram^ who tended it in 1571. 
It has a range of 62 windows in front, 

and contains 28 wards, each with 12 
beds: the whole establishment is re- 
markable for its cleanliness. Passing 
mder Hie ardnrajrt owr nhMk ia m 
relief re|irmentlng' the ftmnding of the 
hospital, you enter a spacious quad- 
rangle with fountains, a handsome 
building in the Italian style. Beyond 
this Is a pretty garden. In the planted 
Graben, or Untere Pnmmtade, m ftoot 
of the hosjpital, the late king of Bavaria 
erected, m 1847, a bronze statoe hy 
Schwanihaler to the founder. 

Further E. is a large domed church 
in the Itslian st3;le (1671), called 
Stift Haug, The interior is entixely 
covered with tarnished g^ding^ bttt 
pictures, and whitewash. 

E. of the cathedral is the *Royal 
Palace, situated in a square flanked by 
two tall pillars ; it was eveeted bjr two 
bishops of the family of the Counts of 
Schonbom in 1 7*20-40, and was formerly 
the episcopal residence (Adm. daily, 
8 to 5). Its architect was a Grerman, 
John Balt*r Neamann, and Ihw rejal 
palaces surpass its now Mad w^Hat' 
dour. The staircase is very stately 
and original in its design. The 
284 apartments contained in the 
buildixug, including the suite occupied 
hf the Emp er o r s of Genna^ on mar 
way to the eoronation at Frankfurt, 
are chiefly remarkable for the fine 
Gobelin tapestry and mirrors. The 
Cluipel, well worth seeing, is a very 
rieh speehnen of internal deeot ation^ 
in the taste of the time of Lodis XTF. 
The whole edifice, not undeserving 
of the title of a German Versailles, is a 
remarkable evidence of the unbounded 
wealth of the ecclesiastical princes of 
the empire, nearly to the end of fkt 
last oentmy, wben it was swept away 
in the changes which followed the 
French Revolution. The Oardens 
attached to it are a very agreeable 
walk, and the ^tes leading into 
them are fine specimens of iron-work. 
Beneath one of the wings of the 
building are the fine vaulted stone 
cellars, in which the wine from the 
royal vineyards is stored. One of 



•Route 37, — Marienberg — Ambach, 


tlie tons Is capable of holding 10,000 
gallons, and dates from 1784. 

From tho S.W. cornor of the Hof- 
^arten a broad street leads to the 
Utiiversity, founded by Bishop Julius 
in 1592: it enjoys some eelebritj as a 
school of medicine, and has a Library 
of 200,000 vols. The adjoining Ncu- 
baukirche dates from 1591, and the 
Protestant Church of St. Stephen, to 
tfa» S.B., from 17B9. 

The onoe numerous monastic esta- 
blishments ofWurzbur^ are diminished 
to fire ; amon n: those that remain is an 
Vrsuline Niui nt n/, 

The fortress ot Marienberg, 425 fU 
abere river, tras the stronghold 
and orfginal resfdenoe of Hie Mshops, 
and is supposed to occupy the site of 
one of the 50 Roman castles built by 
Drasns in Germany. It consists of a 
tan doirioii and eerei^ other veHee ef^ 
a l^dal edifice, aasoeialed iritli more 
recent coustnictions. 

The *view hence is fine. The town 
with its towers and steeples is backtfd 
by the hill producing the celebrated 
Stein wine, and the Main, winding 
through the landscape, adds a charm 
to the vie^. The fi&n\s of tjie hill of 
the citadel, also clad with vineyards, 
the property of the king, fuinish the 
other pnncipal Franoonian wine, called 
Leisten. The best sort grows OB the 
Nioolanslicrg (or Kappele), a ncig-h- 
bouring hill, with a white pilgrimage 
cka^ on its summit, to which a line 
of stations leads. Tbe vknr ftom 
8t Kieholas is qnifte as fine as that 
from the citadel. 

Stein wine is sold in squat flasks, 
called " bocks beuteln/' but the price 
in London is considerably less than 
that wMeh tike gencdne eonunands on 
the spot, and Hie greater ponfon liere 
schl merely one of the eomBUmer 
Palatinate growths. 

Close under the hill of the Citadel, 
between it and Uie riirer, stands the 
church of St. Buldiaid, a very ancient 
building, with nave and towers in the 
round style, but modernized within. 

The city ceased to be n fortress in 
1S66, and the glacis has been laid out 

as a PnbUe Promenade. 
Theie Is a clttli Ihnislied irithl 

newspapers, called HarmonU {oloie to 
the cathedral), and a Theatre, 

Leaving Wiirzburg, the Bavaria 
and Baden rly. follow the -same rails 

as far as 

Hefdlngsfrid, where there afe two 

stations, ^ m. apart. The church 
contains a fine late Gothic pulpit. 
Here the Main is crossed, and our rly, 
ascends its 1. bank towards the S.E. 

Mtientet (2200) has a large 14tb« 
cent, church with a triple apse, Ottttl* 
gonal piers, lofty windows with some 
good tracery, and a tall Romanesque 
tower. At tiie E. end of the N, aisle 
is a magnificent Tahernaele for the 
Sacrament, of tfto&e, (SO ft. Irigh* The 
carved stalls, chandeliers with statu* 
ettes, and n hroM'/.e font Avith Gothic 
tracery and reliefs, are worth notice. 
The Chapel, in the churchyard, lias a 
iSeh portal. 

AtlMarMrgH the rly. quits tho 
Main, whicli bends abruptly N. Bttrg- 
bemheim Ikis an old castle. About a 
mile S.W. lie the mineral springs of 

AirSBAOH (1 5,000), formerly capital 
of the Max^pearnate of the same name, 
is prettily situated on the Rezat. The 

Srincipal buildiiig is the deserted 
VildOff, which eniibits nothing bat 
the poverty of the areliitect's inven- 
tion, built in 1713, as n residence for 
the Margraves of Ansbach, who were 
scions of a younger branch of the 
ftmily of HohenzoUem. The last of 
the line sold his dominions to PMsIa 
in 1791, married Lady Craven, retired 
into private life, and died in 1805 
at Brandenburg House near London. 
The principality was made over to 
Banma in 1605. In ISront of the 
place is a brome statue by Ilalhig, of 
the poet A. von PlateTi (isn,'). The 
late Gothic Church of St. Gumbert, 
with three towers, has been mostly 
rebuilt. The elfcAr, -with 9 pointed 
w indows , some painted glass, and 12 
monuments of knights of the Order of 
the Swan (founded in 1443), is worth 
notice. It contains some paintings 
by Wohlgemuth, The crypt of the 
Johanniskirche, in the Obere Havir* 
ccaHliiisllie gilt and d eaet ift ed 



Boute S7,r^mmAim§m—Eieh$iaU. Sect. JX 

of the Margraves of Ausbach. Some 
bear the Margraves' arms, of inauy 
quarterings, emXAt^umd tmumg tam 
of Scripture. In ilM JohamimrMof 
is the grave of Casper ITa user, bear- 
ing the inscription, "iEuigma sui tcm- 
poris : ignota nativitas, occulta mors, 
1833:" and in the Palace Oaxdens, 
wUdk fytm an agNMUe pconMiiade, 
is an oetagonal cippvi, beating this 
inscription — ** Hie occultus occulto 
occisus est 14 Dec. 183:3," — which 
marks the scene of his mysterious 

At Gnnienhansen the rly. crosses 

the Altmiihl, an important tributary 
of the Daaabe, and descends its rt. 

gappenheinii on the Altmiihl, once 
Ibe seal of a ibmilj of eopnts, who 

possessed the rank of hereditary mar- 
shals of the Empire, fell to Bavaria 
in 1806. The old castle, rising above 
the picturesque town, is conspicuous 
te m tower, 100 ft high, said ta be 
Boman, and commanding fine views. 
Count Pappenheim lives in the 
modem SchloBs in the town, built by 
Klente in 1 822. The Lieb/rauenkirch^ 
contains some good carvings and atallt 
of 1496. 

On tbo high table>land near Pap- 
penheim is the Fossa Carolina, or 
remains of the canal by which Charle- 
magne, in 792, attempted to unite the 
Rhine and the Danube, through the 
Aif—ttfci tod Seaat. whiab have their 
sources here. 

Solnhofen, on the rt. bank of the 
Altmiihl, is remarkable for its quarries, 
wbieb supply Enio^, and indeed tlie 
whole world, witlilitbograpbie stones. 
It is also used for roofing and paving ; 
and the working of it employs upwards 
of 3000 hands. It is a dull yellow 
limestone, occurring in slaty beds and 
tiiinsUibii easily separated. ItsfiMsils 
are so amerous tnat it may be re- 
garded as a perfect museum of organic 
remains. Fish, plants, insects, and 
crabs, occur in abundance, intermixed 
with the bones of no l«« tbaa 7 
^tinot species of the pterodaotyl, 
or flying lizard, whose varied organs 
fitted it alike for earth, aiv or water. 

V. long tunnel leads to DoUnsteiny 

with old walls. Belowlt, on the 1. bank 
of the ^Utmiihl, stands the Burgsttiin, 
At BiAftitt Janot Ststcania^ sunt 
ebaaged for (8 m. N«) 

EICHSTATT (7500), picturesquelj 
placed in the deep valley of the 
AltmtthL It is tbo cbief town of a 
small pfineipality of GeniL aq. Bk, 

with a population of 24,000, sund a 
revenue of 120,000 fl., and was be- 
stowed ill the year 1817 on Eugene 
Beauharuais, Duke of Leuchtcnber£. 
It &IX to Bavaria in 1816, aiA 
IB a bishop's see. The CatMbmL 
commenced in 1259, with nave oJ 
1365 and late Gothic choir, is an 
interesting edifice, and contains the 
shrine and statM of Wilibald, to 
whom the cb* is dedicated, and some 
fine painted glass. The cloister is 
remarkable for its diagonal alternate 
vaulting, an uncommon feature, of 
which the best English examule is 
in the roof of tba eboir of LuiooIb 
Cathedral. la tbe Cbnreb Of WL 
Walpuigis are preserved the remains 
of that saint, who is said to have been 
a native of Britain. On St. Walpur^is' 
Day (May 1) many tbowand pilgrmas 
repair to his shnne. On a height 
overlooking the town is the castle of 
Wilibaldshorg, once the residence of 
the saint, and of his successors the 
bishop-princes, whose rich revenues 
were chiefly derived fron tbelr bop* 
grounds. A wooded and billj tEMt 
of country is now traversed to 

Ingolstadt (local Stat.), a strongly 
fortified town, whose defences have 
lately been eztoiided (17»000) by the 
construction of detaclMd Forts on the 
Danube, with armour-plated towers 
between them. Its old fortifications 
had withstood sieges from the troops 
of the League of Schmalkalden, from 
Gnstayns Adolpbns CI8S8X who be- 
sieged the town when Tilly was lyui£ 
within it mortally wounded, and 
Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, and 
resisted Moreau (1800) for 3 months } 
but be, soeeeedinff at length, cansad 
them to be demolished. Ingolstadt 
lost its University (at which Dr. 
Faustus studied) in 1800 ; it is now 
transferred to Munich. This was 



the first place in Germany where the 
Jesuits were allowed openly to esta- 
blish tbemselTes, and appear in the 
character of public teacliers. Loyola 
call* d it alFectiouately "his little Beu- 
jamiu.'* Tilly died here in 1G32, of 
the wound he received at Kaiu (see 

The Ckunkof Our Lady (l489)eon- 
tains monuments of Dr. Eck, one of 
Luther's opponents ; of Tilly (buried 
at Alt-Oetting), the antagonist of the 

great Gustav us ; and of Marshal Mercy, 
le Bavarian general, opposed to 
Cond^ and Turennet who fell at 
AUersheim in 1645. 

Skirting the glacis, and crossing 
the Danube ou au iron bridge, the 

fi^fdatadt Central Stat, 2 m. Drom 
the town. An uninteresting tract of 
country is now traversed S. to 

Aiiach, where the \V urm is crossed, 
and the royal part of Nymphenburg 
la ekirled on uie 1., the riy. Joining 
tiie Augsburg line, and taming 
abruptly to reach 

MmnoK (1705 ft.), on the banks 
of the rirer Isar, in the midst of a 

plain neither fertile nor picturesque. 
Its climate is variable, and its elevated 
position renders it chilly towards 
evening \ the dust is often intolerable, 
bat the €itf is by no means on- 
healthy ; and on the score of its archi- 
tectural and art collections it is one of 
the most charming places of residence 
on the Contiueut. Its population 
amounts to 262,000 (20,000 Pro- 
testants). tXvmg is cheap in Maaich, 
and the place o&ra great advantages 

for education. 

The annals of the city are singu- 
larly uniuteresting. It owes its origin 
to some warehouses erected on the 
spot for the reception of the salt 
brought from the mines of Reichenhali 
and Salzburg, and its name to the 
Monies (Miiuche) who owned them. 
Henry the Lion erected a wooden 
bridge over the Isar in 1158, bat it 
first became the residence of the 
Bavarian Duke Lewis in 1255. Mu- 
nich, in the last century, was an 
ordmary fiecond-rate German capital. 

disTiitpiiished neither for its situation 
nor architecture, but merely as being 
the residence of an Elector. It was 
surrounded br walls and a ditch (re- 
moved and filled up in 1791), and 
entered by castellated gates, several of 
which have been preserved. The 
hoases were built in the quaint pic- 
turesque style adopted also at Aags> 
burjg: irregular in sixe and form; 
their front-?, crowded with windows, 
ornamented either with Ptncco patterns 
and scroll-work, or with rude fresco 
paintings. They have often a lantern* 
like projection or oriel window at the 
comer, and are surmounted by high 
roofs perforated with 3 or 4 tiers ot 
small wiudows, giving that part of 
the house the appearance of the hall 
of a three*deeker with the ports open. 
The great riar]<et-place (Marienplatz) 
and neighbouring streets of the old 
town preserve the character of ancient 
Munich, which, however, is rapidly 
disappearing before the advance of 
modern improvements. 

Since the beginning of the present 
century new quarters and suburbs 
have been formed beyoud the linp of 
Its former walls, Its populatioa has 
doubled, and a nnmber of fine baild* 
ings have risen up on all side?. Its 
increase has been so rapid that it 
already stretches over au extent of 
grooad more Aan treble that of the 
old town, which Ibnna the centre or 

Mnnich owes its present prominent 
position, as the seat of tht^ fiik^ arts, 
mainly to the late monarch Ludwig I. 
(d. 1868> Himself a poet, he made 
the study of art his favoarite pni^ 
suit ; and even while Crown Prince 
had formed a first-rate gallery of 
sculpture (the Glyptothek>and a valu- 
able cabinet of paintings. The im- 
provements in the town, including the 
erection of a vast number of splendid 
edifices, museums, churches, &c., 
were planned and executed under his 
auspices, chiefly by the eminent archi- 
tect Klenae. The' example set by 
Ludwij^ was followed by his son, 
Maximilian II. (d. 18G4), who opened 
u^ ^the wide and handsome Maxi- 
milianstrssse. Most of the buildings, 

Ly Google 


BoMld Vl.—Mmkk : OkMrekm. Beat. TL 

from their uniformity of surface aud 
want of projections, are deiicient in 
pietiireiqne efifeet There is little 
originality, and Munich is full of 
imitations. The moulded brickwork 
employed in several of the buildings 
deserves praise. The Konigsbaa is au 
enfeebled copy of the Pitd Pttlaee at 
Floienee, ibr the masuve grandeur of 
the latter if its flpat merit ; the Hall 
of the Marshals is a repetition of the 
Loggia de* Lanzi; the Siegesthor is 
the Axch. of Constantine ; the Church 
of St Bonifiue is imitated from St 
Paul's, without the fraUs, a^ Borne. 
The late king's patronage yas not, 
however, confined to architecture; 
since no sooner was the plan of a new 
building decided on than work was 
chalked out for the painter and sculp- 
tor in furnishing decorations for the 
exterior and interior. Tlie arts of 
painting in fresco, in encaustic^ and 
upon glass, were revived and executed 
with great spirit and the best inten- 
tions, but the real secret of the ancient 
art of fresco painting had still to be 
sought for, and many remarkable 
designs of undoubted artistic merit 
are orumbling away from the attacks 
of frost and rain. From the Marien- 
platz, the central point of the city, 
four streets crossing divide it into 
the Graggenau, Kreu2, Uacken, and 
Anger quarters. The suburbs on the 
left bank of the Isar are : E. and S., 
St Anna, and the Isar ; N. and W., 
Schonfeld, Maximilian, and Ludwig. 
On the right bank of the Isar: Au, 
Haidhausen, and Giesing. 

Tbe following route embraces the 
principal objects of interest in the 
city: — From the rly. stat. or Karls- 
platz, E., throiigli the Ncuhuuser- 
strasse ; on 1. i:>t. Michael's Ch. and 
the Frauen Ch. to the Marienplatz, 
with Bathham and fountain: down 
the Thai, through the Isarthor and 
over the Ludwig Bridge to St. Maria- 
hilf Ch. Thence N. to the Maximi- 
Itaneum, and W. across the Isar and 
down ihe Mazimilianstrasse, on the 
right the Government Buildings, to 
the Max-Josephs-Platz, with the 
Hoftheater and the Palace; N. up 
the Residenzstrasse, on 1. the IIull of 

the Marshals. N.E. throngh the IIo/' 
garten to the EtudisJi Garden, as far 
as the Pagoda. W. to the eHegetik^t^ 

and S. down the Ludwintrasse, on rt 

the J^iiversity, 1. St. Letch Ch., rti 
the Hlind Asylum and Indies' College, 
1. the Library, N.W. up the There- 
sienstrasse, en rt the J^eie, and on L 
the Old Pinaeaihat. Passing the 
Polytechuic School S, by the Louisen- 
strasse to the Glyptvthehy the Propy- 
laium, tlie Basilica of St. Boniface, 
and the Botuiic Garden to the KIt. 

The following are suggestions for 

an afternoon's drive. — 1st Drive. 
About the town, along Ludwigstrasse 
to Siegesthor by the two Pinacotheks 
to Glyptothek, Badlioa, round tike 
Theresienwiese to the Bavaria CSolos- 
sus, back by Stndlinger Thor and 
Marienplatz. 2nd Drive. Cross Maxi- 
milian Bridge to Aukirche, return by 
Haidhausen Ch. along the Uaxi- 
milians-Anlagen, in view of the town 
and river, home by English GhucdoL 
3rd Drive. Through Kaufingergasse 
to Neuer Friedhof (cemetery^ to Isar- 
Auen, green meadows and shady 
plantadmiSy by the side of the tiver 
and its tributaries beyond the liy. 
bridge; letnm by Isarthor. 

Churches. — The Frauenkirche or 
Cathedral (E. 3) is a vast pile, entirely 
of brick, erected in 1488, res to red in 

18G2; it is distinguished by its two 
dome-capped towers, 357 ft. high, 
which is also the length of the church. 
The aisles are of the same height as 
the nave (109 ft), supported octa> 
gonal pillaiS without capitals. The 
style is heavy and quite destitute of 
ornament. The buttresses stand 
witliin the church, and form side 
chapels. The windows, 66 ft. high, 
nearly all contain coloured glass of 
the 1 5th and 16th centuries. In fi^nt 
of the hip:!! altar is the imposing 
^Monument oj the Kmp< ror Leicis the 
Bavarian (1347), raised to his memory 
by the Elector Maximilian I. in 16St. 
It is supported on each side by the 
figures of two Bavarian dukes, Albert 
and William V., and at the angles by 
kneeling knights, all in bronze, and 


Boute 37. — Munich : Churches, 


as large as life. It yras designed by 
the painter Peter de Witte (Candido), 
and executed by J, Krumper. The 
crypt below the monument is open to 
«he mblie ca All Saints' Day. On 
tiie & ^de is the tomb of a blind 
organist (b. 1473), remarkable for the 
musical instruments depicted upon it. 
The monument to Lothar Auselm 
<1846), l8t archbishop of Muiieh, 
near the W. entrance under the organ- 
loft, is by Sclncanthah'r. The high 
altar (1861) has paintings by Moritz 
V, Schwind, and some fine wood- 
earvings by KnM, The Turkish 
standaid snapended ftom the pillar 
opposite the finely canred modern 
pulpit was taken at Weissenburg by 
Max Emanuel in IGSS. Munich is 
the seat of an archbishop, conjointly 
with FNiaing. 

St. Mlchaers (1683), the Court 
Church (D. 3), is an edifice in the 
later Italian style, remarkable for its 
spacious interior, unsupported by 
pillars. Its length, exelnnve of tho 
choir, is 269 ft.; its width is 81 ft 
The fa^de is adorned with statues of 
our Saviour, of several emperors and 
princes of Germany, and l>etween the 
doors with one in bronze of St. 
Uidiael, designed by P. de Witte 
<Candido). In the transept is ^Thor- 
tcaldsen's marble Monument of Eugene 
Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchteuberg 
(d. 1824), erected by his wife, sister 
of the &g of Bavaria. It oonrists 
of a whole-length statoe of the duke, 
standing in front of the closed door of 
the tomb, divested of all earthly de- 
coration : his crown and arms lie at 
liis feet Military mass is performed 
every Sunday at 9. The oompositions 
of Palestrina, Lotti, Lasso, Perpolesi, 
and other old masters, are admirably 
performed at Easter. On Good Fri- 
day evening the Stahat Mater of Per- 
iled is usually song on the illomin»- 
tion of the Cross. 

8t Peter, S. of the Maricnplatz 
(E. 4), is the oldest church in Munich 
(117o\ but has been repeatedly re- 
ttond* Its Bomanesque tower com* 
mands an extensive view (40 pf.). 

♦The Church of St. Lewis (F. 1), 
boilt at a cost of 78,128^., was de- 

signed by Prof. Gartner, in a style of 
Italian Komanesqiie (1829-44). The 
height of its two towers is 234 ft., the 
length of the nave 237 ft. It is con- 
stroeled of briek, with a lh(ade of 
limestone, 104 ft. high. In a xow of 
niches above the porch are statues of 
Christ and the four Evangelists, by 
SchioaiUhaler I over these is a fine 
<^renlar window j and colossal figures 
of St. Peter and&. Paul, by the same 
sculptor, decorate the ends of the 
gable. The walls and vaulting of the 
choir and transepts are covered with 
frescoes designed by Comdiua, and 
painted by his pupils, with tiie €X0^ 
tion of that of the Last Jnd|[ment» on 
the E. wall of the choir, which is en- 
tirely his own work. The composi- 
tions have a triple division : those on 
the walls of um choir and transepts 
relate to Clhiist ; the operations of tne 
Holy Spirit are represented on the 
vaulting of the transepts; God the 
Father is depicted on the ceiling of 
the dhcnr above tbe Ugh altar. 

Tbe drawing of the Last Judgment 
was made at Kome, and owes some- 
thing certainly to the great work of 
Michel Angelo. Among those whom 
the angels are bearing up to heaven 
are Dante and Fra Bsato^ as the poet 
and painter who have most success- 
fully depicted the regions which lie 
beyond " the bounds of place and 
time." The partial artist has placed 
his royal patron among the deet 
The figure of Christ, though nearly 
12 ft. high, is scarcely important 
enough : the attention is too strongly 
drawn to the lower part of the picture. 
St. Michael is a fine conception. 
Satan is of monstrous proportion. All 
kinds of decoration, painted sculpture 
and glass, &c. &c., have been lavished 
on the inti rior of this church, yet the 
general eiicct is not pleasing. 

The Ohueh of thellMatiaea QB. 8X 
dedicated to St. Cajetan, founder of 
the order, surmounted by a dome, and 
internally coated with stucco-work to 
exuberance, was restored in 1656. 
Beneath it are the burial fauHs of the 
Wittelsbach Royal Family, where the 
remains of the late King Maximilia' 
II. were deposited, March loth, 18' 

£ 2 

uy Google 


Btrnte 37. — Munich ; ChurckeB ; 

The ChnrelL was Mit in 1675; the 

ft9ade was added in 1767. One of 
the N. side altars has a Deposition by 


The ♦Chapel of Ail Saints (Ailer- 
hetUgen Hofkirehe, R 3), by Leo Tcm 
SUenie (1826-1837), is io the style of 
a Byzantine chu roll of the 11th cen- 
tury, but without an exterior dome. 
The carvjngs of the doorway Mid cir- 
cular window by Prof. Sfmhard are 
well executed. The interior, entirely 
painted in fresco, on a ^old ground, 
by Se$9 anrl his pnpils, is deser^'nicr 
or minute attention. The roof is sup- 
ported by pillars of red. Salzburg 
marble, havi ug gilt capitals. The eost 
of the internal decorations exceeded 
40,000 fl. The subjects on the walls 
and \;uilting illustrate the Old Testa- 
ment, and, as its centre, God the 
Fadier i the Naw Testament, and, as 
its eenife, God (he Son, and con- 
tinued -working of revelation in the 
Church, referring to God the Holy 
Ghost. On either side of the symbo- 
Heal dore are the seven gifts of the 
Spirit and the fonr Fathers of the 
Church. Above the altar, the seven 
sacraments are symlwlically repre- 
sented. Over the organ-gallery is a 
fresco, representing the conuection 
between the Ghnieh and the fine arts. 
Fina musiod serrioes are well per- 
formed here every Snnday at 11 a.m. 
Entrance from tlic Fountain Coni-t of 
the palace. In iikistet week are given 
seieetions frcm FaXmMna, 

The **BasiUoa of St. Bonifaolns 
(C. 2) was founded in 1835, by King 
Lewis, in commemoration of his Silver 
Wedding, and finibhcd in 1850. He 
(d. 1868>and his queen (d. 1854^ are 
buried beneath a sarcophagus in a 
chapel on the rt. of the entrance. It 
was built by Ziebland, in imitation of 
a Roman basilica of the 5th and Gih 
centuries. It is of red brick, except 
the portico of 8 romd aiehes lestioff 
on columns ; the interior is sopported 
by 64 beautiful monolithic colnmns 
of grey Tyrolese marble, each 20 ft. 
long, with carved capitals of white 
marble. It is ^Mded bj them into a 
nave, 76 ft. high and 50 wide, and 4 
Ues. Its length is 384 II., and its 

width 118 ft The _ 
marble ; the roof of wood 
blue, with gold stars, the beams being 
carved and gilt. The Frescoes which 
decorate the interior were dc si rued 
and painted by Bern and bis pupils. 
In the tribune behind the high altar 
is rhrist in glory, with t?i(' Viigin 
and the Uapti«=t, tmd under them the 
hrst saints and niartv-rs of Bavaria; 
in the spandrds are the Ibor Brange- 
lists: all by Hewr^ Bess. In the 
nave are 3G frescoes, by Siestas ' 
scholars; they form the npper series^, 
between the round-headed windows, 
and represent events in the lives of the 
saints and martyrs who were inaim- 
mental in establishing Christiani^ hi 
G<'rmnny, from the middle of the 8rd 
to the Liid of tlie 9th centy. 

The lower series, devoted to the his- 
tory of 81. Boniftee, eonslata of is 
large eomporitions, with small mono- 
chrome compaitments between thorn, 
by HesH, Schr<in(h>lph, 3IiiUer, and 
Koch. Cue of them, by Hess, show^ 
the departure of the safait fram the 
monastery of Nuseella (KeCley), ia 
Hampshire, on his way to Rome^to be 
consecrated apostle of the Germans* 
At the end of the 1. aisle, to the Virgin 
enthroned with angels, and tixe patron 
saints of the ehlldren of King Lewis; 
Hess. Corresponding with this, on 
the other side, is the Stoning of St. 
Steplien, the protomartyr ; Miiller. In 
the spandrels of the arches, over the 
e<riinmns, are medallion pcvliaits ef 
the last 9i popes, beginning with 
Julius ITT. (1550), and ending with 
Grecor}' XVI. (1831). In order not 
to break the space of the nave, the 
pulpit is pushed back on rails into the 
aisles. Beneath the ehnveh Ss a crypt 
for . the burial of the Benedieone 
monks, 24 of whom occupy the 
monastery. In the refectory is a large 
fresco of the Last Supper, by Eess, 

The •Clhmh ef hi tiie 

snbnrb An (F. 6), is a handsome build- 
ing of brick in the German pointed 
style of the 14th century, erected by 
Ohhniiiier in 1830-39. Its length is 
222 ft, breadth 78 It, hdght 80 ft. 
The height of the Sandstone spire is 
Si56 ft. The slatttes of the Viigia 

Bavaria. Boute 37. — Uoyal Palace; Old Palace. 

over the principal portal and of the 
Evangelists over the side portals are 
by Sakimnthaler. Tlie *iargti ■H iiidows 
of painted glass, the gift of King 
Lewis I«y Wire designed by modern 
painters^ and executed under the 
direction of Hess in the china manu- 
factory at Munich, in co-operation 
with the artist Jcrauk of Heaedikt- 
beaem, who eneeeeded in bringing 
back this art to a high degree of per- 
fection. Beginning on tlie 1. side: 1. 
The Annunciation to Joachim that he 
vriW have a child by Anna when he 
returns home. 2. Hetum of Joachim. 
8. Birth of the Virgin. 4. First visit 
of the Virgin to the Tim pie. & £s- 
ponsal of Joseph and the Virgin. 6. 
Annunciation. 7. Visitation. 8. Birth 
of Christ. 9. Death of the Virgin. 
In the central window is the Bnrial 
and Assumption of the Virgin. On 
the rt. : 1. The Adoration of the Magi. 
2. Presentation in the Temple. 3. 
Flight into Eg^pt. 4. Christ in the 
Temple. 5. wiriage of Oaaa. 6. 
Depiatare ef Clicist from His Blother 


before the Graoifizion. 7. Christ 
bearing the Cross. 8. Crucifixion. 
9. Entornhiiient The U Stall on?? 
carved in wood, yii the walls, and the 
2 altar-pieces, m weU worth notice. 
Further S. is the Oiesiager Zlxeh% 
Gothic building erected hyDoUmeum 

in 1866-84. 

The Church of St. John (ti. 4), con- 
sisting of a nave and dioir wnhoot 
aisles, and a tower 280 ft high, was 
erected in 1853-63. 

The Boyai Palace or RemtUia (F. 3) 
consistb of the oldjpalace, or block of 
central bnitdings, ftcing the Beadenz- 
strasse, connected wiA the new palace 
'Krmigsbau) to the S*t and the Fest^ 
saalbau to the 

The Old Falaee (Alte Beridenz), 

be^n at the end of the IGth century, 
and finished in IGlf', from designs of 
Peter Candid, though of great extent, 
has not much claim to architectuial 
beauty. It includes 4 irregnlar conn- 
yards. The entrance is bj the centre 

pla:s of THii: kesxben;^ mukige. 


BatUe ^l.—Mumeh : King'* A]^tmmU$ ; Seoi* XL 

gateway in the ResidenulrMie, lead- 
Big imo the OapaHenhot l^alton 

assemble in the Hercules Hall at 11 
daily, except Sunday. Only a portion 
of the palace can be seen, including 
the Reiche and Kaiserzimmer, the 
l^BitmdbMi, end the NiMungen and 
Odyssey halls. Beneath the archway 
ieading from the Court to the Foun- 
tain-court, a curious memorial of the 
athletic prowess of an ancestor of the 
reigning fimily (1409), eelled» ftm 
Ids agility, Christopher the LeqMr, If 
preserved. It is a huge black stone, 
now chained to the pavement, which 
he is said to have lifted and hurled to 
a considerable distance." 

The first floor oontidni the hsed- 
flome apmrtments called the JKolnr- 
zimmer, consisting of the dininff-room, 
reception room, audience hall, with 
portnuts of Roman emperors, the 
Oreen Oellery wiUi ItaBaa end other 
pictures, the bed-room with splendid 
bed, the glass cebuiety and the mixua- 
tare cabinet. 

The Treainry, only shown by ex- 
pfeH permission of the ChambcSrlain, 
was founded by Duke Albert V. in 
1551, and contains a fine blue 36-carat 
diamond, a half black palatinate pearl, 
regalia. &c, and a 6-ft. model of 
TiMui^s eolmmit the randft of Yala- 
diere SO yem' Itbour. 

The Eeiche Capelle, founded in 1607 
by Maximilian I., has at the entrance 
aa Anmmeiation bY P. Oandid. The 
floor It inlaid with precious stones, 
Mid the walls are covered with Floren- 
tine mosaic. The Descent from the 
Cross, in wax, by Michel Angelo, and 
the small enamelled altar of Mary 
Queen of Scots, thoald be notleed. 

In the Marstall-Platz, E. of the 
Residenz (F. 3), are the Royal Stables, 
with interesting state coaches and 
sledges of Lewis II. Adm. on Wed. 
9to4»fiee; Son. 9 to island week 
days, a to 4, 50 pf. ; week"dajs» 8 to 
12y I m. ; eloaed on Mon« 

The **New Palace (Konicsbau), a 
enlte ttruetiiie Iheuiff we Max 
^ Sqiwr^ and eopied fat the 

meet part from the Pttd Palaoe ei 
Florence, was built by the arddaeeC 

Klenze for King Lewis I. iu <1896. 
The apartments on the first floor, de- 
signed for balls and public entertain- 
ments, are open to the general public. 
On wetdaya noeneifMmiMed* Tht 
interior is an admirable nramplo of 
a style of decoration prevalent in 
Germany, but little known in Eng^Iand. 
which, properly speaking, is a revival 
or lidtmn of die omaaMnta of Oe 
Loggle of the Vatican, and of m atfU 
more ancient model, the hoiises of 
Pompeii. [The apartments of the 
late King Maximilian II. and of the 
Queen are not ahown to the public.^ 

The KiKO's Apartments are m 

the Fir»t Floor, and 'the landing-place 
at the head of the stairs is adorned 
with figures representing the 8 pro- 
▼laeea of Bafaria by eUkwtmOkahr, 
let Antechamher, painted in encaustic, 
from drawings by SchicanthaUr^ in the 
style of the ancient Greek vases, with 
scenes from the tale of the Argo- 
nants as said to be told by Orpheus. 
2nd Antediamber, — ^The subjects are 
taken from Hesiod ; those in the 
frieze from the 'Theogony;* those 
on the walls from the * Works and 
Days* and the * Shield of Hercules.' 
The painting is enoanstlef ftom dinw> 
ings by Bm m a ntltaler, executed by 
Ililtensperger and Siret'deL Service 
CJiamher. — The hymns of Homer to 
Venus, Ceres, Apollo, and Mercury, 
are liete Slaatrated. The drawings 
were by Sohnorr; the execution by 
HilteTispmfm'f Oliver, Streidel, and 
Schulz. Throne Boom, ornamented 
with reliefs in plaster by SchicanVtakr : 
the subiects from Pindar. In the 
5 fbUowing apartmenta the ||ahitingi 
on the ceiling are in fresco, tiioie on 
the walls in encatlstic. Ban^t Boom. 
— Anacreon furnishes the subject of 
these paintings. The drawings were 
by Zimmemmm, SMMUon Boom, 
tritfa 24 pictures ftom iBeNiylns, drawn 
by 8chtca7ithaler and executed by 
Schilgen. Writijig Room. — Here are 
31 compositions from Sophocles, drawn 
by /ScftuNMltaisr, and painted by MM 
and jBoimoik Jhadng S$9m, ¥ttfa 

MotUe 37. — Queen's Aj^imenie. 


S7 pietnmftoniArifltoplumes, painted 
by Htltenmrqer, from drawings by 

Schwanihater. Bed Boom. — The paint- 
ings here are from Theocritus, executed 
l>j ROckelf Sohulz, and Brnckmann, 

The Quxbn's Apabtmsrts are in 
the westhalf of the palace. 

First Antechamber. — Frescoes by 
Gassen, from the poems of Walther 
▼on der Vogelweide, a Minnesanger of 
the 13th century. Second Aidechawiber* 
— The life of Parcival of Wolfram Ton 
Eschenbach in fresco by Hermann. 
Service Chamber, with 20 naintings in 
encaoftleftonk the poems nf BGrger, by 
FuU»^ amated by Ble^ and Wendling. 
Throne Boom. — The poems of Klop- 
stock are here illustrated by KnuJhach. 
The ceiling is in fresco, the walls 
encaustic. Drawing Boom, — Encaustic 
paintiDgs from the poems of Wieluid. 
The frieze, illustrating Oberon, is by 
Neuretither, who also painted the archi- 
tectural decorations of the walls from 
the designs of Klenze. The rest was 
painted by Fifnter from the designs of 
Kaidbaok, Tfaue Bed Socm contains 
3G compositions from Goethe's works, 
painted by Kaidbacli in fresco on the 
walls. la the Writing-room are 22 
pictores from Schiller by FoUz and 
jUiiiABiimSmU, Library. — Subjects 
from the poems of Tieekj painted by 
Mom V. ochwifuU 

Ground Fxx>or. — ^The rooms in the 
W. wing contahi frescoes firom the 
N^hngenUed, the ancient national 
epic of Germany, by Julius SrJinorr. 
On the walls of the Entrance Hall are 
represented the pei'sonages of the poem. 
Orer the entnnee is the poet, between 
figores who typiy NanalMn and Song. 
On the ceiling are the 4 most remark- 
able incidents of the poem. The 2nfZ, 
or Marriage Hall, contains the most 
important event of Siegfried's life: 
above, opposite the win£wi, his first 
arrival before the palace of the Em- 
peror Gunther, at Worms; over the 
windows, his return to his parents 
with Kriemhild. In the lunettes are 
knightly contests. The 3 large paint- 
ingH aie— I. Siegfrled't rvtoxn from i 

the Sszon war; 2. Brunhild's anriTal 

at Worms (a finely coloured fresco). 
Opposite the windows, KriemhiM's 
and Siegfried's Marriage ; between 
them, Betrayal of the Secret of Brun- 
hild's girdle. Over the doors are 4 
small frescoes. In Ihe 3t^, or JBaU of 
Treachery y are^ on the ceiling, Kriem- 
hild's dream : in the 12 lunettes, 
painted in monochrome, are as many 
events in Siegfried's life. Over the 
doofs— 1. Knemhild points ont to 
Hagan where Siegfried is Tulnerable, 
in order that he may protect Siegfried. 
2. Siegfried departs for the chase. 3. 
Sigmuud learns the death of his son 
Siegfried. 4. HagenrinkstheNfbelnn- 
gentreasQreinttieBhine. The4larga 
pictures are — 1. Contest of the Queens 
before the cathedral door. 2. Hagen 
treacherously killsSiegfried. 3. Kriem- 
hild finds the corpse of Siegfried as 
she is going to the cathedral at early 
morning. 4. Kriemldld discovers 
Hagen to be the murderer of her 
husband by the wounds of the corpse 
bleeding at his entrance. The Ath, or 
HaU of Revenge, represents the down* 
fall of the heroes brought about by 
Kriemhild's revenge. On the ceiling 
are the Sea-witches who prophesy the 
downfall. Surrounded bv arabesques 
are— 1. Kriemhild ezdting war by 
presents. 2. By entreaties. 3. She 
has recourse to fire. 4. She takes 
Siegfried's sword from Hagen's side, 
who is in chains. In the lunettes : — 
Kriemhild prays Etzel to invite the 
Burgundians. 8. The heroes enm tho 
Danube. 3. Riidiger before the last 
battle gives his shield to Hagen. 4. 
Kriemhild between Gunther and Ha- 
gen, who are chained. Over the 
doors:—!. Hftgen slays Ihe child of 
Etzel and Kriemhild at a ftast. 2. 
Death of Riidiger and Gemot 3. 
Dietrich gives up to Kriemhild 
Gunther and Hagen in chains. The 
large pictures are— 1. KriemMM W- 
proaches Yolker and Hagen, whor are 
keeping guard before the palace, for 
their faithlessness to Siegfried. 2. The 
great fight on the staircase of the 
burning palace. 3. Dietrich conquers 
Hagen. 4. KriemhUd, after she ' 
taken vengeance with her own 

uiyiii^uLi Uy Google 


SaiUe fft. — MwMk ; Palaee; 


on CuHther and Hagcn, falls by the 
E^vord of Hildebrand. Tlie t)t'h, or 
UaU of ZiamerUatian, rcprt^scuu — 1. 
BtMl» Dietrich, Hildebnnd* and the 
womea, weepiog as the oorpies are 
being removed. 2. Return of the 
Oiessengers with the weapons of the 
•UuL 3. Bishop Pilgrim, upon hearing 
the details of the tragic event, (ffdet* 
maHes to be performed for the 'lepoie 
of the souls of the heroes. 

The old winter garUcin at the E. 
end of the Kouigsbau was erected by 
Kreutler for Maximilian II. in 1856, 
lad conneots the palaee with the 

The N. Wino (facing the Hof- 
^arten) was built in J 832-42, and 
intemallj decorated with even greater 
splendour than the Kouigsbau. It is 
auo from the designs of Khnz^, and 
is called the Fcsfsaalbau, because 
it contains the state apartments for 
drawing-rooms and court festivities, 
as well as apartments for the reception 
of royal or distinguished Tisitors. This 
front, nearly 800 ft. long, is in the 
style of Palladio. Beneath is an 
arcade, with an entrance formed by 
3 of the arches ; abore are 10 Ionic 
oolomns, sapporting a broken en- 
tablature, on which rest 2 lions and 
8 statues, representing tbe 8 circles of 
the kingdom, by SohtoaniJuiler. On 
the Qrmud Floor are 6 apartments 
(Odyiseas-Sftle) painted in encanstic 
by SiltempergeTt from drawings by 
Schwanthaler. The subjects are from 
the Odyssey. An antechamber at the 
head of a broad flight of stairs leads 
1^ a small cabinet into the BaU^room, 
128 ft. long, and 47 ft. broad, deco- 
rated with reliefs by Schwanthaler^ 
and paintings, in the Pompeian style, 
of Greek dances. The Caryatides 
•Supporting the gallery are of papier- 
mAm. On the EL side of the ball- 
room are two rooms for card-playing, 
called the Halls of the Beauties^ cen- 
tring 36 portraits from life (1827-50), 
iStlsler, of beautiful women, chiefly 
Bavarian, from the queen to the actress 
peasant-girl and Munich dressmaker. 
The Banquet Hall, or Schlachten Saal, 
painted with battle scenes in which 

the Bavarian army was engaged, r*- 
cluding Eikmiihl, Wagram, Borodito, 
Brienne, Bar sur Aube, &c., betwm 
1805 and I8U. hjr PeUr Bess, KMI, 
AfJam, JTeidechf aod Monten. In 
Ilall of Charlemagne, 12 pictures, I'j 
Schnorr and his pupils, represent : — 1. . 
Charlemagne, 12 years old, anointed 
fbtnre king of the Franhs by Pope ' 
Stephen II. at 8t Denis, in presence of 
his farther. 2. He takes Pavia, and 
makes Desiderius, King of the I>om- 
bards, prisoner. Opp(^ite to these, 3. 
He conquers the Saxons. 4. He niakts 
the Saxons conTerts. Opposite fbt 
windows, 5. He regulates the affairs 
of the Church at the Synod of Frank- 
furt, G. His Coronation at Kome. 
On the side of the windows, his friends 
Alcnin, Arno, and Eginhard, mnd S 
small pictures representing his ex- 
ertions for edocatioa and the fine arts. 

In the Hall of Barbarossa the large 
pictures from Schnorr's designs repre- 
sent: — 1 . Frederick Barbux>ssa eleetei I 

Emperor (1152). 2. His entrance 
into Milan as a conqueror (n<]2). 
Opposite to these, 3. His concluding 
peace with Pope Alexander III. at 
venioe (1188). 4. His celebration 
of a national festival at Mayence 
(1185). Opposite the windows, 5. 
His victory at Iconium in the 3rd 
Crusade. 6. His death in the Caly« 
Mdnns near Selencia (1 190). On the 
side of the windows are, 1, the deposi- 
tion of Henry the Lion by Frederick | 
from the Dukedom of I^avaria, which, 
2, is granted to Otto of Wittelsbach. 
The frieze in relief above the paint- 
ings represents Frederie*keniiad^and 
is D7 BehwoMdler, 

In the Hall of Eudolph of Hapsborg, 
the frieze, designed by Schwind and 
painted hy Sehnorr, ftc, reprewnls the 
effects of the restoration of internal 
tranquillity to the German empire by 
Rudolph, e.g. Agriculture, Manufac- 
tures, &c. The large paintings, com- 
posed and drawn hy St^Morr^ are— 1. 
Rudolph giving his horse to a priest 
that he may pass a stream and cany * 
the Host to a sick man. 2. He hears, 
while attacking Basle, that the Electois 

Bavaria, Boute 37. — Throne Moom ; Mojgarien, 


at Ma} x nco have chosen him Emperor 
127.1. lie defeats K\nf* Ottocar of 
Bohemia, who retased to recr>p:iiise his 
election (1 278), 4. He brings ihe Kob- 
b«r Kiugfats to justice, vdA destroys 
their castfes. 

ThMne Boom (Thronml), a magni- 
ficent and stately hall, 106 ft. long 

and 73 ft. Tride, flanked by 12 
columns, all wliite, like the walls, 
lirith gold capitals and ornaments. 
Between the pillars stand IS colossal 
stataes Sn gilt bronze of Princes of 
the House of Wittelsbach, designed 
by Schtcanthaler, 10 ft. higli : — 1. 
Otho the Illustrious, Elector Pala- 
tine and D. of Bavana, d« 12S3. 9. 
Lewis, the Bavarian Emperored. 1347. 
3. Rupert, Emperor, d. 1410. 4. Fre- 
deric the Victorious, Elector Palatine, 
d. 1476. 5. Lewis the Rich, D. of Ba- 
Taria, d, 1479. 6. Albert IV., the Wise, 
D. of Bavaria, d. 1508. 7. FMerie II., 
the Wise, Elector Palatine, d. 1556. 8. 
Albert V., the Magnanimous, D. of 
Bavaria, d. 1579. 9. Maximilian T,, 
Elector, d. 1651. lO, Charles XL, K. 
ofSwedeD,d.l697. 11. John William, 
Elector Palatine, d. 1 7 1 n . 12. Charles 
XXL, K. of Sweden, d. 1 7 1 8 

Adjoining the reigning King's apart- 
ments on the upper ioor is the new 
Wkiter Chrdei^ (not shown), a eharm- 
ing apartment filled with the ehosoest 

On the opposite side of the Maxi- 
milianstrasse is the Post Office (E. 3), 
with an arcade in the style of Vasari's 
loggia at Aresw), ereeted by Klenie 
in 1886, emamentsd witii SIX fbescoes 
of hones on sed gronnd* 

The Eofjgarten, a stjnare enclosure, 

planted with rows of trees, N. of the 
palace, has on two sides an open .Arcade 
covered with faded frescoes. The 16 
on the W. side represent the most 
remarkable events m the annals of 
Bavaria from the time of Otto of Wit- 
telsbrich, the founder in the 8th cent, of 
the reign ! 11 L' family. These were exe- 
cuted in 1627-1829, by young artists 
nnder the direction of (hrndtusy 
chiefly as experiments in fresco on its 
rerival. On the N. side are 39 paint- 
ings in colours prepared in wax, re- 

presenting scenes from the Greek war 
of Liberation ; the designs are by Pf(r>r 
IltsSj executed by Nihon. iiesides the 
historical paiiitiug&, ou the W. side are 
38 landseapes «f lenurkable jplaees In 
Grasee, Italy, fileily, &o., ojf Bott- 
mann ; the verses above them are from 
the pen ot K\n<j: Lewis. These hasty, 
opaque, and dmgy frescoes, however, 
convey no idea of the In^dit land- 
scapes of the sonth. Tiie W. side of 
the Hofgarten is occupied by the 
Bazaar, which includes cafes, resfatir- 
ants, shops, &c. ; and on the N. ^ide 
is the Ethnographic HCnsenm, com- 
mendng irith antiquities of the so> 
called prehistoric period, in brass, 
iron, and stone ; Hint implements 
from Picardy and the Dordogne, 
from Danish kitchen middens and 
Swiss ptteHrtrootarss; anns and im« 
plements from the fienth Sea and 
arctic regions; Japanese curiosities 
collected by J. von Siebold ; collec- 
tions made in Brazil and on the river 
Amaaon bj Drs. von Spsz and Martins, 
of dresses, arms, nteasils, implements, 
and ornaments. Among the curio- 
sities is a sort of pestle, with which 
one of the tribes grind their com ; 
it is a small dub of wood studded 
witii teeth of enemies slain in battle. 
Arrows, steeped in the fatal woui-ale, 
or urari. The reed tube, 6 or 8 ft. long, 
out of which they are discharged. 
The poison itselj^ and portions of the 
plant firom whieh it is obtained. An 
Indian cradle, shaped somewhat liice 
a boat: the head of the infnut is 
bound down tight under a board, by 
which, in process of time, the skull is 
completdjr flattened. A species of 
clay sometimes eaten as Ibod by tribes 
of Indians on the Amazon. 

On the gronnd-floor of the N. wing 
if the Museum of Plaster Casts (Wed. 
and Sat, 3 to 5), excellently arranged 
in illustration of ancient and modem 
sculptufo^ by pMf.Brami. Catalogue^ 
so pf. 

In the N.K. ann:le of the Hofgarten 
is the Kuxistverein (Art Union), an 
exhibition of worlu by modem artists, 
many of them for sale. (Ticket, 

available for 4 weeks, 2 m. ; gratis^ 
if introduced by a member.) 


The Witteisbacii Palacd ( E. 2) was 
begtm in 1843, from tho designs of 
OarineTf and was inhabited by King 
Lewis I. from his nbdicntion to his 
death. It is of brick and piuk stucco, 
in the style of a palace of the 14th 
and 15th centuries. 

8.E* of it is the hronse equestrian 
itatae* of the Elector Haxiinilian I., 

chiefly celehrnted for the expnlsion of 
Protestantism tioiu doiiuiiiijus. It 
is by nionoaliUeUf cast out of Turkish 
ttmn/mt and was eraeted by LaiHs L 
in 1639. 

The Palace of Count Arco-Zinne- 
berg, 1 (Xlcon Platz, contains an in- 
teresting collection of '^Antlers, with 
other euMtici (fee). 

The ♦♦GLTPTOTHEK, Gallery of 
Scnlptiire (^Auirr^s, carved, and 0if«ci7, 
repmitonf^, is a classical edifice of the 
Ionic order, erected by Klenze in 
Ul^^y for King Lewis I.» who, 

while Crown Prince, formed the very 
iatwesting and TaUmhle eoHegtiaa 
deponted in it e&tirely at liui <rwa 

expense. The group in the tympa- 
num of the portico of Minerva and 
representatives of the plastic arts^ is 
by Wagner, who also executed the 
statues of Hadrian, Prometheus, ENo- 
dalus, Pericles, Phidias and Vclcan, 
filling the niches on each side of the 
portico. On the W. side, the statues 
of Ghiberti, Donatello, Peter Vischer, 
m}3j Bruqger; Miebd Angelo, Beib- 
venutoCdilini, and Giovanni Bologitty 
by LoBsmp, On the E. side, Canova, 
Thorwaldsen, by Widnmanji ; Tcne- 
rani, Gibson, and Schwanthaler, by 

Adm. gratis, Mon« and FtL 
2-4; Wed. 8 to 18. 

I. Assyrian Hall. The chamber 
opening from the Ve&tibule is lined 
with reliefii from Ninereb and other 

























■ 4 ft • w hHMMMMMH 



• • • • 


u Ly GoOgl( 

Bavaria. Boute 37. — Halls of AjpoUo and Bacchus, 


1 Attyrian seiilptiurei. On tte L dde 

t of &e hall:— II. Egyptian Antiqm- 
^ lies. III. Earliest Oreek and Etms- 
^ can. — IV. ♦JEg^etan, is entirely de- 
r TOted to the marbles discovered in the 
Idand ot jEgina by Barm Haller, 
I MessTB. CSoekerelland Foster, English- 
l meDf and some other artists, in IBll. 
^ They adorned the two pediments of 
. a temple, conjectured by some to be 
I that of Jupiter PhnneWenfai, in 
J ^gina. They -were akilftilljfestored 
J by Thorwaldsen, and are arranged in 
J the order in which they stood on the 
two pediments, as far as it can be de- 
termined by the attitudes of the 
figuM and tbe velatiTe porttioii the v 
oooapied wben dng out of the ground. 
They represent, according to the in- 
terpretation adopted here, certain 
noble actions of the ^acida: ; j^acus, 
tile fbonder of the temple, being held 
in great respect at iBgina. The group 
from the E. pediment representing 
Hercules and Telamon (the son of 
.^acus) fighting against Laomedon 
and the Trojans, consists^of 5 figures, 
and is ftr superior to the other. 
There must originally have been a 
sixth figure on the 1. side. The W. 
pediment of 10 figures is believed to 
represent the contest of the Greeks 
and Trotena over the body of Vatro- 
elpa» as deaeribed bj Homer, in which 
Ajax (grandson of .SImus) holds a 
conspicuous position. The names of 
some of the figures have been assigned 
as follows ui the first group : 54. 
Hercules. 55. Laomedon. 56. Tda- 
mon. In the second or larger group : 
57. A fallen warrior. 58. A stoop- 
ing combatant. 59. Minerva, who 
appears at a critical moment, pro« 
bamT to throw a sudden mist over the 
combatants, in aid of the fallen hero. 
60. Patroclus. 61. Ajax Telamonius. 
62. Teucer. 63. Ajax Oileus. 64. 
A woimded Greek. 65. Hector. 66. 
Fnhk 67. Aneaa. Theae nariiles 
were pnrehased in 1 81 2 by King Lewis, 
when Crown Prince of Bavaria, for 
6000/., though an agent had been 
despatched from EIngland with autho- 
li^ to offer 8000f. for thenkf 
f "The nilA and Us condlllons wwa an. 

wBoAmrVw, 1811 cift asm«% bat tn IIm 

On the wall ' opposite iSbB window 
is a model of the mmt of the temple 

to which these marbles belonged. 
The weapons and oniaraents of the 
armour seem to have been of metal ; 
h<rfeB ibr ftatenfaiff them on may 
be seen in aevenl of the figavta; 
Around the room are arranged a 
great number of fragments, also found 
amongst the ruins of the Temple. 
**ThMe aenlptarea may be classed 
among the most valaable remains of 
ancient art that have reached ua. Con- 
sidered in an archjEological point of 
view, they constitute a link of the 
highest importance in its history, in 
ezmbiting ^tte co n n ection be t w e e n the 
primitive and prescriptire practice of 
the art with its perfection in the school 
of Phidias which so immediately fol- 
lowed the date to which these statues 
mnM be attribfited.*'«— IPMiiMieoliL 
The want of expression in the facea 
contrasts forcibly with the admirable 
proportions of the limbs and the skill 
displayed in the pose. 

V. Hall of Apollo, for works of the 
time and school of Phidias. — 79. Ceres. 
80. Bacchus. 81. Jupiter Ammon. 
82. Vase. 84. .^culapius. 86. Mi- 
nemu 87. Galea. 69. Female Imat. 
'*'90 ApoUo Citharsedus. This statue 
in Parian marble is said to be the work 
of Ageladas, master of Phidias : it was 
formerly called the Barberini Muse. 
91. Achillea. 91. FaUaa. 98. Diana. 

VI. Hall of Bacchus. 95. « The 
sleeping, or Barberini Faun, so called 
from its having formerlv been in the 
poasesnon of the Barbenni £unily, in 
Home, represents a colossal male figure 
of the Satyr class sleeping, half sitting, 
half reclining, on a rock. It is re- 
markable for the display of bold in- 
vention, and expression, and Taried 
actioot with bnt little ideal boanty. 

meantime, owing to fears of the French making 
a hostile attack on tliat island, the sculptures 
had been removed to ^lalta to be under British 
protection. Misled by this change, the agent 
sent by this countiy proceeded to Malta to be 
ready for the sale, but it, as originally adver- 
tised, took place la Zanke la the absence of the 
figurea."— Murray's •History of Qraek BevSr 
tuM^'ToLLp. lat. 


uiyiii^uLi Uy Google 


Sect. II. 

It is esscntiallT n -n-ork of character. 
The expression ot heavy sleep is admi- 
rably gi^en in the head and faUiug 
arm : while, at the mm ^m%^ th« 
unoonfined and irvognlu diiposltlon 
of the limbs, suggesting movement, 
vould seem to be intended to convey 
the notion of disturbed and uneasy 
slumber. The precise date of this 
fine Btatoe hat not been determined ; 
but the style of form, and excellent 
technical treatment of the marble, 
leave little doubt of its having c^nia- 
nated from the best school of scalp- 
tun. If ndt ftom tbe hand even of 
Soopaa or Praxiteles, it may without 
disparagement be considered the work 
of a scarcely inferior scholar.'* — 
WestmacolL It was discovered on 
clearing out the ditch of the caaUe of 
St Ani^io into whieh it had no doobt 
been thrown by the Greeks under 
Belisarins, who defended the castle 
against the Goths, a.d. 537, by hurling 
down the statues on the heads of the 
aMd3ants.^CK&^ ehap. zlL 96. 
Ino or Leucothoe, 97. Hermaphro- 
dite. 9S. Silenus. 99. Head of a 
laughing Faun, called Fauno colJa 
Maochia, from a green stain in the 
marble. 100. The marriage of Bae- 
ekna and Ariadney a baa-reUef on a 
sarcophagus. 101. A satyr. 102. 
A satyr (Winkelraann's Faun). 103. 
Bacchus and Panther. 104. Venus. 
105, 106. Satyri. 106. Baoohns. 
110. OoleMal bust of Vefiiii. 113. 
Ceres. 114. Silenus with young 
Bacchus. 115. Marriage of Neptune 
an l Aniphitrite, a relief in Parian 
marble, formerly attributed to Scopas, 

bat now reeognned as Boman. 

VII. Hall of the Sons of ll"iol)e.--- 
The *llioneus (1 42) is a kneeling figure 
of the youngest son, represented at the 
moment when Apollo is supposed to 
point towards him his deadly anow, 
before which he is crouching in terror. 
" The h^d and arms are wanting, 
but the supplicatory expression of the 
attitude, the turn of the body, so 
deprecatory, so imploring; theoloom 
of adolescence* which seems absolutely 
Hed over the cold marble; the un- 
called delicacy and elegance of the 

whole, touched me unspeakably." — • 
Mrs. Jameson, Thisexquisitely finished 
statue is thought to have belonged 
to the eoUeetion of the Emperor Ka- 
dolph II. at Prague^ dispersed after 
his death. It was accidentally dis- 
covered in the yard of a stone-mason 
who had provided it with a head and 
arms to £.1. 121. Hy las (fragment). 
123. Femaia bust 123* Mercuiy. 
lSi4. Boma (a colossal bust, vitk 
bronze helmet). 1 2th Isis and Harpo- 
crates. *12S. Medusa (also a mast er- 
uiecc, known as lioudanini : a 
beaalifti}!^ haughty, oold ooimtenanoe, 
fixed by death. 129. Minerva, lao. 
Venus and Dolphin. 1*^1. * Venus, 
imitated from the master-piece of 
Praxiteles, holding drapery at her 
side— a slight variation xrom the ori- 

f inal (see HaadbodlK for Centtal 
taly, p. 68). 133. Polyphemaa 
134. Head of a woman. 135. Paris. 
136. Worship of Bacchus. 138. Clio. 
139. Venus. 140. Boy with Goose. 
141. A dying son of Niobe, stretched 
on his baolc, and in bis last gaspi 
145. Ceres. 

Kooms VIIL and IX. and the snuill 
apartment between them are decorated 
with modem fireseees eixecated ia 
1 820^*30 by Cornelius and his scholars 
Zimmermann and Sclilotthauer. The 
subjects in the Villth, called Hall of 
the Godsj are taken from heathen 
mythology: those in the IXth, the 
Trojan Hall, from Homer's Iliad. 

X. Hallof Keroes.— 151. The War- 
rior bindiiiLf on liis ^>andal ; a similar 
bULLue in the Louvre ixL Paris is called 

Jason. 158. Alexander the Gieat. 
158. Kero as a Gladiator. 

XI. Hall of the Romans, the most 
splendid of all in its decorations, while 
its contents are inferior vorks, pro- 
claiming the decay of art. Among 
them is a series of busts of the Roman 
emperors, and several splendid marble 
candelabra. Those most worthy of 
notice are — 181. Nero; Geta; 268. 
Trajan; *216. Gioero; ♦219. Au^^lis- 
tus ; A Roman ; Ceres ; 256. An- 
tinous; 280. Lucilla, daughter of Mt 
Aurelius» and sister of Commodiis. 




Bouie 37. — AUe Finacothek, 


XII. Hall of Coloured ScTilptnre. — 
*299. Bronze Bust of a Satyr, of the 
best period of Greek art: holes are 
left for the eyes, which were of glass 
or precious stone. *896. Oeres; the 
head, shoulder, and arms of white 
marble ; the drapery, flowing elegantly 
behind, is of black. 802. Bronze 
bust of an Athlete. 306. Small bronze 
statae of Alexander, found near Paris. 

XIII. Hall of Modem Sculpture, 
occupied by works executed since the 
Keuaissance or revival of classic taste, 
■bowing how andent art has inflneneed 
jDodem. The most remarkable alatiiea 
are — ♦SlS. Paris, by Canova\ *335. 
TliortcalcUen' 8 KAoins \ 319. Schadoto's 
Girl fastening her Sandal; 328. A 
bnst in terra-cotta, a work of the 
end of the 15th century, snppoted to 
be a portrait of Raphael. 32 1 . A bust 
of King Lewis i. of Bayaria, by 

The **ALTS PnrAOOTESK (D. 1, 2) 
or Picture Oattery (ir(ya(, apieture^ and 
BiiKti, repotitoryf was begun by King 
Lewis L, in 1826, and opened in 1836. 
It is built after the design of Klenze, 
and is one of the most convenient and 
appropriate reeeptaeles for ndntings 
in Europe. The facade abo^e the 
corridor is somonnted by a sow of 

statues of 25 of the greatest paintefi^ 
modelled by Schwanthaler. 

Admisiion, — Open in summer from 
9 to 3, in winter from 9 to 2, every 
day bnt Satniday. There is an Bng» 

The number of paintings is upwards 
of 1400, consisting of a selection of 
the best works out of all the coUee- 
tions belonging to the King of Bsmia. 
They are arranged according lo 
schools, in 12 large halls lighted from 
above, and 23 small cabinets, on the 
first floor. 


The CloRidor is divided Into 96 kfl^* 

gie or compartments, ornamented wiu 
fresco-paintings designed by Cornelius, 
executed by Zimmennann, Gassen,and 
others, his scholars, and intended to 
illnstnle Oe Hhtory of the Fkis Ar§9 
during (he Middle Ages. Each com- 
partment is enriched with fanciful 
grotesque and arabesque borders, me- 
dallions; and gold backgrounds, and 
the paintings in each serve to elucidate 
some particular period in the history 
of Alt, or incidents in the life of 
some eminent painter. The corners 
ar6 filled with medallioo portraits, in 
bas-relief, of die painters pupils or 
most distinguished folkywers. 

Thirteen of these log|;ie, beginning 
at the £. end of the eomdor, iUostrate 


and late 








20|19 18 



16 15 

14 13 








4i3 2 














uy Google 


Boute S7.—Muintek : AU$ PtntifiMek ; Sect. U 

the rise and progress of Italian paint- 
ing, the I3tli being devott'd to liaphael 
or to the perfection of the an. The 
iwnaming 12, be^dnnii^ at the W* end 
of the corridor, snow, in like muiBer, 
the progrees of painting in Germany 
and the Netherlands, the 1 2th com- 
partment ])eing devoted to Kubens. 
The iirst two loggie £. and W. show 
the file ef the %ie Axta nder the 
fostering eare of Bdl|^ and 

Beginning with the Italian series, 
the 1st compartment contains an 
allegorical fhmtispiece, repreeenting 
Kimn Lewis of Bavaria ia the grove 
ofrainting and Poetry, surronuded 
by the most eminent artists of Italy 
and Germany, and by the classic 
poets of Greece and Borne. The 
paintings on the eeitiii^ an intended to 
delineate the connection of the Arts 
with Relifrion. 2nd. The Crusades 
in connection Avith the Arts. On 
the ceiling, St. Bernard preaching 
(1142); & hattle of Icooitim; and 
other subjects from the history of 
the Crusades, which had so great 
an influence in transferring to the 
West the arts of the East, in illus- 
tration of which Giovanni Fisano is 
represented showing the senate of 
Pisa his designs for the Campo Santo 
(1283). 3rd. Cimabue's picture of 
the Madonna carried in procession 
through the streets of Florence, and 
other erents in that painter's life. 
4 th. In the cupola, Giotto (d. 1336), 
while a 'shepherd-boy, receivefl as a 
scholar by Cimabue — showing the 
pope his paintings — and travelling 
wltk the pope to Avignon, 5th. Fra 
Angelico da Fiesole (a. 1457) refuses 
the bishopric of Florence; in the 
cupola are scenes from his life — 
assuming the monk's habit in the 
convent of San Marco— ornamenting 
the .monks' cells with his pencil- 
displaying his architectural plans to 
Cosmo de' Medici —and painting in 
the chapel of the Vatican. 6th. 
Masaccio (d. 1428) in S. Carmine, 
Floienee— with CJaxdinal CSlementeat 
Rome. 7th. Pietro Perugino (Ra- 

Ehael's master") d. 1 5-24. In the cupola, 
is scholars and their characteristics. 

I 8th. Fore-runners and contcnoporaries 
of Raphael, 1430-1530— Luea Sig- 

1 norelii's Vision of the Last J udgment. 
9tlL Lecoaido da Vind supported fm 
his last mofaH hj Francis I.^ 151f 
— Leonardo as portrait-painter, and 
as teacher. 10. Coiivfzgio (d. 1534) 
and his scholars ; the Four Elements 
— the recomhent figure in the lunette 
r^resents the artist himself snr- 
roonded by allegorical figures of 
Music, Poetry, &e. llth. Titian 
(d. 1576), his master and his scholars: 
the Bellini and other painters of the 
Venetian SAod — Titian painting 
Charles V. — ^visited hy Giulio Komano, 
Vasari, &c. 12th. Michel Angelo 
(d. 1563) in his threefold capacity — 
as painter, surprised by the pope as 
he IS lying on his back painting in the 
Siatine Cfiipel ; as sonlptor, eaceenting 
the statue of Moses ; as architect, de- 
signing the dome of St. Peter's. 13th. 
Raphael's Death (1520) occnpies the 
lunette. On the ceiling he is repre- 
sented studying under liis ihtliep— 
taken by him to Perugino— showing 
the designs for the Loggie of the 
Vatican to Pope Julius — and engaged 
in painting them with his pupils. 

The German series, beginning at 
the W. end of the comdor, oom- 
prises .* 1st. Allegorical representation 
of the connection of the Arts with 
Religion. 2nd. Origin of German 
civilization in the days of Charle- 
magne :^Gharies Marlel oonqnerfa^i 
the Saracens at Tours (732) — St. 
Boniface preaching the Gospel in Ger- 
many — lunette, Charlemagne on his 
Throne. 3rd. German Architecture: 
— the Emperor Heniy the Fowkr 
surrounding a city with walls — the 
architect of the Dom of Cologne 
(Master Gerard) presenting the model 
to the Archbishop— lunette, the relics 
of the Three Kings carried to Cologne. 
4th. WiHiam of Cologne (d. 1380) 
painting, on his knees, the Virgin and 
Child — his death, in poverty. Re- 
ference to their influence on the paint- 
ings of Zeitbloom, Holbein, &c. 5th. 
John and Hubert Tan Evck (d. 1445 
and 1426) :~ John and his sister 
instructed by Hnbert — discovery of 
oil-painting — ^imparting the secret— 

^ bnduM iiisfi&y'mg tbeir works to 
Philip the Good— lunette, the Wop. 

ship of the Lamb, from the famons 
painting by Van Eyck, at Ghent. 6th. 
lians Memiing (d. 1499): — ^Apoca- 
lyptic yisioiis of Saints, kc-^^^ artul 
«l Bmget. 7th. Lucas van Lejdaft 
on his death-bed (1533) ; the ruling 
passion of the artist still stronp^. 8th. 
Holbein's life (d. 1654) : — lunette, 
Joyous Gamesters surprised by Deatli : 
above U» Virion of the Yi^in and 
CSiild, as in the pidntings now at 
Dresden and Darmstadt — Holbein 
embarking for England — taking leave 
of Erasmus — showing his works to 
Henry YIIL— painting Sir Thoraes 
More and his &mily. 9th. Albrecht 
Diirer (d. 1 528) treated with distinc- 
tion by the painters of Antwerp. In 
the cupola, scenes from his life — as 
the scholar of Wohlgemuth — his friend 
Pirkheimer reading to liim, oontrary 
to the will of his wife, while he paints. 
10th. Rembrandt (d. 1674). In the 
cupola, Claude Lorrnine (d. 1682). 
11th. Le Sueur (d. 1655) working at 
night among the Oarmelities. Ib the 
oapola, Nic. Poussin (d. 1665) and 
his schoo! nt Rome — Apollo and 
Minerva drive away the Furies from 
him. 12th. Rubens (d. 1640) in Eng- 
land as ambassador and artist. On 
the roof, Rubens befisre Mary de 
Medicis. " From the beauty and rich- 
ness of its decorations, as well as for 
the exquisite taste displayed in it, 
this corridor can scarcely be too 
highly praised." 

The first apartment of the gallery, 
which is entered from the stairs, is 
an Ante-room containing portraits of 
the founders of the Bavarian Picture 
Gallery; John WilKam, Eleefeor Pala- 
*tiae» founder of the IKteseldorf Gal- 
lery; Maximilian Emanuel, Elector 
of Bavaria; Charles, Duke of Zwei- 
briicken : Carl Theodore, Elector Pa- 
latine, who transferred the Mannheim 
Gallery to Mnnieh ; Max Joseph, who 
united the Dusseldorf Gallery with it ; 
and the late kin^, Lewis, Mho sur- 
passed all his predecessors in his zeal 
for the arts, and was not behind any 
of them in the additions he nmde to 
thisooUeolion; witness the Bcdsier^ 


and WaUerateia Galleriesr and Oe Tsst 
namher of single paintings pmhased 

by him at different times. He also 
enriched the Munich Gallery with the 
choicest works from the provincial col- 
leetions of Nnremberg, Augsbui^, and 
Bamberg, as well as from numerons 
churches and monasfezisa in Yanam 
parts of Bavaria. 

The Lst and 2ud Apartments, with 
S side cabinets, are devoted to the 
ftanum fldissL Tlicfy iaohide the 
£lite of the Boisseree Gallery, coii^ 
mcnccd at Cologne in 1804, by the 
brothers Snlpice and Melchoir Bois- 
seree, during the time of seqaestration 
of ehnrdies and moaaatesles hy the 
French, and the consequent disper- 
sion of the works of art contained in 
them, it was purchased by King 
Lewis, in 1827, for 376,000 fl. The 
old German masters (together wi& • 
the series of Babens) may be siud 
to fom the strength of the Mniddi 
gallery, and deserve attention, because 
no similar collection of tlieir produc- 
tions exist. (See Plan.) The Rubens, 
Vandyck, and Bemhiandt master* 
pieeeSy formerly at Dusseldorf, were 
seen and described there by Sir 
Joshua l^eynolds, whose notes are 
occasionally ^ven, with his signature. 

The name of the artist, and the 
date of his birth and death, are on 
each picture. The following may be 
pointed out as among the best worth 
attention : 

ItAXJAM ScHO0fL.t — Alhsflliuilli 

Annunciation, niucli repainted.— M. J 

Andrea del Sarto: Holy Family, 
spurious; imitated from a picture at 
the Louvre. 

BaieeelO! Noli me tangeie* ^llie 
figures have not much graoe; the 
Magdalen looks as if she was scratch- 
ing her head ; it is, however, finely 
coloured.'* — Sir J, B, 

Basaiti: Virgin and Child, with 
8S. Sebastian and Jerome. 

BaBsaae ; Entombment* — Moses 
strildng the rock. 

t A few paintings of the Vnoth aaABpmMk 

Schools arf^ herewith included. 
1 Mordli : Italian Masters ia German Gal- 

MolUe 37. — ItaUcm School of Faintinga. 


BotUe S7. ^Munich : AUe Pinacothek. Sect. IL 

Beccafami : Holy Family, round. 

Bellini, Gentile : Portrait of a youiig 
man iu a red wig. Spurious and 
tame. — ^M. 


Boccaccio Boccaccino : The Saviour 
of the World. Perimps by his brother, 
Bar tolommeo. — M . 

Jerome, and PaiiL The flgOKs are 

all as living as they can be, and in 
their several ways take tlie most 
heartfelt interest in what is going on. 

BrtMiaaiiO: Holy Family, 
in the manner of Fra Bartolommeo. 

Canaletto: Four poo<l Venetian 
paintings ; the Grand Canal near the 
Academy ; the Piazzetta ; the Kiva 

tain, the two elders are behind a balus- 
trade. Her head is liue, as are those 
of the old men; but it is upou the 
whole A poor, barraB composition. 
She it awkimrdly phioed by herself fai 
die comer of the picture, which ap- 
pears too large for the subject, the 
canvas not being sufficiently filled."* 
—Sir J. B. 

Filippo Lippi : AnBungitSon; ViigiB 
and Child ; and smaller Annniefai^tioa. 

Filippino Lippi : Christ appeariM 
to His Mother; full of character. — -M, 
Ou the predella, 66. Francis, JLouii^ 
Benuurdloo, Dombde, Clm, tad Cathe- 
rine.— *PietU, with SS. John Bapt 
and Jameiy John £veik and the Ham* 

Fra Angelico : *Tortureand Martyr- 
dom of SS. Coona and Damiano, with 

degli SehiaToid; and the Veg eliMe iilhelr three young brothers — Kntomb- 


Capriole : Portrait of a man in a 
black cap ; dirty and repainted, a 
caricature of Giorgloue, with a view 
olTVe?ito.— M. 

CHan da Conegliano: ^Virgin and 
Child, with S& Mery Megdeteae.and 

Giro Ferri : Rest on the Flight ; by 
an imitator of Rembrandt. 

QlanAe Lorraine: Morning land- 
scape, with the Exptdsion of Hagar. — 
Afternoon landscape, with Hagar and 
Ishmael tended by an Angel. — Idyllic 
landscape at sunset. — Harbdur at suu' 
rise.— By an imitator: 18S8, 1829 
Two small companion landscapes. 

Clonet, Francois : Portrait beet of 
Claude, Duchess of Lorraine. 

Gloaety Jehan ; Portrait of a young 

Ooallo : St Peter of Alcaatanu 

Correggio : Virgin and Child, with 
SS. Ildefonso and Jerome, and an Angel. 
Repainted out of all value ; perhaps 
by Bondani, — M. *Young Pan, play- 
ing the flute, damaged by repaint- 
ing. A precious Utile work of Lorenzo 
Lotto, — M. By an imitator: Virgin 
and Child, with SS. Jerome and James; 
perhaps Amdmi. — M. 

Oriatofrae Alleri: Head of a young 
Faun; probably BologneMu—M. 

Domenichino : ** Susanna and the 

ment. Among the belt weeks of the 

master. — M. 

Francia: ♦The Virgin adoring the 
Child. — ♦Virgin and Child with two 
exquisite angels' beads ; genuine and 
early. — C. and C. 

Garofalo : Virgin and ChUd« seated 
on a marble ped«stal. 

Ohirland^jo: ♦Virgin and Child, 
with SS. Michael, John Baptist, John 
Evan., and Dominie ; part of a large 
picture from S.M. Nov^a at Florence; 
the remaining panels are at Berlin. 
— M. S. Laurence;' S. Catherine of 

OhWandiJe, Bidellb: Virgin and 

Children iu a landscape. 

Giotto : Crucifixion ; Christ in 
Hades; Last Supper. AH by a yexy 
able scholar. — M. 

CHrolamo da Santa Orooe: Holy 

Granaeoi : S. Mary Magdalene ; S. 
ApoUonia: S. Jeiome; S. John Baptist; 
Holy Family. 
Grease : Portrait of a Young Gill, 
liBoeeBae da finola: Virgui nd 
Child, with SSL Petronius, CSaia, 
Francis, Sebastian, and Catherine. 

Leonardo da Vinci (imitator of): 
1042. Virgin and Child; green coshkw 
and me. SolMNd of Gossaert.— IL 
Virgin and Child, with a 
background. Flemish. — M, 

two Elders. She is utting at a iowor { Lorenao di Oxedi : Holy Family 

Ly GoOgU 


Moute 37. — Paintings. 


roand ; S. Joseph asleep. Bf a popil. 
— — M. 

Lorenzo Lotto : *Marriage of S. 
Catharine ; S. Joseph oq the right : 
pleasing and earlv-.— U. 

Lnini: S. Ciithariae; probably by 
Sftlario, but hopelessly repainted ; the 
right hand quite new. — M,-— Virgin 
and Children ; a copy. — M. 

ManoUni: Virgin and GhUd. to 
wbom S. Joseph hands cherries. Stiff, 
liard, and wooden. — M. 

Horetto : *Portrait of a black- 
bearded divine ; by Moroni, one of his 
very best. — M. 

Morad : ^Portrait of a lady. 

Mnrillo : Two ragged Boys eating 
Melons and Grapes, full of huniour, 
and true to nature.— *Two Boys 
playing with Dice, and a third looking 
on. — k. CKrl parehasing Pmit. — ^Two 
Boys eating Bread and Fruit. — Old 
Woman and Boy. — St. Juan do Dios 
healing cripples. 

Paochia: * Virgin and Child with 
Angel's heads. — *S. Bernardino, with 
two Angels. 

Palma Yecchio : Virgin and Child, 
with S. Roch and the Magdalene. 
A copy from Bellini, by Oir. da 
Santa Croce. — M. — Portrait of the 

Palmezzano : Virgin and Child, with 
SS. Francis, Peter, Anthony the 
hermit, and Paul. 

Paolo Veronese : Cupid holding two 
spotted dogs with a ebain. — Holy 
Family; the child astoiusfaed, the 
Vii^n scornfal. 

Paris Bordone : Portrait of a lady 
in red velvet and pearls; a flat 
soundless copy. — M. — Portrait of a 
bearded man, holding a bookr^Portrait 
of a man, and a girl with light hair; 
dnmTded but interesting. — M. 

Pedrini : Virgin and Child ; a poor 
copy ; original in the Borghese 

Fedrs As Meya: Card-piaying and 

Femglno : Virgin and Child; in- 
ferior, but genuine. — M. — ♦Vision of 
S. Bernard, with SS. Bartholomew and 
John Evan. Pormerly at S. Spirito, 
Florence. — Baptism of Christ, and 
Besurrection ; two p;'edellas. Both by 

& Germ, 

Spagna. — M.— Vii^n and Child, with 
SS. John Evan, and Nieolas. Weak 

and superficial. — M. 

Piero di Cosimo : The Three Arch- 
angels. Clumsy ; by an infbrior 
Floretitine of U50.— M. 

Baffael : Holy Family, figures 
entire, half the size of life (Canig- 
iani). Infamously repainted, espe- 
cially the feet and right arm of Christ, 
and the mass of & John's hair. Feet 
of Joseph^ and thnmb and right foot 
of Anna, all very bad. The most 
liafFael'esque part is the head of Christ. 
— M. — *Virgiu and Child (^Tempi); 
an early painting, mnoh damaged by 
restoration. Landscape cleaned on, 
mouth of the Virgin disfigured, fore- 
head and nose have lost their outline, 
left eyelid spoilt. Child well preserved, 
all Imt outline of left cheek. Hands 
unfinished.— M. — Vii^n and Children, 
shamefully restored. — M. Replica at 
Turin (Madonna della Tenda). — Head 
of the young S. John, painted on 
tiles in fresco. Spiritless and tasteless 
curls, ungracefully modelled nedt ; not 
genuine. — M. — Portrait of a young 
man. Entirely repainted ; no cracks 
or strains visible : violet-red flesh 
without a trace of the brush; green 
background ; untranspareot black 
shadows.— M. — (Copy): S. Cecilia; a 
bad Flemish copy of Juana de Aragon 
at the Louvre. — M. — Good copy of the 
Madonna del Cardeilino. 

Bfbera: Hump-backed woman with 
a hen and basket of eggs. 

Booco Marconi: S. Nicholas with 
two Angels, S. John Bapt., and 8. 

SalYator Bosa : Small landscape, 
with view over the sea. 

Schiavone : Parnassus. 

Schidone : Penitent Magdalene. 

Sebastiano del Piombo : Portrait 
bust of a divine, with black cap. 

SDdoma ; *HoIy Family. Similar to 
that at Turin, but not so fine. — ^M,— 
♦Head of S. Michael, oval. 

Spagna : 1037. Baptism of Christ, 
and (1038) Kesuri*eciiou ; parts of a 
predella, Ibrmcrly ascribed to Kallbel 
or Perugino. 

Spinello Aretino : SS. Maurice, 
Angustiue, Peter, Nicolas, and 

uy Google 


Mouie o7. — Munich : Pinacothek ; 


phen.— SS. Anthony, AmbroMt 
Bapt., Paul, and Catharine. 

Tintoretto : Portrait of Andrea Vesa- 
lius. — Venetian nobleman 'with his 
«OD.^(School of) : 1 132« Portmt of 
a Venetian Adnuraly bj Lnigi Crrim- 
ani. — M. 

Titian: Portrait of a Venetian witli 
grey beard. — Venus with a young 
girl. — The Vanity of earthly pleasures; 
an early work ; violet tone. — *Portrait 
of a youth In black, with fur-trimmed 
coat ; very beautiful. — M. — Portrait 
of Charles V., ill and cross. I^and- 
8cape copied by Kubens iu 2\o. 749 aud 
797. — M. — ♦Virgin and Child, sitting 
in fi out of a building.—Christ crowned 
with thorns, unfinished. — Virgin and 
CltiM with S.John Hapt., and a donor. 
'1 (M) weak for him ; lamb spiritless, 
loiiage minute j good colour. — M. 

TOrbido : ^Portrait of a nmn with a 
rose ; remarkable. — M. 

Unknown : 0t)7 Florentine portrait 
of a youth iu rod cn\\ lunch damaged. 
— 1019 Virgin and CiiUd with two 
angels, on a gold groimd-^SchooI of 
Bologna (1480)— 1023 Yirgio and 
Child, with two bishops and two Fran- 
ciscans* Paltry, M-ith wooden eyelids; 
Veronese ; probably Fr. Henaglio. — M. 
— 1027 S. Ambrose; 1028 S. Louis; 
Lombardo-Pavian, coming very near 
Piero Fr. Sacchi. — M. — (Falsely Mgned 
Jtaffaello). 1078 Portrait of a young 
man with swollen nose, lifeless. — M. 
— 107a Virgin aud Child; an unin- 
teresting late imitation of the ITmbro- 
Florentine School. — M.— S. Jerome 
writing (1088). Probably a Flemish 
copy from Moroni, but completely 
masked under a thick varnish turned 
yellow. — M. — The figure is unusually 
▼igorons for an anchorite. — Lombard 
School of 1580. Penitent Magdalene 
( 1 1 OfJ) ; by Scltedone, — M. — Bolognese 
School (riOfJ). Ecce Homo; an un- 
mistakable work of Dom. Feti. — M. 

YasMi: Holy Family; two good 

Yecellio, Fr. : Virgin and Child, 
with SS. Jerome, Francis, and An- 
thony. Begun by Titian.— M. 

Velasijuet: Portrait of a youth in 

Zarbariii: S. Francis of Aisisi. 

Dutch, Flemish, akd German 

Aelst, W. van : Two dead partridges 
and instruments of the Chase. 
Altdorftr: Pietk^S. George and 

the Drai:'»n — *Susanna. — Virgin and 
( Miild ; at tlie back, Noli me tangere. 
— ^Victory of Alexander over Darius 
at Arbela. See Kuyhr, vol. i, p. 180. 

Artois: Landscape. 

Asselyn: *Kuined Castle on a rock. 

Bakhuyien : A ntwerp Harbour. 

Balen, H. van : Feast of the 
Gods; the ilowers and landscape by 

Bart. Bruyn: Christ taking leave 
of the N'ir^in. — Resurrection. — Cruci- 
fixion uitii attendant Saints on sepa- 
rate panels. — Several figurvs of Saints, 
sometimes accompanied by kneeling 

Barthel Beham: Finding of the 
Tro^V— K. rx>uis of Hungary. — ^Death 

oi ( ' 1 1 ii i MS. 

Beers U aaleii ; biurm at Sea, on a 
rocky coast. 

Berchem: Italian landscape with 
riv( r.— *0attle and peasants at a 

Bol : Portraits of Govaert Fliuck 
and his Wife. 
Botb; 583^'Lsndscape by evening 

light, with Mercury and Argus.-* 
Autiinm Scene in Italy. 

Brueghel the Elder: 697 ♦Land- 
scape.— Holy Family iu a Garland. — 
683 Landscape. 

Bmeghel uid Rubens : Yirgin and 
Child in a wreath of flowers. 

Brouwer: *Pea8ants singing 

and drinking round a ( a^k. — 
♦Soldiers playing dice in a tavern. — 
879 *Card pla\ers quarrelling. — 882, 
*884, 8S7, mo\ *S9U 893, 896, 89G. 
Peasant life and Tavern Scenes. — 894 
♦Peasants Singing. 880 ♦Village 
Surgeon. — 883 Three boors smoking. 
—885 Village Surgeon binding up a 
wounded arm. — 886 Two peasants 
smoking. — 888 ♦Card playing. — 889 
Brawling' peasants. 

Burgkmair: Esther before Aha- 
suerus. — ♦Martin Sehongauer, tlie 
painter.— S. John Baptist.— S. Jobs I 
Evan.—S, Jobn in the island of 

Digitized by Goo 

BavAxia. SoiUe 87.- 

Patmos.-^. Idbefins nd Smtftce. 
— Bake William IV. of Bttfaztt» and 
Jiis wife Maria Jacobsea. 

Champaigue: Porirait butt of Mar- 
shal Tureune. 

Cuyp, Albert : Laudscape. — '"Officer, 
-with grey hone, 

J. B : Town by a Riv«r. 

Denner: Portrait of a Man and 
Woman, both in fur. Wonderfully 
xoinute in iinisli. 

Bivriok Bonto : 4^eloldBedek'» 
OfTefUi^ and the Israelites gathering 
Manna ; two wings of the Last Supper 
at S, Peter's, Louvain. — *Triptych ; 
Adoration of the Magi ; on the wings, 
SS. John Baptist imd Ohristopher ; 
behind^ SS. Oatharine aad Barbara. 

Son: Old woman cutting bread, 
with two boys. — *01fl Rpin'^ter eating. 
— *Girl lookinffout of wmdow, with a 
li^ht and a lantern. —Old woman at a 
window.*— A mountebank '^harangu- 
In^iirom his stage to figures of differ- 
ent ages, but I cannot add of different 
characters ; for there is, in truth, no 
character in the picture. It is very 
highly ihudiedy out has nothing in- 
teresting in it. Gtimrd Dow himself 
is looking from a window with his 
palette and pencils in his hand. The 
heads have uo character, nor are any 
circumstances of humour introduced. 
The only inddenl Is a very iiitf one, 
which everybody must wish had been 
omitted. The rest of the figures are 
standing round, without invention or 
noFcity oi any iiind. This is supposed 
to bo tba largest eompoaltion that he 
ever made, his other works being little 
more than sindo fii'-nres ; and it plainly 
appears that this was too mnch for 
him — more than he knew how to 
manage. Even the accessories in the 
baekground are ill managed and dis- 
JKoportioned : a stump of a tree is too 
small, and the weeds are too large, 
and both are introduced with as mnch 
formality as if they were principal 
objecta.^^^ J. j».--.*Womaa sellffig 
liarrings and onions. — Portrait of 
himself. — Lady in yellow satin at a 
mirror. — An old painter at his easel. — 
•Hermit praying. — ♦Woman selling 
regsMM and l»nsBgt.*-*Qa«dc^ 
*(Srl ^emptyuig a isuu^HOO, 408 

Hecmits praying.— *Weman baking 

cakefti—'*' Woman combing a boy's hair. 

Biirer: "^Portrait of Oswolt Krell* 
with remarkably well-pwnted fur.— 
SS. Simeon and Lazarus. — S. Joseph 
and Joachim. — *Portrait of Wohlge- 
muth, hat master^^. Pettr and 
John.— *8S. Pool and Mark.— ^Death 
of Lncretia. — *Nativity, with two 
donas of the Baumgartner family. — 
♦Pietk — *Portrait of himself. — ^Por- 
trait of Jaeob Fagger, glased.— ^Por- 
trait of a young man, with open throat. 

Eeckhouty €K vaA doBt CMuist in 
the Temple. 

Everdingon : *Gataract in Norway. 

Feselen: CloeUa and Porsenna. — 
Siege of Alcsia in Baiigmidy by 

Flemish School : 118 Adorntion of 
the Magi. — 125 Virgin and Child with 
four angels. — 12G S. George. 

Hiak: Three soldiers, playing dice. 

Tyt ; Boar-hunt^ and BeaMnnt. 

Ooyen, J. van: Landscape with 
cottatres, — Town on a river. 

Oerard David : ^Virgin and Child, 
^th female SaintB. 

Oossaert : Yirgin and Child (LS87). 

Griinewald : SS. Maurice and 
Erasmus; S. Mary Mairdnlen ; Laza- 
rus; S. Chrysosioni ; and S. Martha. 

Hals : ^Family group. 

Haas BaUnnf ; Margraye Philip 
(aged 14X end Maigcave CSiriacopher, 

of Baden. 

Heist, Bart, van der : 315,316 Male 
and female portrait. — ^Admiral Martin 
Tromp. — Adrian, Graf tob Camain. 

Hlnnesaitt, J. van : Call of 8. Ilat- 
thew. — ^T^nae -sing Jacob. 

Henri de Bles: Adoration of the 
Magi. — Triptych ; Adoration, Nati- 
vity, and Flight — Annunciation. 

HaydiBr J. van dor: ^Street aeene. 

Hobbema: Landscape. 

Holbein the Elder : Eight scenes 
from the Birth of Christ. — Eight 
scenes from the Passion.— Triptych ; 
a Sebastian, with SB* Barbara and 
EUasheth en the iriagss ai Ae hack. 
Annunciation . 

Holbein the Younger: '^Portr^t of 
Derich Born (small» oval).— Povtndt 
of Sir Bryan Tuke. 

HoBdeaoetert Poultry Yard*-— 

f 2 

MmUe iil,— Munich : FiuaCotkek ; 

Sect. XL 

Ch«lkB^ (Cotk tad Tnkc^).— 
*1Mwy«Bd Cock, figliliag« 
Huxfum: Grapcf, Batlerflict, and 

iJe' -.- Flowfirs. 

Jardiu, IL du : *The Sick Goat. 

JordaazLf: Twelfdi Night.— The 
fitm f«bttkiiM[ tlie nail wko blowt hot 

«M«old. *' Well painted. He ought 
never to have attempted higher 8ub- 
jeetii than satyrs or animals, or men 
Uiile above beabt£; fur be liad no 
Ite of graoe or digpity of elHfieter ; 
W rnuuB, tbermie, * irvelehod 
figure in ^rrand subjects. He cer- 
tmuly, however, understocnl very well 
the mechanical part of the art; hii» 
works are generally well coloiired, 
mi €x«eiited with great fnoiom of 
fcand."- s;r J. n. 
Xajntr, T. de : Mother atid f^on . 
Koninck : T'hn^ir \n the Teniijlc 
Kaimbach, H. voa; S. Josepli and 

It Fortalts of tvo old men. 
Liieat Cranaeh: Moses and Aaron. 
— Adam and Eve. — St. Anno. Mi?h 
the Yirgia aud Child. — Crucitix^ion. 
^The Woman taken in Adultery^— 
Deaiiiof Loeretia. 

Lneai Tan Leyden: ^Virgin and 
rf»j!d, with the Mjgdalen, and S. 
Jc>^* 1 h as dfjrior. — * Annunciation. 

Karijius ; l ax - gatiierer in his 

liaifeiraf Iha Boiiseree 8. Baribalo- 

mew : Triptych; SS. l?artliolfiiiiew, 
Agnes, and Cecilia ; rt. wiiijz, SS. 
Cristina and James the less; lett 
wing, SS. John Evan, and Margaret 

Crnciflxlon. — Triptych ; Death of 
the Virgin : on the wingl^ donOTS 
with their patmii siiint.«i. 

Kaster of the Ly versberg Passion; 
Pufiileation of the Virgin. — ^Annoo- 
eiation. — Marriage of Jooqpih and 
Mary. — Joachim and Anna at the 
Golden Gate. — Crucifixion. — Visita- 
tion. — Nativity of the Virgin, — AlS- 
Bomption. — Adoration of the Kings, 
in tntee panels. — (School of): Coro* 
nation of the Virgin, with nnnerona 
half-length tnigels. 

Meer, J. van. der (of Haarlem): 
Forest in Autumn. — Forest Scene in 

Itailiaii (Sehool ol)s Vit- 
gin and Childt in % bower of {MBki 

Memlingi S. John the Baptist.— 
*The Seven Juvs ot Mary. In thi« 
aariooa opting the cluef c^cuts 
oonneelMt with the hM^ destli, tad 
resurrection of oor Bayiour, and the 
death and assumption of the Virgin, 
arc represented id distinct groups, 
with singular minuteness aud the 
moatdellieaie finish. 

Xengs : Portrait of a _ 
Friar. — Portrait o( ihe Artist. 

Metsu : Cook, iu iqA and blue.— > 
♦TwelAh Night. 

Minmll: *lVMrtrait bust of a man. 

mafia, Inaa OAcer Asleep. 
— 422 Two peasants in a tayemi^ 
T,ndy in yellow satin playing the 
lute. — *Lady fainting. — Lady with a 

tmrot. — *Lady iu white satin at a 
ooking - glass. — ^Ojnster • anting. — 
(School of) : Tnimpetar at n window. 
Mieris, W. van : Fishmonger* 
Mignon : Basket of fruit. 
More, Anthony : Male portrait, 
■oalaart : Adoration of the kincs. 
—Rest on the flight Prcaeatation m 
the Temple. 

Netherland School : Mary and John 
wiUi three holy women j iragm^t 
of a CrucitixioD. 

Hear, Eglon van dar : Lady liuntiK 
Netaaker : *Concert-<-*Yonng la^ 

with a parrot and page.— 'Boy j^yii^ 
the flute, by lamplight. 

Heiich4tel: *Neudorfer the writing- 
master, and his.son. — Male and Female 

Orley, Barend van : Norbert 

refutinjr the heretic Teuchlin, a wild 
enthusiast who preached in the Nether- 
lands between 1115 and 1124. 

Oatada» A» via: Peasants brawling 
in an ale-hoose (two subjects).—-^! 
Peasants smoking; and romping. — 369 
Pendents in a tavern, drinking and 

Ostade, J. van: ^Village Fair.— 
376 Cottage interior.— "^Winter Scene. 
—(School of) : 377 Wmter Scene. 

Fatinir: Croeifixlon^Sehool of): 

S. rvoch. 

Prew : Victory of Scipio Africanus 
over Hannibal at Zaauu 

Ly Google 



Potter ; ^Landscape witk cows and 
goats.— *CcnpSt tbeep, and goats, 
small, liigMj ft^shed. 

Qnentin Massys : Pietk— >(S<iliool 

of) : Two tax-ffntherers. 

Bavesteyu : Male and Female *|K>r^ 

Bambrandt: ^Ascensiooi, Hesnrree- 
tioD, and Entombment. — Crucifixion. 
—Descent from the Cross. — Eleyation 
of tlie Cross. *'The chief merit of 
Kembrandt's paintiu^ consists iu his 
paealiari^ of maimer— of admittfasg 
out fitUe light, and giviag to that 
little a wontlerful brilliancy. The 
colouring of Christ in the Elevation 
of the Cross cannot be exceeded.'* — 
^Adoration of the Bhepherds. — ^Holy 
Family.^ — *Sacrifice of Isaac. — *Por- 
tcait of a Turk.— ^Portrait of himself. 

Bubens : The central and largest 
hail of the Gallery, and one cabinet, 
are exclusively occupied by 95 works 
of the great Fl«aiiah master. 784 
Portraits of Lord and Lady Arundel. 
The lady rests lier hand on a do^'s 
head; hrr liusliand Stands beliiiul: a 
boy (her sou) by her side with a hawk, 
and a dwarf behind the dog. The 
Amodel anns, a red and white shield, 
with a lion and iinicnrn for snpportcrs, 
and the garter in a label under, are 
ainted on the curtain. — 734 A lion 
mit. **Thi8 eamtal production ap- 
pears to be wholly by the pencil of 
Kubens. His powerfol painting and 
energetic expression are conspieuous 
in ever^ part. In the composition he 
has evidently borrowed largely from 
tiie Battle of the Standard, by Ii. da 
Yuici.'' It is one of Rubens' finest 
works, excelling in those qualities in 
which he surpasses all other artists, 
movement and action. — 750 8S. Peter 
and Faal, "painted in the grand 
style of the Italian sehool."— 7.'^G 
Victory crowning Mars. — 753 TJio 
S:ii)ine Women,— 737 The Fall of the 
Danmed, or the Fallen Angels. " It 
is impossible to form an adequate idea 
of the powers of Rnliens withont 
havmg seen tiiis picture: he seems 
here to have given a loo?e to the most 
capricious imagination in the attitudes 
and invention of his fallen angels, 
who aia tumbling one om the oner. 

'witli hideous ruin and combustion, 
down to bottomless nerditaon.' If wo 
consider the fhutAuncm of indention 

which is discovered in this work, or 
the skill ^yhich is shown in composing 
such an iahnite number of h^ures, or 
the art of the distribution of light and 
shadow, the freedom of liandf the 
facility with which it seems to be 
performed, and, ^hat is still more 
extraordinary, the correctness and 
admirable ta&te of drawing of hgures 
IbreAorteoed, in atlitsdes the most 
difficult to execute, we must pfronoonoe 
this picture to be one of the greatest 
efforts of genius that the art has pro- 
duced." — Sir J. B, Wilkie considered 
this pletore " the. most sorpnttoff of 
Rubens' labours. It eombines, in 
rate excellence, his powerful imagina- 
tion, his daring composition, and his 
deepest and richest lone of colouring. — 
789 The Infant Ferdinand of Spain on 
hoisebaek.— 740 The Nativity, with 
many angels. " AdmiraUy composed ; 
the nearest shepherd is particularly 
well drawn and coloured. One of the 
angels, who has her arms crossed on 
her breast^ with enrled hair, like the 
Antinous, seems to be eoided from 
Parmeggiano: it is mucn out of 
Eu bens' common manner." — Sir J. B. 
— 744 Samson betrayed by Delilah. 
— 789 *Rnbens and Us first iriliB, Eliza- 
beth Brandt, ^when he was a yonng 
man, for his portrait here appears not 
above two or three and twenty. His 
wife is very handsome, and has an 
agreeable countenance. She is by 
much the best part of the piotnre^ 
which is raAcr in a haid manner. 
The linen is grey: he was at this 
period afraid of white." — Sir J. J?.— 
73 b The great Labt Judgment, for- 
mally at ftJileiwheim, now fills the 
centnd place in the lari^ gallray. 
''There is nothintr very interesting 
in this picture; perhaps there is too 
great a quantity of flesh to have an 
agreeable effect. Three naked wmnen 
and a nahed man Join toge 1 1 1 e i to make 
the great mass of light of tJie pic- 
ture.^ — SirJ. B. — 794 Helena Forman, 
Kubens' second wile, iu an arm-chair 
^746 The Magdahn and three 
repentatit^shmerpy coming to Chr 


BatUe Q7.—^umch : Fiuacoihek; . Beot* XL 

T4a Chrnt on ^OroM^fS ^'^Boys 

playing with or carrying a festoon of 
flowers and fruit, paintetlby Schnyders. 
Rome of the boys the same as those in 
the liauuueting-house, Whitehall : it 
if OM of Bnbein' bett pietoret belli 
tor colouring and drawing; it is, 
indeed, soft aud rich as flesh itself. 
Though the tlowere are painted with 
all that beauty of colour which is in 
mUm, yet Bwxoit has pmerfd toeli 
brightness aad dceniess in bit flMb, 
though in contact with those flowers, 
as perhaps no other painter could have 
done." — Sir J. li. — 736 Michael com- 
bating the fallen ansels. " Michael 
is bst an ungnocM llgnfe} Ua Mi 
mantto has bat a hmry appearance : 
it seems as if it were only laid in flat, 
to be afterwards finished. The pic- 
ture has certainly sufl'ered by clean- 
ing; tb«f» mmts, upon'tha w h a le , a 
solidity of eff'ect."-H8ir J. J?.— 764 
The drunken Silenus supported by 
satyrs. "One of Kubeus' highest 
coloured pictures, but not superior to 
<bat OB m sane sabject at Blenheim. 
The composition of this wilt in many 
points."— 5tr J?.— 7» A Madonna 
and Bambino, within a framework of 
llowers; "the flowers by Brmglul, 
aud eleven boy angels surrounding the 
gatrfand, who are b aaiat il b l iy oolonfed, 
equally brilliant with the flowers." — 
Sir J, J?.— 803 The Peasants turned 
into Frogs for insulting; Latona. — 791 
*A Franciscan monk with a skull in 
his band; 800 Dr. Van Tolden, in 
black, holding a book dmt ; 787, 768 
Philip IV. of Spain, and his Queen." 
Sir J. R.—757 The Murder of tlie 
Innocents. A subject in which the 
painter has put forth all his strength 
and genina in depioting ezeitei pa>> 
sions. — 752 Meleager and Atlanta.— 
749 The Holy Trinity. This picture 
was painted by liubeus at Munich, 
and formerly ornamented the Angus* 
tine €9i«rdi. It la an oxarilent pm* 
duction, good in de»gn and colour.-^ 
755 Peace threatened by Mars, hut 
protected by Minerva. — 781 A Boar 
Hun t i admirable. — 795 Rubens' second 
wUSf Haima Forman. (The fair oom- 
plexioned dame, whoaa tttddir eboeks 
w wbieb tbo blood aoama to ^oir and 

circulate, ipteio kigfaing aad flpatk- 

ling blue eyes, heaving bosozu, nad 
curly flaxen tresses, the painter so 
much doted on, and which he delighted 
to transmit to posterity in so luaoy of 
bia wwk%.y-Jjm TTbgBntaiMbi—l ; n 
very valuable sketch. — 745 Susanna 
and the Klders ; one of the best pic- 
tures in the room. — 797 Portraits of 
Kubeus' second wife aud child. — 
An allegory tnm tbo Book Bcffv* 
latlon ( tbo Virgin with eagla'a wuigi 
treads upon the head of the serpent, 
the archangel Michael hurls the dragon 
aud other monsters into the bottom- 
less pit; in the distance is the town 
of PfsgFaing, for wbieb plaoo thai pla- 
ture was painted. — 790 '^Portnil of 
the ilnfant Ferdinand of Spain, in a 
cardinal's dress. — 754 Fame crowning 
Mars. The Fame is too red, as 
well aa tbo rOitof tbe pletaae.^---7i9 
*A shepherd Uaiing a girl ; the immi 
is thought to resemble the painter. — 
798 The Painter with his wife and 
son, in the garden of his house at Ant- 
werp. — 791 Diana and her nymphs; 
the landaCBOo m by Sreu^M— 7J0 
Nymphs and satyrs ; tbo birds are 
BrtnffhcL — 727 Castor and Pollux, 
M ith two horses carrying away Phoebe 
aud Elaira, the daughters of Leucip* 
pot: *'it iaofino pieoo of ooKmring, 
but the composition too artful." — 
Sir J. JL—126 The martyrdom of St. 
Lawrence ; ** the colouring appears 
raw."— 7ti4-779 Sketches for the 
series, of nlctoTes designed for tba 
Gallery or (ho Lv»aniboiu^» now bi 
the Louvre, representing ev^M of 
the Life of Mary de' Medici.— 738 
The small Last Judgment. "As in 
the large picture the blessed are the 
MOit ooa ap s Bii ooa, bore ibo danMod 
mak% in a manner, the subject of the 
(imposition : the blessed are faintly 
represented at a distance in the upper 
part of the picture, near Christ aud 
tile Virgin Mary. Tbis picture is fu 
superior to tbo larga one on the same 
subject in every respect.** — Sir J. H.— 
732 The battle of Sennacherib. *• In 
this picture there is a great repose of 
shadow in larso masses; the figures 
and horses are full of animation.'^Httir 
J}.-— WTbo Batdo of tbo Avma. 


Baute 37. — Pmnttngs. 


The woman, who lies dead at the 
bottom, with her head dowiiwaids, is 
beautifully coloured) iu the mauner of 
the womaa in the picture of fallen 
angels; and, tiiou^ not a oon%ct 
form, has a grand, tree, opea ontline." 
— s'f'r J. /J. —7(51 A Landscape," with 
a double rainbow across the picture, 
very slight; the varnish seeuis to be 
offtkw i»ietaTe.'*--788*'A ■mall pic- 
ture of the Conversion of St. Paul. 
The hoi'se of St. Paul is in a remark- 
ably fine auitude, and there is ^ixat 
spirit aiui bustle through the whoie 
piotiire. Tamenem or Inii|Bidtty is 
not the ciharaeter of Kubois; in what- 
ever he employs his figures, they do 
their business with great energy." — 
tStr J. H. — 7G2 A finished small pic- 
ture of the St. Christopher, the satue 
as on the door of the Descent ihmi 
the Cross at Antwerp. — 760 An ea- 
quisite Landsc:»pe with CowS ; a pass- 
ing shower, \Mth rainbow. — ^785 Por- 
trait of Groiius. — 786 Portrait of a 
maig ina». — ^706 Portrait of Helen 

Buysdael, J. van : 549 Village scene 
in a thaw. — r>50 Cataract. — 53*) Land- 
scape. — ruo *Forest Scene. — 645 
* Wooded landscape in a threatening 
storm. — 544 Landscape, ---^Galaraot 
with floating timber. 

Buysdael, 8. van : Landscape, with 
a watch-tower. — 540 Canal, with au- 
tumn foliage. — 541 * Wooded river- 
bank.^^a *J[iandscape with river. 

SchaiEasr* Annunciation, Presenta- 
tion, Descent of the Holy Spirit, and 
Death of the Virgin, — *Peter Appian 
the Mathematician. 

Schaloken: Girl blowing out a 

Sch&ttftlsln: The A^ooy in the 


Schongaar: ♦Nativity. 

0ohwan: The painter's family. 

iUngelaad ! *Motber beside a 

Snyders : Fruit, vegetables, fowls, 

and game. — 958 Boar-hunt. 

Steen: *Quarrel between card- 
yers. — ^Pliysician feeling a sick 
,dy*g pulse, 
ftrlgel : Conrad Rehlingen of Angs- 
hary a»d his ebUdren, two wings of 


an altar-piece. — ^Xhe Bmpsfor Maxi- 
milian I. 

Sweerts : Boys and men in a tavern, 
Teniers: 912 Village Concert — 
902, 903 *Tavcni Seenea.— 911 Fea- 
sant with his wife, smoking.— 905 

Peasant * Wedding. — 907 Four *men 
sm okiiii; ;ind drinking. — 904 Village 
ruvein. — yiO Cottage Interior. — Vio- 
lin player.—- Witch. — ^Pair at Isspru* 
neta, near Floreues, ra*ton(d)ed. 

Terburg : ♦Boy with a dog on his 
l:Lp. — ♦Trumpeter bringixig a letter to 
a young lady. 

Tanderwerff: Christ in ^ Temple. 
—The Ma^^dalen in eoBtealplatloa^ as 
large as Itfie. «*The Ifagdalen was 
painted as a companion to the St. 
John of Rapbael ; but it was not 
thought even by his friends that ho 
had snceeeded : howcTer, he oertalnly 
has spared no pains ; it is as smooth 
and ns highly finished as his small 
pictures; but his defects are Iumv majr- 
nified,and consequently moreappareut. 
IBs pietaree, whether great or smaU, 
certainly atford but little pleSBOre. In 
describing Vanderwerfs manner, were 
1 to say that all the parts everywhere 
melt into each other, it might natn- 
rally be supposed that the eflect would 
bea high aegree of softness; but it Is 
notoriously the contrary; his flesh 
h-\9^ the npi>(_>a ranee of ivory, or plaster, 
or some other bard substance. What 
contributes to give this iiarducss is a 
wantof transparem^ in Jusaolonring, 
from his admitting litde or no re- 
flections of light. However, to do 
him justice, hU figures mxd. his heads 
are generally well diawn, and his 
dra]>ery is excellent} perhaps there 
are m his pictures as pemet examples 
of drapery as are to be found in any 
other painter's work whatever." — Sir 
J. 1?. One of the Cabinets is entirely 
iiiled with snmli pictures by this un- 
interesting painter. 

Vandyck: Piet^ (828). The at- 
titude of the Christ wonld be ad- 
mirable if the head had not so squalid 
an appearance. — Sir J, B, — Portraits : 
848 of an Organist of Antwerp ; 834 
of Snyders t ; 883 of himself; and 847 

f Now ascertained t3 be tbtt of Georg Petal, 
a acnlptoiv of Auffiburg. 



Boute 37. — Munich: 

Finacotheh ; Vas€9 : Sect. IL 

of the engraver, Carl Malery, of 
Antwerp. — 823 S. Sebastian bound to 
a tree, and 822 Susanna and the 
Elders : two admirable pictures, done 
when the artist was very young; 
highly coloured. "He never after> 
-wards bad so brilliant a Tiianuer of 
colouring ; it kills every tin ntr near it. 
Behind are fiiriirts ou liorseback 
touched with gttut spirit. This is 
Vaudyck's first manner, when he 
imitated Rubens and Titian." — Sir 
/.I?.— 830 The Dead Christ in the 
arms of the Virgin. " Finel v rojoured, 
correctly drawn, and finished witii the 
utmost care and precision." — SirJ.Jl. 
— S24 S. Sebastian. — 825 Crucifixion. 
—826 *Virgin and Children.— 827 
♦Rest on the Flight.— 835 Portrait of 
the Al ir jitis of Mirabel! 0.-8:^ 7 Tiie 
Grand i)uke Wolfgang of Pfalz. — 
Neuburg, with his dog. — 836 Sketch 
for the above. — 839 ♦Standing figure 
of a man in black. ^ — 84n * riio wife of 
the above. —841 l>uke Carl Alexander 
of Croi.— 844 ♦The Sculptor Coly u de 
Nole.— 845 ♦The Sculptors Wife.— 
846 The painter Jan de Wael and his 
wife. — 849 The artist's wife, Mana 
Unthven. — S'rl Portrait of Prince 
Franz of Curignau in armour. — 835 
AValleustein, in Grisaille.— 857 Oouut 
John of Nassau; the three last in 

Velde, A. van de : Italian landscape 
with Ferry. — ♦Shepherd at a foun- 
tain. — *Cattle, sheep, and goats. — 
* Landscape with cattle. 

Yalde, w. YVk de : '^Calm Sea. 
YMt OomeUna da : Family of von 


Weenix : G 3 'J - 1 < ) H a re a nd pheasant ; 
hare and turkey ; peacock. 

Weyden, E. van dar: *S. Luke 
painting the Virgin. Triptych; 
^Adoration of the Magi; on the 
wings, Annunciation and Presentation. 
The elder of the three kinjrs is a 
portrait of Philip the Good, Duke of 
Bargnndy, while the Moor is a like* 
ness of Charles tiie Hold. 

Wilhelm of Cologna: S. Veronica 

with the napkin. 

Wilhelm of Cologne (School of): 
Virgin and Child, with SS. Catharine, 
Barbara, Agnes, and Apojlonia* 

^ Wehlgemnth : Crucifixioiu — ^Mar- 
riage of S. Catharine.— Resurrection. 

Wouwerman : 502 * Watering 
horses. — 508 ♦Sportsmen at rest. — 
Waggoners at a Ferry. — ♦Leaving 
the otablc^Landiug fishes.-— 496 Stag 
hunting. — 510 Family scene, vhE 
grey horse.--503 Watering hones. — 
50 1 *.Stable. 

Wynants : 582 ♦Landscape. — 577 
Landscape.-— 580 ^Landscape by 
Evening light. — Hound in a land* 
scape. — 579 Landscape by Morning 

Zeitblom : S. Bridget. — S. George.— 
S. Anthony the Hermit.—C School of^: 
S. Cyprian. -Pope Cornelius. 

'I'he lower story of the Pinacothek 
contains collections, formerly at Mann* 
heim, of 

llnivlogi h7 fha Old Xaatari, 

amounting to 9000, including 4 of 
liaphapJ, 10 of Fra Bartolommeo ; a 
design fur the seal of the Academy 
at Florence, by Benvenuto Cellini ^ 
aeeompanied by his own written ex* 
planatjon of it; a portfolio full of 
Bemhrandts Sketches; many by A. 
Dihi'r : portruits hy i/o/Zx /n ; a series 
of bulijtct trom the wars of Maxi- 
milian, by Hans Burgkmavr, The 
drawings of Corneliut for the Loggii*, 
and 30UO collected by Ilugendas, in 
Brazil. Ai\in. on Tucs. and Frid., 
9 to 1. 1 lei c is also the Cabinet of 
EngraviiHjUy amounting, with wood- 
cuts and drawings to 300,000. It is 
open on Men. and Thnrs., 9 to 12, 
and Tnes. and Frid., 0 to 1. 

On the ground floor of the W. wing 
of the Pinacothek is a very choice 

Collootioii of Vases, including 1800 

Etruscan, from Viterbo, purchased by 
King Lewis I. (Open daily, except 
Sat. ; in winter, on Sun., Tues., and 
Thurs., from 9 to 1.) The rooms are 
painted in exact imitation of the Greek 
mural paintings in the tombs at Tar* 
qiiinii. They represent the funereal 
and marriage rites, banquets, games, 
&c., of the ancients. The tioors are 
inlaid with Tyrolcse marbles. There 
are three classes of Vases— l^nerali 

Digitized by Google 


Bouie 37. — Neue Pimcotheh 


PriMt and Nuptial — A&pa krr^piat 

the two Itist also, having been 
treasured up in the hou^s of the 
owners duriiig th^ir lives, were buried 
witii liheiii. Amoiiy tbe UMt muttk- 
able objects m; Itt Anmh^— On the 
table oil the rt a large vase, on which 
is represented a young man being 
instructed in music ; in the middle of 
tbe room a large vase, on which is 
theTftkingof 'IiM)7; on the table on 
the 1. a water-jug, wtth women at a 
fountain. 2nd Boom, — Here are some 
white water-vessels from Attica, ore? 
Boom. — In this is tlie fiuest pai l of 
tbe eolleetion. On the Ist table en 
the 1. a vase, on which is the contett 
of ApoUo and Hercules for tlio brazen- 
footed hind in tlie presence of the 
other ^ods*— a fine work. On the 2nd 
table IS a large nuptial vase, iridi 
designs of great beauty, representing 
different jparts of the marriage cere- 
mony : this is one of the finest speci- 
mens here. Aiso a funeral vase, on I 
which is the story of Jasou and 
Medea. In the floor of the 4th room 
is a fine mosaic (16 ft. square), found 
in the Duke of Lenchtenberg's estate 
in the S. of Italy, representing Apollo 
surrounded by the Zodiac, and the 
Year sarsing the 4 Seasons, re^re- 
iented as 4 children. On the 1. is a 
curious collection of earthen vessels. 
Oriental in style and ornament, found 
in the Greek islands. Nos. 8 1 u and 849, 
remarkable vases found at Cauossa. 

On the N. side of tbe Piaaeothek is 

*lfEUE PllfAKOrHEK (D. 1), begun 
in lS46,by JLiewis I,,and completed in 

1853, from the designs of the archi* 
tect Voit. Open Tnes., Thnrs., Sat., 
and Sun., 8-12 and 2-4 ; in wiiiter 
from 10-2. It contains 52 rooms on 
2 Stories Ibr the irorks of painters of 
the 19th centuiy, and forms a oon- 
tinuation of the old Pinacothek. 

The exterior is decorated with 
a series of allegorical frescoes, on a 
colossal scale, executed from Kaul- 
baeh's designs by NUaon, ^inellbo- 
tivn and oddly xeealling:' the scenic 
temptations hung on the outside of 
booths at fairs," and some have already 
suiiiered much from the effects of ex- 
posnre to the weather. Between the 
win lows on the N. side are eolossal 
full-length portraits, on a Trhite ground 
of Thorwaldsen, Klenze, Cornelius, 
OhlmiUler, P. Hess, Gartner, Schnorr, 
H. Hess, Bottmanny ZieUand,Sehwan- 
thaIer,Sehoni,6chraudolph, Kaulbach. 
The upper floor, which contiuns the 
paintings, is divided into 5 large cen- 
tral 'halls, 5 rooms on the S. side, 
and ,14 cabinets on the IS., besides a 
room at tbe W. end lllled widi Boti- 
mann's JEncaustie paintings, views of 
historic sites and remarkable places in 
Greece. The entrance hail contains 
some tables of oriental granite and 
marble, on which are pliMed several 
handsome vases of serpentine and 
Swedish porphyry. In the central 
hall is the finest work of KanJJxtrli^ 
the Destruction of Jerusalem — Titus 
entering; the Konian Eagle planted 
oo the altar of the Temple; the High 
.Priests putting themselves to death ; 
the Jewish women in despair; tbe 
Christians conducted forth from the 
walls by good angels; above, the 5 





























lyui^LLi Ly Google 

74 Baute 37. — Munich : Polytechnic School ; iSeot. IL 

prophets -who foretold ^ the erent. 

Other pictures worth notice are 
Achenbach: Storm. 
Adam : Battle uf Orleans. 
Banherir! After dinoer. 

Bischof : The First Snow. 

Brandt : Horses in a Snowstorm. 
Biirkel: Village Street in a Showrr. 
CampliAuseii: Cavaliers aud liouud- 

Gatal: Spanish Bodega on the Tiber 
in Eome, with |N»tnits of the Crown 

Prince Lewis, Thorvaldsen, Schnorr, 
Veit, M. Wagner, Klenze, and the 
painter (1824). 

Coiguet: Temple at Pacstnm, 

Dafreggetr: Stormmg of the Red 
Tower, in 1705. 

Fenerbach: Medea. H ittle of the 
Giant*:. — Portrait of hiiiiself. 

Gabi: Vaccioatiou iu the Tyrol. 

Chkbriel Kax: The Nnn, Catharine 

Geycr: Physioifnis in Consnltation. 

Hasenciever ; iiierouymus Jobs 
under Esiamiuation. 

H^ss; Otho of Oreece entering 
'Nauplia.— Apollo and the Muses. 

Kaulbach : Portrait of Lewis I. 

Kuntz: Landscape with CatUe.— 

An'^\-y luiU, 

Kuizbauer: Kustic Feast. 

lenbadi : Prince ^marehu — ^Pqpe 
Leo XIII. 

Lier ; Tlic Theresieuwiese. 

Naves: Peasant women of Fondi, 

Overbeck : Holy Family. — Italy 
aud Geroiany.— Allegorical figures. 

Ffeiffer : The Scarecrow. 

Pilot y : Thusnelda in the triumphal 
procession of Germanicus. — Sen! before 
the corpse of Wuiieiistein. 

Preyer: Stfll-life. 

BottmaiUL: Greek Landscapes^ in 

a separate room. — Gulf of Palermo. — 
Mount Etna from Taormina.— Stable. 
— The Barm sec. 

Scbendel : Antwerp Market at Night. 

fldileidi! Scene on the Isnr.— 
Village Garden. 

Schom: The Deluge. 

Schwind : The Symphony. 

Stieler: Goethe. 

▼olti: Cattle retttrnins home. 

WUkSe : The Beading of the Will. 

On the ground floor is the 

Collation of Paintings on Porcelain, 
comprising copies of the mc«t famous 
works In the Picture Gallery. The 
ground floor also contains tlie Anti- 
quarium, a series of 5 halls filled with 
Egyptian antiquities, cork mpd^^ls of 
classical build ings» &c. 

The XzhiMtien Building (Kunst- 

ausstellungs-Gebiiude), in Corinthian 
style, by Ziebland, opposite the Glyp- 
tothek CD. 2), was opened in 1 845. 
The pediment is ornamented with a 
gronp by SehwanQiaUrt representing 
the profiessors of the yariona arts 
placing themselves under the pro- 
tection of Bavaria, who, seated on a 
throne, is distributing wreaths. It 
contains works of painting, sculpture, 
painted glass, porcelain, &c., fbr 

! o the W. of the old Pinaoothek k 


PtolTteeliiile Mool (D. i) a large 
and handsome edifice erected in 1869 
from the designs of NeureutJier. The 
lower part is of granite, the upper 
brick. Within is a handsome stair- 
case. Upwards of IdOO students 
attend the dassea, among them many 

In 1854 was planned and laid 
open the Mazimiliansstrasse, a broad 
featureless avenue, extending from 
the theatre and Max-Josephs-Platz to 
the Isar, which it crosses b^ a flne 
bridge. On the rt. hand of it is the 
Mmf, on I. the Hotel of the Four 
Seasons. Further on it widens out 
into a garden, with the Government 
Buildings on one side, and the National 
Musenm on the other. Between these 
are placed 4 bronze statues of Bava- 
rian worthies — Gen. D< roy, who fell 
at Polocz, in 1812, by Haibig ; Count 
Kuuiford, d. 1814, by Zumbusch ; 
Schelling, the great philosopher, 
"erected by his grateful pnpil, King 
Max II.," (1. 1854, by Brugger; aud 
Fraunhofer, the optician, d. 1 826, by 
Haibig. At the £. end of the street 
is a monument to King Maximilian II., 
by Zumbusch, erected in 187.5. 

Digitized by Google 

Bavaria* BaitU 37. — Bcwarian NaUonal Museum. 


The '^^Bayarian Kational Museum, 
in Maziiiiilianflstraflse, is an imposing 

Btructore, designed by Biedel, and 
carried out (Isng-lSHf)"! under tlie 
direction of Kuppelmaier, at the ex- 
pense of King Maximilian II. It is 
474 Eng. feet m lensth, 95 feet hi^h, 
and crowned with the Bavarian lion 
in zinc. The collections which it con- 
tains relating to Bavaria, her history, 
antiquities, and manufactures, are 
most extensive, precious, aud inter- 
esting. They were derived from sup- 
pressed monasteries and chnrches, and 
decayed castles, and palaces of the 
Bavarian house. 

This museum, as a whole, far sur- 
passes South Kensington, or the H. de 
Glany. Open dailv, except Hon., 
9 to 2 '. 1 mark ; Sand, and Thank free. 

Constant changes are being made in 
the position of the objects exhibited, 
but the general scheme is as follows : — 

Ground Floor. — Uomau aud other 
antiquities aud Gothic art. 

First JPTbor.— Four departments 
chronologically arranged to illustrate 
the history of weaponSyCOStume, cera- 
niic and the smlUi's art, and musical 


Second Floor, — ^Benussanee and mo- 
dern art. 

The Entrance-hall contains some 
French cannou takeu at Schlettstadt, 
and a mitnuUense. 

GroinitJ Floor I. of entrance: 

liuoin 1. — Roman remains; mile- 
stone from Augsburg j gravestones 
fbom Ratisbon ; votive and memorial 
tablets, altars, &c. 

Room 2. — Mosaic from Ingolstadt. 
Work in forged iron. 

Boom 3. — Koman vessels in clay ; 
Celtic implements. 

The adjoining rooms contain photo- 
graphs and casts of the principal 
objects in the museum, together with 
an extensive c ollection of wood-carv- 
ings (1440 to 1800). 



F L O O p. 






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CO 8|tif#E S M jo b I ch" -1 

—I t+-r- 


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Nce OLE work: 




G R O 1/ 0 



AND ' ■eSl — — Ix IX 

ORK I I I I is'veniBULE: I 

WOOD AND • "^l — — Ix IX 

- _ --1-°.-, Ill I \?\"^'^\ 4 LO 

I I I I IcustodianI I 

ROMAN AND CELT i A I m ■ K 1 _ _ i J. _ J , ■ 

PUui of BftvarUn National 


Digitized by Google 

76 BouieSl, — Munich : Bavarian National Museum ; Sect. JLi. 

At the «ad of i3k» VcitlMfl oa the 

ToriU»>e]iamber. devoted to instra- 
meats of pnnkhmeiit mnd torture; a 

dueldiig^tool for scolds, thumbeerewi, 
straw garland for shameless women, 
masks for drunkards, gamblers, &c, ; 
bed-rftcks, casks in which fraadulent 
bakers were led through the streets, a 
spiked arm-ehair, and similar Imrrors. 

On the rt. of the entrance are 10 
rooms illustrating Gothic art, specially 
interesting to the architect, sculptor, 
and metal-worker. 

I. — ^iTor^ relieft, bvonae croeliUes, 
painted glass of 180ft, works in ena- 
melled metal, bronse censers, shrines 
and caskets, old eolamos, and archi- 
tectaral fragments. 

II. — Casts of mediaival sculptures, 
rdislk snd statuettes in iTory and 
bronas; Christ on the Mount of Olives 
nnder a pointed arch, from Eichstatt. 

III. — Wood-carvings ; Kntombment 
and Resurrection in alabaster; paint- 
ings on a gold ground ; ceiling from 
the town hall at Angsburg (1385); 
winmd altar-piece and episcopal chair. 

Iv. — Winged altar from Haniberg 
(1429); old sea-chart of 1426; glass 
painting from Regensburff. 

y. — Onling and panellmg from the 
Weavers' House at Angsburg (1457). 

Vr.— Flemish tapestry (1470), after 
an Adoration and Nativity by Mem- 
ling ; illuminated MS. Missals ; early 
printed books, old music, cabinets; 
omoifixes in gilt hronao ^ wooden 
ceiling from the lodge of Hie Tentonio 
Icnights at Nuremberg. 

VII. — Gothic bedsteads (1470) ; 
works in mother-of-pearl and silver ; 
doorway representing brunches of trees 
along with the rooif of earfod wood 
from the ftrtrsss of Oberhans, at 

VIII. — Altar of the Virgin (1600); 
oaken stairs from Alt-Otting. 

IX. — Xoolesiastisal Hall, fitted up 
in the style of a church of the 16th 
cent., in 7 bays, with altars, monu- 
ments, statues, altarpieces carved and 
Dainted, hating folding-doors ; a bell- 

-liosis to he mng at the rai^ of the 

Host, from Augsbnrg Dom; Si <dock 
in the guise of Death riding on a lion, 
the skeleton marks the hours by strik- 
ing with a bone on the lion's head. 
The windows are filled with vtsdaed 
l^ass from the monaBter7 of PruII, 
near Ratisbon. Statuettes of the 
Apostles by Itiememchneider • altar 
shrine of 1470 from Weissenburg; 
winged altar from Botsen, with the i 
Nativity by Poe&er (1490). AoMtsf 
the altar>tomb of the Emperor Hcttxy 
II. and his wife, from Bamberg. A 
wonderful carving in lime- wood of the 
death of the Virgin, with apostles 
kneeling and weeping aronnd, IhMa 
Ingolstadt (1480). 

X. — A large oaken altarpiece of the 
Crucifixion with the Adoration of the 
King, below, and Passion scenes on 
the wings, from Calcar. Gold-thread 
tapestry, an aUegoor of Yioe and its 
panishmanty airated bj Mer^. 

First Floor,— The 29 rooms are 
decorated witli 150 large frescoes 
illostrative of Bavarian history, by 
young artists, and are of Tarring 
merit. The 1. winff is devoted to 
Upper and Lower mvaria; the rt. 
wing to the Palatinate, Franconia and 
Swabia. Descriptive notices accom- 
pany each piotm. 

Rooms 1 to 7 eoDtain an bistoriesi 
collection of armour, arms and drm 
of the 14th to the 16th cent., chrono- 
logically arranged. Chain-mail from 
1360 to 1680 J armour of Count Prey- 
sing, from Sehloss Hohenasdum, wd 
of Dietrich von Raitenau, Archbishop 
uf Salzburg (1598) gilt and embo^Bed 
with reliefs. Tournament suit of 
Duke William ; robes of the Emperor 
Henry II., from Bamberg ; armour of 
Thirty TeanT War; 'HUy's Tidsl- 
coloured velvet ooat, from Ingoldstadt 
(1632). Cannon (Orgelgeschiitz) on 
the principle of the mitrailleuse, made 
at Nuremberg for Gustavus Adolphus ; 
ornamented weapons taken hi the 
Eleetor Max* ^naanel at Belgtsde 
(1688). Dress, cane, pistols, and 
saddle of Frederick the Great of 
Prussia, with elaborately omameated 
swords of Bavarian princes. 

Further on are specimens of fresd) 

Digitized by Google 

arms taken in the war of 1870 ; u fine 
and valuable collection of Musical 
instruments ; a harp of 1651, zither of 
1700, flate of 1580; a cterinet by 
Deimert of Nuremberg, the inventor 
(1690) ; a bass viol, which belonged 
to the Elector John William, inlaid 
"with ivory and elaborately carved. 
Tho wmiGft art is illiHtraled In 4 

Models of ships, indadiiig gallej of 
Charles V., in which he sailed to 
Africa to chastise tlie Corsairs in 
1541. Textile fabrics, embroidered 
orieits^ fobet, embroidered tmUeoover 
(1660). Tapestry of 1553, Peiiiaii 
carpets of 1540-1600. Three rooms 
illustrate historically the art of silk- 
^caving, and two others contain a 
splendid collection of ceramie ware, 
Ineloding speeimens of Xidolica, 
Ftoim» Pesaro, Urbino, works of 
Heischvogel, of Nuremberg, 17th- 
cent. porcelain from Meissen, &c. 
Second Floor. — Menaisaaiuse period. 
MR*.— Tlie nagnifieent roof of 
the tturcase and of 4 of the apartments 
was removed from the liall of the 
castle of Dachau, which belonged to 
the house of Wittelsbach from 1183. 
It was made for Duke William IV., 
whoie arms it bem Before its re- 
moval the haliliadaemdlbr <H) yeats 

M a barn. 

Ut iioowi.— AiTas tapestries; 6 from 
the cartoons of Raphael. The 10 
electoral standards of the German 
Empire were bronglit ftom Nurem- 
berg. Portraits of Bavarian princes, 
4 of them by Albert Altdorfer. The 
Triumph of Bacchus and of Music, 
relief in Solenhofen stone; painted 
glaae— tile liielory of Joseph ; wood 
sculpture; boita; statues} medallions, 
others in stone and wax ; a head of 
Pirkheimer attributed to .-1. Biirer ; 5 
portraits of the Erap. Charles V., his 
parents and sisters ; MS. Prayer-book 
of Dseheie Jaoobne, 15SS; FVeoeli 
winhrtnrei; ehess board in ivory and 
mother-of-pearl (1550-80), and back- 
gammon board — both very beautiful. 

Uiul Room, — More tapestries: por- 
tnuti and paintfaigs by Haas and Amr 
Imee Holbein end Cramich (Herodiee' 
SlM^ter); eeeltof St. Sebald'a 

ment, &c., at Nuremberg; trousseau 
chest of Duchess Jacobaca ; statue of 
the Virgin and Child iu wood; a 
coUeetioB of old musical instmente 
— table organ, theorbo, comet, Intee, 
dulcimers, harpsichord, spinet or vir- 
ginal, &ci fine winged picture of 

The pauited glass, chrooologicalljr 
arranged, extends tfaroogh manj 


^rd ^oom. ^Italian house altar of 
carved wood, bridal chests ; carvings 
in ivonr; Solenhofen relief of iia- 
j^haeTeDisputa, andthesAwrlmmmer 
with which Pope JuHw III. stmck 
down the Qoldes Omie at tlie Jnbilee 

of 1 550. 

'ith Room. — Uoof and doors from 
Coont Fngger's chAteaa at Donau- 
worth ; tapestriee of Genmm work, 

one series representing the Holy 

Places, executed for Pfalzgrave Otto 
Henry, to commemorate a pilgrimage 
which he made to the Holy Laiid, 
from designs by Btlat. Gernng, 19S1* 
They were woven at Luningen, end 
came from the chateau of Neuburg, 
Beautiful Virgin and Child, richly 
framed in wood and inlaid ivory. 
The collection of Vetietian glass is 
complete and beantiftil, indodinir 
many rarities; an altarpicce carved 
in box-wood, the Crucitixion in the 
centre, saints around, and classic 
figures in niches (1561), by Bock* 
schtitz, a Bavarian. 

5(h J2oomk— Ceiling also item Oonnt 
Fugger's castle. In the centre of the 
room is erected the boudoir of the 
Countess Fiigger ; its walls and roof 
covered with exquisite wood-carvings 
of 1660. 

0th JZoom.— 1579-97.— Oeilin^ fW>m 

Donamvorth ; Arras tapestry — history 
of Abraham, from B. v. Orley's car- 
toons ; carved ivory trinkets, gold and 
other trinkets from the tombs of the 
Oonnte of Laiyngen, Ohineae earthen- 
ware, early playing-cards ; vessels cut 
out of rock crystal, which belonged 
to Sigismund, king of Poland ; the 

Sravestone, of red marble, of Orlando 
I Lasso, composer, who died at 
Monich in 1 594 ; several cackela of 
ebony, ivory, miniatursi^ &e. 

Digitized by Google 

78 Bouie Bl.'-^MmtA: Bmartm KmUmud Jbrnm; 8eo*. H 

7th IiOom.—C]^)se of the K'tli rent. 
—Ceiling'' from Nuremberg; busts of 
Bavariiiu jjjriuces; Soleiihofen slab; 
figures of ivory, alabaster, Im.; jewel- 
cases of the Prince of Pfala-Neubiurg : 
tvinkets of gold and silver ; ft flgul^ 
made mit of one huge pearl. 

m /i'(/0)u.— First half of the 17th 
ceut. — Oeiliug from Xsi urcmberg. 
Here we pareeive the effect of tie 
style of Peter de Witte^ better known 
as P. Candido, a Dutclimnn, nho 
settled at Munich by invitation of 
Duke Max. I. The tapestries iu the 
room are from the manufiictory es- 
teblished in 1604 at Monieht mxd re^ 
present the seasons and mouthi* The 
art of r'trri'itij in ivory is here seen in 
its perfection ; lar^e dishes of ivory 
elab<)rately carved, goblets, statuettes 
of the same, two cabinets inl^d with 

Jieelous materials, by Angermayer, 
590-1601, and filled with costliest 
works of art ; precious stones, crystal, 
lapis lazuli ; reliefs and medallioiis in 
ivory of the 12 Cicsais, aud a large 
portrait of the Elector Max. himself, 
carved in the same material ; fanciful 
clocks and watches, one made of wood 
in all its parts. Mucli of t he furnitui'e, 
cabinets, &c., are inlaid with Fioren* 
tine mosaic. 

Qth JZoom.— Time of the Thirty 
Years* War. — Ceiling decorated with 
paintings by P. Candido; tapestry il- 
lustrating the four seasons ; bedstead 
from Schloss Plasseiiburg ; refractory 
tM&Bt fiom the Monastery at Indcrs- 
dorf; bronae work of Hans Grumpper. 
The camp chapel (portable) of Duke 
Maximilian I., at which he heard 
mass daily during his campaign. 

10</t and l\th liooms. — Middle of the 
17th eent.— OeiHng firom the screen 
of the Frauenkirche ; tapestries from 
Candido's designs —history of Otho of 
Wittelsbach ; l-irg'e ivory reliefs; 
elaborate chess-board, silver filigree 
ornaments, old fbmitare* 

IM and Id^ Rooim (second half 
of the 17th cent) display the fashion, 
pomp, and splendour of the age of 
Louis XIV.; ceiling from tb«» old 
palace at Munich; two huge silver 
eloehs, bjr SohSner of Auasborg ( 1 C70) 
^ an astfottomical clock> by the 

same artist ; tapestry of nol>elTn acd 
Wiirzburg fabric; Boule lurniiure, so 
called from the upholsterer who m- 
vented U in laeo ; casketa of ivasy, 
tortoise-shell, and amber ; apnumi^ 
wheels. Glass painting had now come 
to its end — see the specimen from the 
Carthusian monastt^ry of Priill, near 
lUiisbou; scenes from the life of 
St. Bmno ; portrait of the ITlae^i 
Adelheid (? by KnoUar) ; a plane- 
tarium Ttinde by Aiama, of I^qshIoiv 
for Tycho Brahe. 

Room. — Gobelin, tapestries and 
Tttihish ansst from the sieges of 
Vienna and Bdgrade. Many of the 
object were trophies gained iu these 
campmgns by the Elector ^Tax. Ema- 
nuel. A bronze monnnK utal t tiigy of 
the elector cm horsebacJi. commemo- 
rates hk trinmph at Mohaei and Bel<> 
grade in 1714. A case of mimatans 
by Bordier and Petitot, among them J. 
Sobiesky and Pct'-r the Great ; one of 
tJie largest enamels known, a " Pieta.** 
after Van der Wertf ; a long series of 
ivory carving, by Ignas Rlliaihn and 
others, of mythological subjects in 
relief. IMir fs in btonae^ h]r GrebeUo 
aud Piemontiuo. 

1 bth ILoouk. — Gobelin tapestry ; land« 
scape, with sh£ep ; ivory cs^binet full of 
carved ivoryHroih; exquisite groups 
of children, by Fiammingo; a ^ass 

foblet, painted with the glories or the 
'ichtclgebirge ; bronze equestrian 
statues of Louis XIY^ of Augustus IL 
of Saxony, and of liuc Kmannel cf 

\^th and llthBomM^ — I8th century. 
— The decadc!ice of real art, 1726- 
1777. Carl A iliert, and Max. Emanuel, 
— Gobelins iiom the Munich mauu* 

fiietory, tempoiarily mived in 171€- 
1 700 ; ivorj earrings by 8. Tii^sr, 

Krabensbergcr, Bavarians, in great 
variety; a large picture of a stag- 
hunt <^n the shon? of the Stareniberg 
Lake; the sedau chair of Duchesi» 
Dorothea of SoLsbach ; the genealc|y 
of the layal house of Bavaria dis- 
played in 6.3 intaglio heads cut out 
of rock crystal ; elaborate spccinieiis 
of irou railiugs; 5 vases of Meissen 
china, painted ) porcelain ^rom fiimsa 

Digitized by Google 

traits in myoos; ivory head i»f 
Inshop's sifdE, 

18</t Room.— The time of the Kkc- 
tor Karl Tbeodor, 1777-99. — Muuicli 
l^i^L'Sti ies; ivory cruciiixes ; iixm ; 
miilataresy 8bc 

\9th ANrai.-*KiDg Maximilian I. 
■The tapestries are Gobelins ; the gift 
of Napoleon 1. to bis l^avarian ally. 
Many ariiclt^s of furiuLuie, ornaments, 
clocks, &c.f belonged to Eujgene lieau- 
li>niais» anjl bear hi* iaittab; atato- 
ettes ; and relielll modelled in waait» bj 
Sohw an thaler; porcelain from Sevres, 
of the time of Bonaparte ; cradle of 
Nax. II. ; silver relief of Queen 
Theresa's miirf Ittto Augsburg; por- 
trait and orden of King itevis of 

The painted glass iu tlie windows 
ill <' some of tlie first efforts of Michael 
Frank of ISuremburg, the reviver of 
the aft of glass-painting in 1817. 

The various illuminated MBS. are 
usefully and instructively arranged in 
chronological sequence, so that a mere 
glance will enable the visitor to form 
a tolerably correct idea of their 
genecal dat*. 

The Garden behind the Museum 

(•oiivuins some colossal marble and 
bronze groups and giuvestuues of 

In the bread road B«of thaHiueum 

(G. 4) is a fine ^Monument of ICazi- 
milian II. (d. \8t]4), erected by his 
" faithful people " in 1875. The King 
stands in his coronation robe ua a 
graalle pedeatali with allegorieal 
fignrea at its bMe, aod ehilma at 
its upper angles. The figures, in 
bronze gilt, were cast by MtUar £rom 
designs by Zumbusch. 

The £. end of the Maxiiniliansstrasse 
ia approfHriatdy temdiialed by the 
eonspicuous MsTimtiigmHMi standi n^; 
on a high terrace approached by 

iuilinff roads, on llie opposite side of 
tiie Isar. 1 iiis college, lor the educa- 
Ikm of the <^vil BeniM, «aa «Mted 
Ibr King MaarimOian IL« by Burklein, 
and the open arcades on the exterior 
have been adorned with frescoes by 
Piloty, Dietz, and Echter. The most 
Striking pictures In the aagaifteaait 


hatoiwr an Kaulbach'a Baitie of 

Salamis and Richter's Construction of 
the Pyramid. Adm* dailjr toalraiigeii 
from LU to 12. 

The large Aeadamy of fleiaBM (D. 3) 

adjoining St. Michaers Chsrcb^ on* 
ginally the Jesuits* College^ contains 

the Ciihiivls of Coim, HfedaU, and 
Gtms, aud tlie Mtmum o/ Natural 

The Cabinet of Coins, ladadiBg 

20,000 Greek, 18,000 Roman, and 
40,000 other nudals, is shown by 
special permissiua to slraugerii, every 
diiy bat Sunday, from 10 (O IS* 

The most interesting poctioa of the 
Museum of Natural History is the BrO' 
ziiiaii ColhrtioH, rare specimens of ani- 
mals, formed by Drs. Spix and ^lar- 
tius, in theu* travels through that 
ooontry, op^ dally to eirangers, ex- 
cept Sundays and Fesil¥a]% 10 to U $ 
Wed. and Sat., 2 to 4. 

The following objects illustrate the 
natural history of Bavaria ; — Beavers 
(Oastor fiber) taken on the Amper, a 
tribotary of the Iaar» not ftr ima 
Moosburg. Bears: one shot near 
Passan, the other near Traunstein. 
Both the above species of animals are 
becoming raie. The Lammergeier 
(Yultur leoooeephalaa) and bearded 
vulture (Gypaetos barbatoa)) fipom the 
Salzburg Alpa. A corioaa aerifs of 
birds' neats. 

The Physical and Optical instru- 
]iMaita> eariehed by Frosnholbr'a ool- 
lections, occupy 6 rooms on the irst 
floor. One hall is devoted to CBsto 
from the antique* 

The Fessil Collection, zoologically 
arranged, ia on the ground floor. 
AjMOOg tiie mtnerol and ^oasil produc- 
tiotis of Bavaria are : from Eichstiitt, 
fossil wood, fish, and crabs; from Pas- 
sau, porcelain earth : from Plaiicureith, 
near Passan, hlaek lead ; fton Ben^« 
tesgaden, rock salt and gypanaa; from 
Baireuth, 40 kinds of marble ; fish, 
plants, and flying lizards (Pterodac- 
tyls), from the lithographio-sto^ 
quarricai Mnhofenj hoM* of be 

Uouie 37. — Scieniific CoUbcUqm. 

Digitized by Google 


&c., from the caves of Muggendorf. 
The collections of fossils formed by 
Count Muntter at Haireuth were added> 
ia 1945, to this Momiibi, and m a 
tntsnie of gteologieal lelenoe. 

The ♦BoyalLibrary(open daily ex- 
cept Sunday, 9-12, small fee;, a mag- 
nificent building in the Ludwies* 
■tratio (F. S) ereeted in 1848, in tk» 
style of a meditcval Italian palace, 
from the designs of GUrtucr. lu front 
are placed colossal sitting statues of 
Aristotle and Hippocrates, by Sangui- 
netti; Homer and Tbucydides, by 
Mayer. Hm (rttiraM it grand and 
imposing — one ^ the finest architec- 
tnral interiors in Munich. The 
statues of Albert V., the founder 
(1579), and of Lewis L, the builder of 
the library, are by Sdiwaathtler. 
The mmibarof book! exceeds 1 ,000,000 
besides 12,000 incunabula and 22,000 
MSS. It is surpassed by the library 
of Paris alone, and has been enriched 
by the library of 40,000 volumes, and 
1 8 Oriental lUlS. of JBtieooe de Qoatre- 
Hike. ▲ ielectioii of the most in- 
teresting specimens are collected for 
the inspection of strangers in the 
Oimelien Baal. New Testament 
(Greek) in capital letters, of the 9th 
eentory. The OratloM of Demos- 
thenes, on cotton pa|>er fh)m Chios. 
A collection of Traditions of a church 
at Ravenna, written on papyrus, 9th 
century. The Codex Alaricianus, or 
Laws given to theYltlgoths by Alaric 
II. in 506 (the olditt MS. here). 
MSS. of the New Testament of the 7th 
and 8th centuries. The Niebelungen- 
lied (1235 ?). A Bible and Missals, 
ffiven by the Emp. St. Henry to the 
Cathedral of Bamberg (1024), most 
richly decorated with miniatures by 
Byzantine artists, and the binding en- 
riched with carved ivory, set with 
precious stones. The Golden Book of 
St. Emmeran, a MS. of the Gospels in 
lAtin, written in oold eaoitals (870) 
for the Emperor Charles the Bald,— 
fine specimen of early art, superbly 
bound in a plate of gold, embossed, 
and set with precious stones. The 
Toafnament Book of Doke ViHiam 
of Bttfwia. OMb Ltno'^i 

Seven Penitential Psalms, with co* 
loured borders. Albrecht Diirer'9 
Prayer Book, with very interesting 
■kelehes by him and Cmnaeh. Among 
inennabnla, eai^ printed booka 
anterior to the year 1.100, this library^ 
possesses 3500 without date, including 
al>out .'>o block-books, some of them 

Sriuted at liaarleni; and HOOO with 
atei. One of the oldest speeimeiM of 
printing (1454) 0<mtains an appeal to 
arms against the Turks. Luther's 
Bible, decorated with his own and 
Melanchthon s portraits. Here is the 
first attempt at Ae invention of 
lithography by Aloys Sennefidder, at 
Munich, abont 1800. Among the 
autographs is an exhortation written 
by Luther for the peasants of Suabia, 
and the correspondence of the Elector 
Palatine Freiwrie V., eon-in^kiw of 
Jamee I., ea|rtnred aHer the battle of 
Prague in 1621. Among them ia a 
letter of Charles T. to his sister. 

The National jirchives, in fire- proof 
chambers on the ground fioor, are 
ihefwn on applieation to tiie dlreelor* 

The TTniversity (F. 1) forms, to- 
gether with the FriesU* Seminaryy or 
Georfjianum, opposite, a quadrangle 
traversed by the street. Both were 
designed by Giirtner. The University 
of Munich is the prineipai i^kmI of 
learning in the Bavarian dominions, 
being rrequented by about 1700 stu- 
dents, and having 60 ordinary and ex- 
traordinary professors. It is remark- 
able aBke fon the excdUnce of the 
scholastic syeiem pnrsned and finr tlw 
learning of its professors, of whom 
the names of Dollinger, the enlightened 
R. 0. theologian, and Liebig have a 
wide reputation. It was originally 
Ibnnded at Ingolstadt ia 147S; mw 
transferred thenoe tO Landshut in 
1800 ; and finally removed to Munich 
in 1826. It possesses a library of its 
own, amounting to 300,000 volumes 
(open daily, 9-12). 

Pnblie Xenmeiitf.— The Iiarlhor 

(F. 4), one of the ancient entrances 
into the city from the side of the 
river, dating from the time of Lewis 
the BMviaa, was restored in 1888 by 
OMiiry and daeorated with a halh 

Digitized by Google 

Bavaria. JBotUa 37. — Marienplaiz; MafieMmie. 


obliterated fresco by Neker and Kdgdy 
r c pr oaenti iigtha ratnm of tiie Bmperor 

Lewis from his victory over Frederick 
the Handsome of Austria at Muhldorf, 

in 132-2. 

Bevond it, on the river (F. 5), are 
the large Cawdry BamuicB, From 
the Ludwigibrltoke (G. 5) is gained a 
pleasing view of the Maximilianeum, 
riaiog above the rt. bank of the river. 

In the Maz^oeephs'FlcUz (E. 3) 
is a ^statue in bnmae of King Mazi- 
ndlfaoi Joaepi» modelled by Binuh of 
Berlin, and erected by the ehiaeDa of 
Munich in 1835. 

The old town of Munich, of which 
a few interesting relics yet survive, 
preseata an agreeable eontratt to the 
examples of degenerate taste intro- 
duced by Maximilian II. Turning 
down by the side of the Post-office, 
and along the Hofgrabeu, on 1. is the 
XiBt ' (Mifause), a cnrioua bnilding 
erected in 1573, whose eKtended front 
on the MaximilinTis<stra«^se has pavi- 
lions united by area les, and statues 
by Halbig. The quadrangle within 
consists of 3 arched eorrmors, sup- 
ported on low columns one above the 
other. Further on the Alte Hof is 
passer!, the original residence of the 
Electors of Bavaria (1253J with a 
projecting bay^ now turned into public 

Marienplatl. An attempt has been 
made to revive the oltl Germnn civic 
architecture in the *New Bathhaus, a 
large building on the K. side, pre* 
sentfaig to 1& Ihmt a most elabomte 
pinnacled gable of stone, the rest 
brick, by Hnnberisser (1873). 4 
figures, typical of the virtues of a 
citizen, surmount the triple port^. 
The W« side of the gronnd-^r Is 
ooeu^ed by the gum-house. In 
front is an elegant Bronze Fountain, 
designed and modelle<1 C. Knoll, 
cast by Miller. It is known by the 
name of the *Fi8chbrunnen, and com- 
memorates the action taken by the 
butchers' guild to restore the confi- 
donee of the inhabitants in the abate- 
ment of the great plague in 1623. On 
the Monday before Lent the guild 
astemUed la their hall, and went in 

procession through the town to the 
market-place, uoa^ when they came to 

the fountain, ]dnnged Into the icy 

cold water, returning drenched to the 
shambles, without fortunately, any 
serious consequences, or the return of 
any eases of tne dreaded malady. The 
ceremony became an annual one, and 
now forms part of the festivities on 
the occasion when the butchers' 
apprentices *' take up their freedom," 
aira to do so have to take the Mets- 
gersprung or butcher^s leap into the 
basin of the fountain. On the top is 
a youthful figure repre«;enting the 
senior butcher apprentice exercising 
his right to give the toast to the king ; 
beneath him are ibur musiciaaB play- 
ing the ancient national insbnomentf^ 
between which nre shields, commemo- 
rating the architect, the founder, the 
city, &c. The two crouching figures 
below represent plague and cholera. 
The old BaiUunu occupies the E. 
side of the square, and was restored 
by Zenetti in 1865. Zinc statues of 
Henry the Lion and Lewis the Bava- 
rian adorn the exterior, and the tower 
is corered with fkesooes b j fletta. 

The Mariensfiule or pillar erected 
in 1038, from Candido's designs, by 
the Elector Maximilian I. of Bavaria, 
as a memorial of the irietoiy^ gained 
by him, iu conjunction with the 
Emperor Ferdinand 11., over tlie Pro- 
tc^tant force'; of the Elector Palatine 
(son-in-law of James I.), at the White 
Mount, near Prague, in 1621. It 
bsara this inscription : — 

Rem, Regem, Regimen, Regionem, Religionem, 
Oonserva Bavufs VirgD M«rte (nls. 

At the corners are figures of an^ls 
combating monsters—a vii»er, basiliak, 
Hon, and dragon* meant to represent 
pe8tilenee> famine, war, and heresy* 

The bronze Obelisk in the centi'e of 
the KanUMnfiaiB (D. 8) was erected 
in 1833 by l^wis I., to the 30,000 
Bavarians who fell fighting on the 
side of Napoleon in the Kussian cam- 
paign, it is 104 1^. high, and formed 
partly out of cannon taken by the 
Ba-varians dnring the war. 


Digitized by Google 


• Awfo S7:—MkmUk r HM of Fame ; 

At the S. end of the Ludwigsstrasse 
(E. 3) stands the Hall of the Marshals 
(die Feldhernihalie), a copy of the 
Loggia do* Lann at Flcnreaoe. It wm 
•NCteA for King Lewis L in 1844 by 
Gartner: in it are placed bronze 
statues of Count Tilly (1632), the 
commander of the Bavarian armies in 
the Thirty Yeais' War j and of Field- 
BiMihal Pffifioe Wrtde, the BaTSiiu 
General (1888X in the wars of Napo- 
leon. Both were modolU d by Scliiran- 
thaler. Military band ou Sun.»Tu«S., 
Thars. and Sat. at noon. 

An eauestriau statue of Eing Lud- 
wig I. W WtdnmaBn, " erected by 
the grateful city of Mnmch in 1862, ' 
decorates the Odeonsplatz (E. 2) and 
a statue of Schiller, also by Widn- 
mann, was set up in 1863, in the Scbil- 
lersplatx (B. 8). 

N.W. m the Odeon is the Palace of 
the Prince Begent Luitpold (E. 2), by 
Klenzp ; and further N., by the same 
architect, the Palace of Duke Max, 
with frescoes, and a marble frieze by 
M«eaiillafer. dote to it ie the ITiir 
Office (F. 2). 

A fifatue in bronze by Hrngirer, of 
the lOh'ctor Max. Emanuel, chieflv 
known to fame for his successful siege 
of Belgrade, decorates the Promena- 
denfkiiM, It is foroMd ant of oannoB 
taken from the Turks. Near itjstand 
statues — of Gluck, the composer, born 
in 1714, at Weidenwangen, in the 
Upper Palatinate, by lirugger; of 
9iuai» di £mm^ bom at AfonB in 
Belglnm, died at Mnnioh in 1593, 
orgamist and composer to the Elector 
of Bavaria, by Widnmann ; of Kreit- 
mayr (1 790), author of the Bavarian 
Code, by Schwanthaler j and of Wes- 
tawfedir, the hittoilan (1S29), by 

At the N. end of the Ludwigsstrasse 
(F. 1) is the ^Triumphal Arch (das 
Siegesthor), an imitation of the arch 
of Conatntiiie. It waa begoa by 
Gartner, completed by Metzger in 
1850, and dedicated by Kuv^r Lewis L 
to the ljuvariun army. Ou the top is 
placed a hyure of Bavaria, in a tri- 
vinphal ear, di«wn by 4 lions, mo- 
delled by Wagner, and oaat in brawe 

by F. Miller. The figures and reliefs, 
representing battles, were executed by 
various artists from the desimis of 
Wagner. Beyond, on the L, is tike 
handsome ^Academy of Art, an Italian 
BenaHmanfo bnikUqg by NemmUker. 

Another triumphal arch, the *Pro- 
pyUsam (C. 2), a very efiVctive copy 
of the noble bailding at Athena, was 
erected for King Lewis I., by Klenze 
in 18^.2; the reliefs from designs by 
Schwanthaler. It was meant to cele- 
brate the struggle of the Greeks for 
freedom, and the glories of the rei^n 
of King Otho^ who by a singular coin- 
cidence returned houM fioot his kiag* 
dom tlie day after this monnaiailt wan 
inaugurated, Oct. 30, 1867. 

In the Gartnerplatz (E. 5) are the 
■tatnei in brome, by Bmgger and 
Widnmann, of Gartner (1847) and 
Klenze (1864), tlie architects to whom 
Munich is indebted for the greater part 
of the improvements the city has re- 
ceived. On the N. side of the Karls- 
platz (D. 3) is a poor bronae Btataa 
Goethe, erected for King Lewie 11^ hy 
Widnmann, in 1869. W. of tlie statue 
lies the Botanical Garden. (Adni. on i 
Tues. and Thurs. 12 to 5, free.) It 
contains a fresb-water auuarium, palm | 
hoaM,aadherbniinHU Oppoeiteia the 
large Exhibition building (C. D. 3). 

In the garden laid out upon the 
Maximilian Phitz (D. 3), is a hand- 
some sitting marble *statae of Liebi^ 
(1603-73), by WagmuUeraadRumaim, 
on a granite pedeatal. 

The *Hall of Fame (die Kiihme- 
sballe) stands ou a bank which rises 
slightly from the W. side of the 
ThemlenwieBe (A. 5). It was de* 
aigned by Klenze for King Lewis I., 
completed in 1853, and consists of a 
Doric portico ((xroa), forming 3 sides 
of a quadrangle, in the centre of whose 
open side rises the colossal statue of 
Mtnuria. Eighty bnstB of BB;vaiiana 
Whohftfobewi most distinguished in 
war or peace, beginning with the 
philologist Agricola (1485), are placed 
aloug the wall behind the columns, 
which are 48 in number, and 23 tU 
1 hi^ 'la (he tympaiia> at th« end of 


Digitized by Google 


I Bavaria. 

BaiUe27.—Siatm; Eof-Theater. 


the vings, are recumbent female 
figures by Schwanihaler, representiDg 
the natiraal divisions of the kiog- 
dom, Bavaria, the Palatinate, Swabla, 
and Fraiiconia. The frieze contains 
^'1 metopes, of which 44 are adorned 
with figures of Victory ; the remaiB- 
ing 48 with reHefs n^resenting the 
various arts, scieroof;, professions, and 
occupations which liourish in civilised 
society, all from the designs of Schwan- 

The *Statue of Bavaria, CI ftJiigh, 
stands on a pedestal of the height of 
28 ft. It represents tlie Protectress of 
Bavaria, accompanied by a lion; in 
her right band is a swora for protec* 
tion ; her left Band raised holds a 
chaplet to crown mfrit. It was mo- 
delled by Schteanthakr, and cast by 
Fr. Millei; at the roysil foundry in 
1850. A stairease irithln leads into 
its head, which can hold 5 persons 
sitting. Peep-ho]os are cut in the 
laurel crown w*in\ by the figure, 
through which may be seen one of the 
best MrcTs-eye view$ of Munich f^Fee, 
40 pf.). 

The Studios of the Munich artists 
employed on the great public works 
ought to be visited. These gentlemen 
are very polite to istrangers, but the 
Twt ought to be made at su^ an hoar 
as has been ascertained by previous 
inquiry to be most convenient. This 
is usually before 2 o'clock. All that 
is required is that the visitor present 
his card. 

The studios of Tr^jfemrt Sk^rau^ 
dolphy of Carl v. Piloty (known by his 
** Nero amidst the Ruins of Rome" 
and the •* Dentli of Walienstein "), and 
of Widmnaiut^ are iu the Academy. 

Bchwantlialer Museum (C. 4). Tlie 
late sculptor t'chwanthalvr (184S), left 
hy his will tbo models :ill his exe- 
cuted works to the Academy, together 
with his studio, 90 Schwanthalerstrasse. 
Free on Mon. Wed. and Fri., 9 to 2 ; 
open daily at any hour on payment of 
a small fee. 

S.E., iu the StndliugtT-Thor Platz 
(D. 4), is a bust of Alois ^cnefclder, 
the inveBtpr of lithography, by Zvm* 

brack. The large buikUng to the W» 
is the Cknieral Bospilal (O. 5X con* 

taining important anatomical and 
surgical collections (10 to ) '2 nnd '2 to 
4 ; fee). In the Goethe StrasM , 2so. 
45 (B. C. 4), is a Panorama of the 
GmeifixieB (Adm. 1 m.). 

The Koyal Bronze Fonndry (15. 1), 
was founded by Stiirlmaier (1844), 
and it is now carried on by his nephew 
Ferdinand t. Miller ; open daily 1 to 
6; Sunday, 12 to 2—40 pfl It is 
well worth visiting, as it usually con^ 
tains some fine specimens of castings 
of all sizes. Most of the statues 
erected in Germany of late years were 
east here. 

A little further N.W., on the road 
to Dachau, is the Koya! Arsenal, with * 
a Military Museum (Adni. Tues. and 
Fri. 9-12 ; Wed. 3-5). The collection 
of arms and banners is interesting. 

The Blind Asylum (F. l). opposite 
the church of S, T^ouis, built by 
Giirtner in lt?34-38, is ornamented 
with statoes of SS. Ilupert, Benno» 
OttiUa, and Lncia, patron-saints of the 

The Exhibition of Fainted Glass, 
23, Brienner Str.,iis worth inspection. 
The different colours are laid on one 
piece of glass,*^a variation from the 
old process, by which iila>s-paintiug 
was a syK'cie'^ of transparent mosaic. 
The glabs must be heated 7 times in 
the furnace, and the most equable 
temperature preserved^ without which 
the work would he destroyed. Open 
to visitors daily. 

The Hoi - Iheater, iu the Max- 
JosephS'Plats, to a handsome edifice, 

with a lofty Corinthian | <'nico, with 
fre.-co'.'s by Schwanthaler, Uiltensper- 
ger, and Nilson. It is one of the 
largest in Germany, and will acconi« 
roodato 2500 persons. It was built 
(1825) by the corporation of the city 
at a cost of 80,000/. The internal 
arraufrements and machinery are cx-, and were restored in 1800. 
Tiicy may be. inspected, including the 
view from the roof, in about ifkr., 

o 2 

Digitized by Google 

84 Route 37.--MifiiM 8eh*ek Piektr^ QMery. Sect. U. 

at 2 P.M. (small fee). T" nvn t ttio 
danger of fire, water is distiiUntrd 
in pipes over every part of the build- 
ing, the supply being raised by power- 
Ihl pumps out of a easal flowing 
beneath it FtvffmMOHOB daily at 
6.30 P.M. Operas two to three times 
a wfck, 6 P.M. Those of Wagner are 
excellently performed. Closed in 
Jaly. The orehettra and e&onis are 
good, bat few of the singera or aelors 
are eminent. Vlmission . — Boxes 
usually let for the season ; dress circle, 
gallerie noble, 4 to 5 m. 

Boiidate - flMftter, between the 

Palace and Opera-house, rebuilt in 
1857, and capable of holding Pno 
persons; pL'rfonnance twice a week ; 
resembles the Theatre of Versailles, 
bat ezeela it in richness of deeoratton. 
Lif^ht pieces are played here alter- 
nately with the Hof-Theater; pit 1 m. 
70, to a m. 50. 

The ToUn-TlMater, opened in IS65 
fi>r operettas and dramas. The inaible 
statue of the Comic Muse in the tym- 
panum is by Widnmann. The interior 
will hold 1700 spectators. 

08rtiiar>Tlati Theater givea oone- 
diea, operettas^ and ballet 

The Odeon is a handsome editice, 
built on the W. side of the Ludwigs- 
atrasse, in 1828, by Klenie. Tne 
large concert- hall, decorated with 
frescoes by Kaulbach, is devoted to 
musical entertainments, concerts, nnd 
balls, which take place periodically 
during the winter season. Eng. Ch. 
Service b held here on Sundays. 

in the l^riennerstrasse, outside tiie 
Propyiajumj open daily 2-5 j 50 pf. 
The pictnroB are all modem, bat there 
are aome exeellent copies of well- 
known Venetian paintings by Wolf, 
Lenbach. and others. Among the 
original examples may be noticed: — 

BambiVger: Gibraltar.— Bridge at 

Cornclitis : Flight into E^pt. 
Feuerbach; Uafiz at the Fountain. 

Fiihrich: Tnt to'inctioB of Chiia> 
liauity into (iermany. 

Oenelli: Hercules and Omphaie.— 
Rape of Europe.— Ly curgus fighting 
with Bacchus. 

Hesi : Thorvaldsen. 

Morita Ten Schwind : ike Wedding 

Vemnflter: The Vina Mflb. 

The ^English Garden, to the N.E. 
of the Ilofgarten, about 4 m. lonj^ by 
I m. broad, is a successful imitutioa 
of an EogUsh park, and was origi- 
nally a swampy waste until planted by 
C^unt Rumford in 1781. It is laid 
out with groves and shrubberies, 
affording pleasant walks aitd drives. 
Several branches of the Isar are carried 
through it; and at the farther ex- 
tremity is a lake. A Ciretdar TempU 
(monopteros^ of the Ionic order has 
been erected by Klenze on the summit 
of a monnd, near the road running 
through the garden ; it is a good point 
of view, and ezhibita a modem ex- | 
ample of the ancient applicaticMi of 
colours to the exterior of a Gredan 
building. Just beyond it is the ! 
Chinege tower (cafe), where militate 
mnaie plays on Saturdays 6 to 7 tjl j 
Between the Dianabad and the Jiy^ 
Restnnrant is the road leading across 
the lirld^e over the T«ar to tlie (Vi^fr- i 
vatory (with cood astronomical iusiru- 
ments by Badenhaehand Fraonholbr) 
and Jkut-Brunnihdl (WaterH^are eata- ' 
blishment, under the direction of Dr. 
T oh), and toming S* from thta aloag 1 

*aattelf , orhigb terrace, laid out by 

King Maximilian If., into pleasant 
walka, called the Maximilian Anfajje, 
one of the best views of Munich is ' 
obtained, with the Tyrolese Alps in 
the distance; and the olty may be 
re-entered by the bridge opposite the 

The Great Prison ^Strafarbeitshaus), j 
in the suburb Au, is worthy the iii' 
apectlon of those who take an interest 
in such establishments. E^ypriaoner 
ia obliged to work ai hia own* trade, 

Digitized by Googjc 


so that there is no kind of handicraft 
that is not goin^ on within the prison 
waUfl. It if like • genenl nuum* 

The Southern Cemetery, Gottes- 
acker, or FriedhoJ, outside the Send- 
ling Gate, is one of the meet iateree I- 
ing in Genbaaj* of vast extent, and 

open to Catholics and Protestants 
alike. Many of the Mouuinputs are 
interestiog. W. side, the architect 
Wiebeking ; Jos. Gorres, author ; 
Fraunhelbr, optician. B. fide, Sene- 
felder, inventor of lithography. The 
obelisk in the centre "was raised by 
the French to Glik ral Bastoul, killed 
at iioheuiiudeu. On the S. side of it, 

after pasting a semi-drenlar Tanlted 

building containing the Leichenhaus 
{i,e. dead-house, where the bodies of 
all the persons who die are exposed 
to public view — an interesting but 
painful sight), lies the Vene Trndhof. 
This is a large iqnare endoenre, sur- 
rounded by an elegant cloister of 
brick, built in 1845. Here are monu- 
ments to Giirtuer, the architect of the 
cemetery ; Schwauthaler, sculptor; v. 
Walther, physieiao (ISQl^ and Count 
T. Ariiu nsperg, diplomatist. ' 

J^.W. of the Cemetery, a?u! near it, 
is the General Hospital ( Krauken- 
haus), built in 1813, supported by 
eontfilmtions fnm lenrants wages in 
the town. It oontains 600 beas» and 
the sick are attended by the Sisters of 
the adjoining convent (Klotter der 
barmlttirtigen Schwedem), 

The Verlhan Oemetexy, not far 

horn the new Pinacothek, laid oat 
by Zanettiin 1869, contains the graves 
of 108 soldiers and 10 officers who died 
iu Munich of their wounds, in the 
French eampaagn. Alongside of them 
lie 19S Wtmeh prisoners, who died 
here in 1 870-7 1 . The central marble 
"^craeifix is by Ualbig« 

The Beer Gaident in the environs 
of Hunieh are the reiort of the middle 
classes, especially on Sundays and 

holidays, when there is generally 
music and dancing. The niosr popular 
i^re the TivoU in the Englisb Uat dcn, 

the BavariU'Keller and the Schiitzen- 
luius on the Theresienwiese near the 
Bawia, the ZiegM^u at Daebav, 
(Rte. 55), and Mentersckwaiige, at 
6roBs4Ieiielohe (Bte, 270). 

Kymphenborg — a Eoyai Puiuce 
about 8 m. to the W. of the cit^, 

built by the Elector Max Emanuel in 
1G63, and where King Max Joseph died 
in 1825 — is an agreeable afternoon's 
excursion (steam tramway from the 
Stiglmayer Platz every hour before 
\%t erery half* hour afterwards* 
20 pf.) It presents towards Munich a 
semicircular fHcade broken so as to 
look like a number of small pavilions, 
in iVoiit are gardens in the French 
style, traTersMl by a straight canal 
filled with water, falling over ledges of 
masonry. Behind, near the Bath- 
house or Pavilion, is an extensive 
lake, the borders of which are 
prettily laid out in the English style, 
diversified by art, and plauted round 
with trees and dxmbs. The interior 
of the palace is not remarkable; but 
the iiut-houses are extensive, and the 
collection of Brazilian plauts gooil. 
The fbontsins, supplied with water 
from the Lake of Starnberg, throw Up 
a jet 85 ft. high, by the aid of an 
hydraulic machine. There is a Manu- 
factory of China (Porzellan-Fabnk) 
here. Either in goftig or returning, 
the visitor fbould drive through the 
Hirschgarten, which abounds with 
deer aiMi other game. 



From Steinach, S7, a ^l uu h line 
run*: S.W. to (7 m.) EOTHENBURO 
on the Tauber (()5Ui>;, one of liic most 
interesting and ]eai>t altered mediteval 


oyntzrtro-Ly Google 


Moute 39. — Aschajfenburg io Amofbach, Seot. IL 

towns in Germsny. It is entered, 
6 min. from the stat., by the Koder 
Thor, and is completely surrounded 
by walls, towers, and a moat. It was 
originally a free city of the empire, 
vi£ a territory of 12 sq. m. In the 
market-plsoe is a *flne old Bathhaus, 
oonebting of two parts in different 
styles. The older part, which is 
behind, with a high <j;ablc and tower, 
is Gothic ; that facing the Place was 
haWt in 1578. The tower (230 ft) 
commands a splendid view. The 
neighbouring *churcli of St. James 
hn=? n lofty middle itomtid rhoir 
(1373), with nave ot rather later date, 
and elerestory of 14SS. In Hie W. 
choir stands the altar of the Holy 
Blood (1478), with some very re- 
markable farriiiff in lime-wood. The 
centre represents the Last Supper ; 
the shutters, the Entry of Christ into 
Jemsalem, and Christ on the Moont 
of OUres. Abore are two angels, 
hearing a golden cross, which oontnins 
the holy blood, the Virgin, the Baptist, 
and an Ecce Homo, with finely carved 
open worlc. The ^nt of 1584, and 
the pulpit of 1 604, are richly carved. 
The hi^h nltar has one of the finest 
works of Uerlen (146G). The 

centre consists of paiuted sculpture 
representing the Crucifixion. Inside 
the rt. shutter are the Annundation, 
llie Visitation, the Birth and Circum- 
cision of Christ. Inside the 1. are the 
Adoration of the Mnpi, the Presenta- 
tion in the Temple, and the Death of 
the Virgin. These works show the 
influence of the school of Van Eyck 
and Memling. On the rt. side of the 
choir is a recess formerly used for the 
ciborium, curiously decorated with 
painted figures. The parsonage, adjoin- 
ing the W. ehohr, has a beantifol bay 


i hf whole town is full of interest, 
especially to artists. There are several 
churches worth notice, all of middle- 
peinttd date, and some fine Kenan- 
sance houses, with enrions old courts. 
The finest of the gateways is the j 
Spitalthor (1542), with a round 
bastion. Beyond it, an eminence called 
the Essii^rug affbrds a good near] 
^ew of the walls with dieir numerous I 

round towers. A eharming walk may 

be taken into the valley of the Tanber, 

whose clear but scanty strenm 
spanned by a double arched bridge. 
The Wildbadi higher up the river, 
has a cold sn^nr spring, t ai, N. 

of the town is the ctnirch of llstwiiag» 
with a finely carved ♦altar. 

Dil. N.W. to (11 ra.) Croglingen, 
where the Hergottkapelle contains an 
♦altar sculptured in wood by Tilman 
Riemenaekn&U^. Dil.!lieneeto(l8n. 
W.) Weikersheim (ia> From Gothen- 
burg, dil. also to (14 m. S W.) lioth- 
am See and (13 m. b.E.J> Dom- 
buhl (d3>. 


Hll€8. Si:iii<>ns. Hoiites. 

Asohaffenbutg . . 87 

6 Sulzbach 

12 Obemburg 

19 W<jrth 

16 ningenberi^ 

23 Kiltenberg 

2S Amorhaeh 

Ttnming the riy. passes the 
Faisanerie on the l.» and traverses a 

wine-growing country on the rt. bank 
of the Main. 4 m. E. of Salzbach 
are the Baths of SodenthaL From 
Obemiburg a carriage-road ascends the 
Elsawalhal to Eteihtm (670 ft), at the 
foot of the (9 hrs.) Oaishohe (1705 ft.). 
Fine view. Descent on the E. side to 
(10 min.) Krnusenhach, and through 
the Dunimbachthal to (I hr.) Moht" 
brmn (40). This place is a good centre 
for exploring the forest of Spessart 
j (Silva Spissa), one of the largest in 
Germany, and one of the few remain- 
ing fragments of the great priraeval 
I HertywUsn Forest, described by Cmtae 
[ and Taeittts. 

Digitized by Google 


The train crosses the Main d.tWfirth, 
yriih an old castle, beyond which on 
the rt. bank is KUngenbergy noted for 
its fire-proof day. Iht monastery of 

Engelsberg comes into view before 
reaching Mnft'f}h--rq. and tlie train 
proceeds lo Amorbach (25(){)), near 
which the Prince of I^iutngeu has a 
handfooM oh&teao. 

liOUTfi 40. 


MtleB. Stations. RoutcB. 

Lobr 87 

1 Lohr ^lown Stat.) 
6 Henttadt 

10 Rothenfeto 

12 Hafenlohr 

17 Trennfeld 

22 iCreuzwertheim 

M Werthtim ... 18 

From the Baknhef Stat, at T.ohr, 
the rly. turns S. to the Tomh Stat., 
and follows the winding river to 
Veiif tadt, with a Benedietuw oouveot, 
rebuilt and turned into public oAeea. 
At BotbiBlBla are qnsitka and a 


Hafenlohr lies at the foot of a 
charming valley (see below). Just 
befbr« reaehing freniilSeUl la teen on 
tbe rt. bank "^labloit Sciatautein, 

formerly an Anpnstine abbey, but 
secularised in 1803, and now the pro- 
perty of Prince Lowenstein-Freuden- 
berg. Tapaatry, oottootion of armour, 
and piotaresque park. 

Kreuzwertheim. Dil. to (8 ni. W.) 
Sfadtprozflteny on the rt. bank, above 
which are the ruins of a castle de- 
stroyed by the French under Turenne 
in 1674« after the battle of Siaaheim. 

[3 hrs. N. is Bohrbrunn (ir)2n ft ), 
oa the W. slcfe of the Geversberg^ 

and (li hr. further) Mespelbrium, in a 
charming situation. Thence by JVeu- 
dorf and Hohe WmU t» the (2 hrs.) 
Baths of Sodm^ <t9> 

From Rofarbrunn the ♦Geyersberg 
(19 Jo ft ), in the centre of the finely 
wv>i»d«;d district called the Spesmrt, 
may be ascended in ^ hr. (see Obern' 
burg). I hr. S. of Rohrbiiimi ia the 
^iiiiaA^0(YieirXand If E. LUHdemm, 
in a pleasant valley, which may be 
descended to (3 hrs.) HafmUohr Stat, 
(see above)J. 

Wertheim (4570), an ancient town, 
beautifully situated at the junction of 
the Tauber with the Mnin. 2 m. S.E., 
on the opposite bank, lies Hombtirg, 
one of the oldest places ou the Main, 
having been ^iven in 740 to St. Boni* 
Hiob by Pepm le Bref. The Emp. 
Lewis the mvarian raised it to the 
rank of a cir \ , and its privil^^ were 
confirmed by Charles IV. The wine 
made hera^ called Kalmntii« so called 
from the htQ to the N.E. of the town 
on whose slope the viaajfaWhl are 
situated, is much pf aised. 


BOUTE 41. 



HUM. SUttons. Itoatw. 
Neustadt . » » 48 

1 Brendlorenzen 
12 Bischoliheini 

Nenstadt an-der-Saale is an old 

town in a charming situation. Less 
than a mile distant on the opposite 
bank of the Saale are the extensive 
ruins of tbe castle of *Salsbnrg, said 
to hare been founded by CSittrtea 
Martel, and certainly the residence of 
Ohnrlemagne, who, in 8(>3, received 
jhere the ambassadors of Kicephorus 

Digitized byjGoogle 



the Emperor of the Ka&t. At its foot 
lie <ii6 BM$ ^ Nnikamt. 

The rly. runs N.W. ftQm Neustadt, 
• threading the pretty Brendthal to 
Brendloretuen, with a churoh said to 
date from 770, and 

BisoliolUiaim vor-der-Bhon (U50), 
al the N. Ibot of the (1| hr.) Kreai> 

ROUTE 42. 


Miles. Statknit. BontM. 
Wteburg . «T,7,45 
6 Bottendorf . . , 45 
14 Bergtheim 
81 Weigoifthaosen . . 46 
TUET. . . 44»46 
29 Schwelnfart 
39 Ober-Tham 
42 HaMfurt 
47 ZeU 
51 Ibdfbftdi 
65 BMPbog ... 55 

E»— Majence to Leipdg or Prague. 
The TlY. ibllows Rte. 45 aa ^ as 

Rottendorf, where it turns N„ wind- 
ing considerably* and at Bergtheim 
attains a summit-level of 375 ft. above 
the Main at Wuizburg, To the 1. 
above Weigolshauseu is seen the 
palaee of Werneclc, formerly the 
summer rendeaee of the Abp. of 
Wiirzbnrpr, now a lunatic asylum. 

Omu. to (6 m. E.) Ludwigsbad- 
W^^fBld, where are sulphur springs 
and peat hatbs. 

Schweinfurt (13,000) is a prosper^ 
OUB manufacturing town (suo:ar, 
carpetfiL and ultramarine), pleasantly 
^tuated on the right hank of thoj 

Main. It was the Traieclm Sue- 
vonm of the Bomant, Qnoe mn In.* 
perial city, the great corn-mart of 

Central Germnny, it is still sur- 
rounded by walls and a flitch : two cf 
the old gateways al&o remain, which 
are good specimens of the ornamental 
or Italian style of fortification. The 
chief building is the picturesque 
Bathhaus (1 570) with a Gothic balus- 
trade. The two S. doorways of the 
ChurcJ* of St. Joiiu (1 2th cent.) are 
Mid to have been hnmght from the 
Castle of Munheigt iir the ofttg^boar- 
hood. The Gynmasium^ or public 
school, wa!? founded by GiLstavus 
Adolphus, but removed to large pre- 
mises to the N. of the town in 1881. 
Bfiekert» the poet» was bom here in 

The rly. follows the valley of the 
Main, studded with villages, at the 
foot of vine-clad hills, whose heights 

are here and there erowned with old 
castles, the cradles of the Franeonian 


On the 1. rises the Castle of Main- 
berg, 2^ m. from Schweinturt, built 
by the Cmmts of Henneberg in 1440, 
containing a remarkable private eoUeo- 

tion of antiquities, armour, and w orks 
of art, inclndinjr the cup which 
Kranach paint* 1 as a wedding present 
to Luther and Kulliarina, and nume- 
rous object* of very Ugh artistio 

Ober-Theres. The Chateau of 
Theres, near the viUagd was once a 

Hassfurthy a pietaresqne waBed 
town. Close to tne 8tat. is the ele- 
gant Gothic *RitterhapeUe (1 5th 

centy.) with richly groined vaulting ; 
triple chancel arch : over the doorway 
a Nativity in relief; within, monu- 
ments of the Sdmumborgs, restored. 
Outside the choir are heraldic shields 
of the noble families who contribnted 
to the building of the ch. in 1413. 
Dil. to (5 m.) Kimigd)^g (1000) in 
the duchy of Cobarg, where Regio- 
montanns the mathematician was bora 
(d. 1476). 

Zeil is another walled town , above 
wliich on the 1. are the ruins of 
Schlo^ Schmachtenherg, built in 143S, 


Bouie 42, — UbeUhach^BatiUftiry, 


and razed .by Albert of Bnndfiiibaig 
in 1552. 

SbelsbaclL Opposite, on the 1. 
bank of tbe Bfain, above tbe toim of 
Eltmann, rises the tall andpictmesque 
▼atch-lower of Waldburrf roth cent.). 
The old castle of Altenbarg and the 
four Cathedral towers come finely into 
iriew (HI approaching 

BAMBESO (32,000). Cah into the 
town, 75 pt i with two hones, 1 m. 

50 pf. . 

Bamberg (775 ft.), one of the most 
aneient eitiea of Gennany* liee on 

the Regnitz, 3 m. above its junction 
Avith the Main, in the midst of a fertile 
country. It was ori^anally the capital 
of a small but powerful prince- 
bisbopric, though it never was fiMrttfied. 

The "^Bomkirche or CcUhedral, built 
upon a commanding eminence, is a 
noble structure, in the Romanebque 
style, founded in 1004 by the Emp. 
Henry II. (the Holy), but rebuilt amr 
a fire about 1190. The singular 
apsidal gallciy at the E. end, the 
elegant cormce and dripstones which 
surround the exterior, also the 3 
eirenlar portals, especially that on tbe 
N. side, deserve notice. Tbis older 
apse has clustered columns knotted 
together in an uncommon manner, 
but of which there are examples 
in Hungary and Italy. The in- 
terior eontiins a doable ehoir: that 
at the E. end, the only part rescued 
from the fire, distinguished from the 
rest by the plainness of its arches, is 
raised upon a crypt, the arches of 
whieb are semicirettlar, and are sup- 
ported on short pillars. The capitals 
of these, as well as those above, be- 
hind the high altar, are almost all of 
a ditierent pattern, and are very taste- 
fid. In the centre of the nave is the 
*tomb of the Emo. Henry It. and bis 
empress Kunlganaa, executed in 1513 
by TUmann Kiemensehn<M(ler. Their 
emgies repose upon a clay-coloured 
altar-tomb, ornamented at the sides 
with carvings representing events in 
their lives* In one of them the 
BmpxcM if seen undergoing the ordeal 

of walking over red-hot plougbshares 

to prove her innocence of charges 
brought against her. In another com- 
partment she is paying the labourers 
engaged in bidlmng 3ie Gb. of St* 
Stephen. In another is St. Michael 
weighing the Emperor's cood and 
evil deeds. The high altar is sur- 
mounted by a bronze crucifix modelled 
by Schuxmthider, At the altar in the 
S. transept is a very old ivoryemcifiatt 
supposed to ha^e been ^iven by 
Henry II. in 1008, in a conoos style 
of e;u ly art, 

Ou the rt.of the E. altur is u bronze 
monument In relief of Bishc^ Ebnet^ 
by Pete i ^ 1 scber, of Nnrembm. The 
face is full of expression, and the rohes 
are executed with elaborate minute- 
ness. The chur<^ contains altogether 
more than 180 monnments, in stone 
and bronze, of bishops and ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries. The Chapel of the 
Holy Nail, dedicated to St. Andrew, 
leading out of the S. transept, is the 
burial-place of tlie Domherren, or 
canons of the cathedral. The walls 
are covered with their monuments, 
coiisistm<T of low reliefs cast in bronze, 
and executed witli considerable skilly 
mostly at Forchheim. 

The ebdr at tbe W. end is a good 
example of a more advanced Style of 
Gothic, finished with the transept in 
1274: the groined vaulting is very 
beautiful. Beneath it reposes the body 
of Pope Clement II. (who had been 
Bishop of 3amberg), in a remarkable 
monument; the efl^ (Idth centy.) 
rests on a sarcophagus of 3r<l or 4 th 
centy. The stalls are excellently 
carved in wood. On either side of the 
altar are bronze monnments, by Peter 
Vls( li-T, of Bishop Gross vonTrochau 
and Truchsess von Pommersfeldeu- 
The Treasury contains, among other 
relics, the bkuUs of Henry II. and his 
empress in gilded crowns, his knife, 
ana her very massive ivory combs^ 
crystal night-lamp ; a large fragment 
of the true cross, in crj'stal ; a mon- 
strance (1.5th centy. ^, 8c<2. This fine 
edifice underwent a tiioiuugii repair, 
at the insUgation of King Lewis of 
Bavaria, conducted by the architect 
Meidelojff of Noremberg ; the white- 

Digitized by GoogI( 


So¥ie 49. — Bamberg : AUmJmtg. Sect. IL 

wash was scrapetl off from the walls 
and capitals, laying bare frescoes 
(those iu St. Peter's choir, W. end| 
proteblj of the HHh eenty.). 

On the W. side of the Karolinen- 
platz fitands the Alte Residenz, a 
fragment of au Epucopal Palnro 
{date 1571), in the cinque-cento style, 
now tani6d into ft ifosfd-Iioiifc* Tlw 
gateway is fentastic, but pictures(iue. 

On the opposite side of the Karoli- 
neni>latz, but close to the Dom, is the 
Hene Eesidens, formerly the palace of 
the prince-bishops : a phun building, 
ereeted m 1999* Bfanhal Berthier, 
Mnee of Nenftlkfttil* wlio was married 
to a Bavarian princess, was killed in 
1815 by falling from one of the top- 
most windows at the back of the wing 
looking towards town. F^fomtkis 
palftceln Oet. 1806 Napoleon doelared 
war against Prussia* 

The *Hichaelsberg, a height ad- 
joining that on which the cathedral 
sUmdi, towards the N.W., is crowned 
\jj the extensive buildinr^s of the an- 
cient Convent of St. Michael. The 
Church, originally Romanesque (1221 ) 
was modernised in 1700. Behind the 
high altar has heen set up an andent 
colossal monument of St. Oflio. The 
shady terrace behind the convent, 
overlooking the town, commands a 
m^nihcent view. 

Within the convent is ft small but 
interesting XueiiBi. Adm. 10 to 12 
and 2 to 5, 20 pf. ; Snn. 10 to IS, free. 
Catalogue 60 pf. 

Among the paintings are : — School 
of WohlgemtUh^ St. Juliana's Vision 
at Li^ge, Petidon to ITrban IV., and 
Death (see Handbk. for Holland and 
Belgium, Rte. 52); WohlgemtMh 
Coronation of the Virgin, Crucifixion 
and Deposition ; several good paint- 
ings by Chriinewald; S. Ruysdael, 
Canal : BroogdMi, yilla^ Skirmish^ 
Gbnismis iToitssii* Portnul. Also some 

carvings in wood and ivory, models, 
reliefs, and 15th-cent. tapestries of 
Passion Scenes. 
The Bftthhans is ft hinlding of 

covered externally with rude fresco 
paintings. It stands on an island in 
the Begnitz, dose to the spot where 

the 3f<({fi and Danube Caaal iasves 

out of it. 

8t. Martin's Church, in the Grliner 
Markt, hniU Mr tiw Jesirits in ITfO, 

has a tower 100 fl, high, which com- 
mands a fine view. Adjoining it is 
the Lyceum, at the back of which 
are the Mat. Jiist. Museum^ open daily 
from 10 to It, and the ^libinry (8 to 
1 2, and 2 to 4). Here are some valu- 
able MSS., including the celebrated 
Bible of Alcuin, office book of Henry 
II. and Cunigunda, some Byzantine 
ivor^' diptychs, and a number of 
original drawings. 

One side of the Mazimiliansplatz is 
occupied by the priests' Seminary. 
In the centre is a fine fountain, wiUi 
statues by Miller of Munich (1880.) 

In ^e Untcre Ksnlberg-Strasse, at 
the S.W. comer of the town, is the 
*Pfarrkirche, or Frdnmliirche (1327- 
1387), in an elegant style of Gothic. 
The organ has some good carving by 
Veil 8toss n 523). On the N. side is a 
hsaotilhl aocnrway. 80 nin. hujher 
up risetiiefninedwftib of the *Auen- 
burg, a very ancient castle, originally 
the seat of the Counts of Babenberg ; 
but forfeited bv one of them, Count 
Adalbert, a roober^knight. It after- 
wards became the place of residence, 
and often of refuge, in turbulent times, 
of the prince-bishops of Bamberg. 
The Lombard king Berengarius died 
here, a prisoner, iu 9G6 ; and Otto of 
Wittelsbaeh mnrdered the Emp. 
Philip II. in this castle in 1203. It 
was taken and reduced to ruins in 
1553, by Margrave Albert of Bay- 
reuth, and, although restored, never 
regained its former splendour. The 
view from the top of the round tower 
is one of the finest in Franconia. The 
hills around arc richly clothed with 
orchards, hop-gardens, and vineyards : 
at their feet extends the city of Bam- 
berg, in the ftnn of the letter K. At 
the extremi^ on the 1. rises the vast 
edifice of the convent of St. Michael, 
in the centre the venerable Doin. 
Through the midst of the plain flows 
the Resnf ts, and the Main is neroeired 
in the N.E. winding^roDud the hill to 
receive its tributary stream. The 
hop-grounds around Bamberg are of 

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high celebrity. In the flummer sea- 
the inhabitants of the ttmn repair 
to what are called the Rock Cellars 
(Felsenkeller), taverns situated within 
gardens on the slopes of the neigh- 
bouring hills. 

A irery pleasant waflr or drime may 
l)e taken in the XuSsenhain and 
Theresienhain, two public parks laid 
out on the bank of the Regnitz. In 
the centre of the park is a much fre- 
<pieBtBd eafl^ A diadhf waSk» ccyvefed 
with line oak-trees, runs along the 
riyeTyOn irhicha ver^ good swimming- 
bath has been established aboat half a 
mile from the town. 

KOUTE 4a. 


Miles, StatlonjB. Bootes. 
Heiningen • • »f.Q. 92 
4 Bitschenhansen 
16 Mellrichstadt 
26 Neustadt ... 41 

40 XbenhaiiMii • . 44 
46 KitsingaB ... 44 

S.— Exp. in 3 hrs. 9 min. 

From MiUeikeiiikamm a riy. runs 
N.E. to (2 m.) €kimmenthaZ Junct. 
Stat., for Coburg or Gotha (N.G. 
Sf) b). Our line ascends S.W. to 
Jdelirichstadt, which has an ancient 
Imt disfigoied- chnieh, and follows 
the TaUey of the Strene to Kenstadt 

Milnnerstadt, on the Laner, has an 
interesting Transition Church. 

MMUam (3800) is pleasantly 
situated on ilw Ffttnconian saale (645 

ft.). It possesses 3 mineral springs, 
to whose world-wide reputation it owes 
its conversion from a poor village into 
a wiil-lmUt town* Tlie eaitnS point 


for Tisitors Is the Xaxigarten, prettily 
planted ynih trees, between the Kut' 
hang on the E. side and the Cmver- 
sationssaal on the W. It is adorned 
with a group of Hygeia impregnating 
the waters, and a statue of Max. II., 
both by AfwM, a nathre. On the 9. 
side are the two springs, Bagoezy and 
PamJur, which furnish saline and 
chalvbt'ate waters, and are tonic and 
aperient without flying to the head; 
the Bagoezy is nied for drinking, the 
Pandnr for baths: they are highly 
recommended as a remedy for chronic 
diseases, gout, and complaints of the 
stomach. The Ma-rhrnnneny on the 
N. side, is acidulous and alkaline, and 
not vnlike Mtaer water, except that 
it hat no iron, and is very much more 
agreeable ; it is chiefly prescribed for 
children. The waters are all power- 
fhl, and should only be taken under 
niciiical prescription. About S00,000 
bottles are exported annually. 

King I^ewis of Bavaria, who fre- 
quently visited Kissingen, caused the 
colonnade (Arcadenbau)^ and the 
handsome Eursaalf to be constructed 
in that style which at Vnnich is 
called Byzantine, from the designs of 
Gartner. '' A large Aldein-Baclliaus, 
for mud baths, has been built on the 
W. side of the Saale. In the heiffht 
of the aeaaon hsdls take, place weefiiy 
in the (^inversatiOninal. The band 
plays from 6 to 8 a.m., beginning 
always with a solemn Chorah, which 
the visitor should make a point of 
hearing. The Curgarten is then 
crowded witii patieiSa, sipping the 
waters and nihblin|; bans ; but after 
that hour the spot is almost deserted 
until 5 r,M., vfhen the music begins 

The nufliber of yearly Tintors is 
about 10,000, many of wliom are 
Russians. Those who stay more than 
a week pay a tax of 10 marks for the 
season ; each additional member of a 
family, 3 marks. Children and ter- 
▼ants pay half this amoont, and peiv 
SOBS of bigh rank twice or thtee times 
as much, according to registered 
tariff. The bathing hours are from 
10 to 1 and 3 to 6. There is a pretty 
little theatre B. of the Corgartea. 

BmiiB 43. — MeMngm to SiisiHgen. 

Digitized by Google 

In 1866 Kissingen was the scene | 
of a bloody combat between tbe 
Pnuuan oorpt of G6Imii and the 
BaTBrians under Prinee Carl, in 
which the latter were defeated after a 
stout resistance. A monument to the 
fallen has been raised in the Cemetery. 
The lodKiDg house of Dr. Diruf, on 
the Tt fiuik the Snle, near the 
hridgCt been % tablet recording the 
attempted ftssasaieatioB of Prince Bis- 
marck in 1874. 

EaMxmemm.— About e mile to the 

N., up the valley of the Saale, are the 
Salt Works. The principal brine 
spring, called Soolerisprudel, which 
supplies them, exhibits the pheno- 
menon of ebbing and flowing through 
la *Arteiian wwl or ihalt, bored to a 
depth of 390 It It brings up with it 
great quantities of carbonic acid gas, 
which is collected by means of a large 
inverted funnel, suspended over the 
tnrfiiee of the water, end, bdnff con* 
Tsyed by pipes to the adjoining nand- 
some Badehaw}, is administered to 
patients in the shape of gas-baths. 
The temperature of the water is 
almost invariably 67° Fahr. 

About a mile IhrUier np the valley, 
at tiie Tillage of Hansen, another Arte- 
sian well, called Schdnbomspmdel. 
has been sunk, which has reached 
the depth of nearly 2000 ft. The 
water, highly charged with eilt, voce 
in jets to a height of 50 or 60 ft., but 
the works are now abandoned. The 
tower erected over the shaft may be 
ascended (100, ft.) from 4 to 6 r.M. 

8 m. farther np ie 

Booklet, ano&er watcring-jpUce, 

cheaper and quieter than Kissmgen, 
possessing 4 strong chalybeate springs, 
in which the salts of soda are largely 
nized with the iron. The action of 
the water ie powerfhUj tonie and 

i m. S. of Bocklet is *Schloss 
Aschach, a restored mediseval cb&teau 
with a eoliectibn of fnmitare, carri ng, 

silver cups, &c. (Adm. 1 to 2 marks.) 
Pleasant walk N.E. to (6 m. from 
Bocklet) N0U$tadt (see above). 

I A favourite walk is to the ruined 
castle of Bodenlaabvon the summit 
ofa hiU. i hr. 8. ef Khiingen. 

The Altenberg, on the W. side of 
the river, has been laid out in walks 
and shrubberies, and has a decorated 
summer-house on the summit. 

The ruined castle of MwUterg lice 
7 m. S.W., on the way to Hammel- 
burg (47). 

Dil. in 5 hrs. (5i in the opposite 
direction) to (20 m. N.W.) Briickenaa 
(1800). The bathe lie 9 m. W., on 
the road to Jossa, 47, in a beautiful 
part of the valley of the Sinn, which 
is about ^ m. wide, and bounded by 
parallel lines of hills, which are 
covered with beech forest. The mea- 
dows about them have been laid oat 
in gardens and parfc-Iike grounds, 
through which runs a trout-stream. 
Delightful walks traverse the woods 
in ail directions. 

Ascent of 4 hrs. to the KrendMCg 

(2750 ft.), the highest of the Rhonge- 
birge, visible from Kissingen to the 
N.N.E. The course of the Sinn is 
followed for 2| hrs. to WUdfieeken, 
whence a pathway, intricate in places, 
leads to the top in 1| hr. Extensive, 
but not very remarkable view. On 
the summit is a cross 85 ft. high, and 
a wooden tower, built originally for 
ivrveying. A little below uie lu^ett 
point on the N.W. s'uU is a Franciscan 
monastery. To the N. rise the bills 
of the Thuringian forest; E. the 
Fichtelgebirge ; W. the Taunus 
range; S. the heights around Wiirs- 

Digitized by Googl 


KOUTE 44. 


dtiles. Stations. TVn tr?. 


FXJRI ... 42, 40 

8 Eb0idiaiUMn . • 43 
16 UNdngtn ... 48 

This rly. runs N.W., at first, and 
afterwards due N. Bevond Eben- 
hausen it tarns N.W. agam Uirough a 
hilly wooded district, and passes on 
the rt. the niin of Bodenlaube on 
approaching Kissingen. 

BofUe 45. — WSrs^rg to Panm. 

Miles. Station?. Boutes. 
181 Etterchausen 
184 Pmlindng ... 77 
126 '"EEOSNBBIJBe 60,77 
132 Obertraubling . . GO 
142 Bunching ... 60 
152 Straubing 
164 Staphansposching 
167 FUttlSiig ... 73 
183 Vilshofen 
801 "^f ASfiAU. • . . 108 


ROUTE 45. 



' 5 






Stations. llontea. 
Wiirzburg . 87,7,42 
Bottendorf ... 42 

Ifewtadt-aii-daP'Aiidi ) 

10 Windsheiiii { 
Siegelsdorf ) 
4 Langensenn \ 

Vvramberg . 61, 68, 65 


8 Wendelstein 
7 Altdorf 
Nenmarkt . ; . 49 

Cologne to Vienna. Through 
carriages and sleeping-cars. The & 
rection is nearly due £. as fietr as 

Dettelbach. Omn. to the town, 
which lies 4 m. E., on lixe Mam. its 
P/arrkirche has two towers on its S. 
side, and is much modernized, but 
still retains a fine late Gothic pulpit. 
The council chamber in the Toum-hali 
is worthy of notice. 

Kitsingen (7000), an old town, with 

4 churches, an old linihhaug^ and 
Gothic bridge^ connecting the suburb 
Etwashausen. Its Piurrkirche has the 
S. aisle divided into 2 stories by a fine 
vaulted gallery fronted wiUi open 
tracery. In the chancel is a very 
fine Tabernacle with much rich orna- 
mentation and statuary. Fine view 
from the Nem 8chimhaus, on a hill 
above the Stat. 

The rly. crosses the Main by a 
handsome bridge, and attains a con- 
siderable elevation above the winding 

Fen8tadt4Ui^or-Ai8ch (4100), with 
remains of old walls, and a con- 
siderable trade in hops. Rly. S.W. to 

linbidiheim, a wsdled town on the 
A'lsch, formerly of mneh strength. 
Dil. thence S.W. to Steinach (38). 

EmsMrchen. The Aurach is crossed 
by a fine viaduct, 130 ft. above the 

fliageliAort Branch rly. W. to Xan- 
gemenn, S m. further the Rednita is 

crossed, nnd the Alte Feste becomes 
conspicuous on the rt. (see below). 

V6rth (36,000), an active manu- 
facturing town, supplies half Europe 
with gold-leaf and looking-glasses; 

Bmite 45. — Nuremberg. 

Sect II. 

and is a formidable rival of Nuremberg 
in its niauufacttire of toys nnd fancy 
articles. About 3000 of the population 
are Jews, who were expelled from 
Nuremberg in 14M, tad bive nade 
the fortune of FtLrth W their indaetry 
and perseverance. They possess a 
college and a separate court of jnstice 
of their own. several sclior>ls, syna- 
gogues, and Hebrew-print i i ^ g c stabnsli* 
mentSf and enjoy privileges denied 
them ill many parts of the Continent. 
In St. Michad's Ch. is a *Saora- 
mentshaus, 24 ft. high, carved by 
Adam Kialft. The Eathhatu is a 
tne modem Gothie bnilduig of red 

The memorable battle between 
Onsf-ivus Adolphus and Wallenstein, 
which terminated in the retreat of the 
Swedish king after a display of oon- 
ffummate skul on both sides, took 
place in the neighbourhood of Fiirth, 
4 Sept. 1032. The head-qnarters of 
Gnstavus in Fiirth were at the iun 
called Griiner Baum, in the street stiU 
named after him. Wallenstein's camp 
was on the Alte Feste, 2 m. to the 
S., a strongly fortified position, from 
which the Swedish king made six nn- 
successful attempts to dislodge him. 
Fine view ttom the tower, a labourite 
ezennion with holiday-makera ftrom 

Besides our present line, there is a 
local rly. between Fuiih and Nurem- 
berg, the first iron road completed in 
Germany (1534), and a tramway. 

Nuremberg, Germ. Niirnl)rrg, (1150 
ft.). Hotel omnibus. Cabs from the 
Stat., 2 pers., 50 pf.; 4 pers., 1 mark. 

VinUniB!B&0 (130,000), once the 
greatest and most wealthy of all the 

free Imperial cities, the residence 
of emperors, the seat of diets, the 
focus of the trade of Asia and 
Europe, the moit important manu- 
fkcturing town in Germany, had de- 
generated from the latter part of the 
17th to the b^^-uinino; of the 19th 
century luio a dull j)roviucial town. 
Oommercial enterprise is, however, 
again in the ascendant. The manufac- 
tures now include Batkooff CarriageM 

— one establishment employing 1000 
men : nltrTimaritie, lead pencils, child- 
ren b toys, mirrors, brass, lacquered, 
and bronze wares, and foil for the 
setting of jeweUery; Thelead*pencil 
makera prodnoe 120 milUona of pen- 
cils per anmuii (of the value of 


Nuremberg mij be called the toy- 
shop of the world ; it exports tae 
ehiidren*s playtlungs known in En^ 

land as Dutch toys, but mostly made 
by peasants of the Thunngia!> Ff>rest, 
who produce them at a surprisingly 
low price.. Carving iu wood and i vory 
is luso exeented here at s -veiy 
moderate cost. 

The town is being modernised, hnt, 
in spite of changes, it retains probably 
more than any city in Kuiof^ the 
aspeot of times long gone by. It it 
surrounded by feudal walls and tarrets 
faced and strenethencd in more recent 
tim»'s, when the influence of gnn* 
powder began to be felt, by ramparts 
and bastions, resembling the early 
Italian mode of modem fertilieatioiL 
Tliese again are enclosed by a <titdl 
100 ft. Avide and 50 ft. deep, faced 
throughout with masonry. Its four 
principal arched gates are flanked by 
massive ejlindriol Tewers» no longer 
of nse as IbrtifieatioBs, hot higUy 
picturesque, and serving to complete 
the coronet of antique towers which 
encircle t!ie city, as seen from a dis- 
tance. The stranger arrived within 
its walls may ftmcy himself carried 
back to a distant century, as hetlireads 
its irregular streets, and examines 
its quaint gable- faced houses. Its 
churches and other public edifices, 
monuments of the ^iety and ehanty of 
its citisens, are singwarly perfect; 
having escaped the storm of war, 
sieges, and even of the Reformation. 
Its private buildings, including the 
palace-like mansions of its patrician 
citizens and merchant nohles, faaTing 
been hnilt of stone, are ec^nally weu 
preserved. Many of them are still 
inhabited by the families whose fore- 
fieithers originally constructed them, 
for the ctvie noUeese of N«re«Ed>etg^ 
deriving tank from Imperial diplomasy 
yields to none' In antiquity ; several 

Digitized by Go^ 

y Google 

Digitized by Googf' 

Baviiria. . Boute 42. — Church of Sf, Lawrence, 


tziBtiii|; fiumito trace their defoent 
in a direct line up to the llth cent, 

and possess curious domestic archives. 
U'hough built in the prevailing fashion 
of the period, with narrow bat hijghly 
ornamented fronts, and acutely pointed 
gables, they are often of large size, 
enclosing 2 or 3 courts, and extending 
l>ack from one street into another. 
The ground story, low and vaulted, 
was usnally occupied as a -warehouse ; 
the liid>ltable part, though not laid out 
in a manner consistent with modern 
ideas of comfort, M as richly decorated 
with carving and stucco ; indeed, an 
ancient author (iEneas Sylvius), speak- 
ing of the splendour of Nuremberg, 
declares that a simple citizen was 
better lodged than the king of Scot- 
land, and the city acquired the name 
of the Gothic Athens. An additional 
interest is reflected upon this renerable 
city by the fame and works of Diirer, 
Vischer, Krafft, Stoss, &c. ; though 
stripped, to a great extent, of these 
treasures, in consequence of public 
and private poverty, she owes her 
chief omameDts to the stiU renuuning 
productions of tteir skill. 

The Peirnitz, a small stream run- 
ning from E. to VV., crossed by 8 small 
bridges, divides the town into two 
nearly equal parts, named after the 
two great churches situated Mithiu 
them ; the northern, St. Sebald's side, 
the soutliem, St. Lawrences side. 

From the Ely. Stat, the traveller 
enters the town on the S.E. side by 
the Franentiior, and thence the 
KonigsBtrasse leads straight to Si. 
Lawrence, and over the Konigsbriicke 
to tiie Market-place and the Fraiisii- 
^irc/^ passing 1. the Sdioiie Branmn^ 
to the BathhAus, the Church of St. Se- 
bald, the staine and dwelling of Al- 
brecht Diirer^ and the Castle or Burg, 

♦The noble Gothic CHUBCH OF ST. 
LAWEENCE, the largest and finest in 
Nuremberg, was built at the instiga- 
tion of the £mp. Adolphus of Kassau 
(1274-80). The towers terminate 
with an elegant octagonal btory and 
£pire : the higliest stories of the square 
pmilonocmtautwideopeiungs, divided 
jtj man; muUions, to represent the 

gri^ron on which the Spanish saint, 

to whom the church is dedicated, was 
broiled by Valentinian. The portal 
at the W. end, 24 ft. broad, and 40 ft. 
high, between the towere, is not to be 
surpassed bjr any GoUuc building iu 
the richness of its decorations. The 
actual doors are on each side of a 
central pillar, bearing a statue of the 
Virgin and Child ; in the small arches 
abore these are represented— the Birth 
of Christ, Adoration of the Magi, 
Murder of the Innocents, and Fli^^t 
into Egypt. In the spandrils are 4 
prophets. In the tympanum, the 
lower row of sculpture represents the 
sufferings, burial, and resurrection of 
Christ J and the two upper rows, the 
Last Judgment. The Judge is sur- 
rounded by angels and the instruments 
of his passion ; his feet rest on the 
sun and moon, which have human 
countenances. The inner curve of 
the arch contains the 12 Apostles; the 
outer, the 12 Prophets ; below, of life- 
size, are statues of Adam and Eve. 
This portal is surmounted by u magni- 
ficent rose window, 10 yds. in diameter. 
The central vault is 70 ft. above the 
pavement. The aisles are of half the 
height and width of the nave. The 
choir, built 1459-1477) is loftier than 
the naYC^ and contains at Ae £• end 
splendid painted glass windows, gifts 
of the patrician families of Nuremberg, 
whose richly emblazoned coats of 
arms they bear. The finest of all is 
the Volkamcr window^ celebrated lor 
the depth and brightness of its eokmrs 
and the excellence of the design ; on 
it is represented the pedigree of Christ. 
In the next window are the Evan- 
gelists with their symbols. One of 
ttie ornaments of the interior is the 
SacramentBhSndeiitit or repository for 
the sacramental wafer, a tapering 
stone spire of florid Gothic open work, 
65 ft. high, executed with a minute- 
ness not commoulv bestowed on stone. 
The elegance of tne design, and beau- 
tiful sharpness of the carved orna- 
ments, are wonderful ; and so slender 
and graceful is. the structure, reachinir 
nearly to the roof of the church, tliut 

t See Prof. Wonderor's ♦ Worka of Ailam 
Kiaffli'withplstw. 86kia0,i«TO. 

Digitized by Google 


Bmte4k&. — Nuirmiihmjf: Frauenkirehe; Sect. ir. 

tbe top, ^hic!i Iteiuls over, hns tlie air 
of a plant which is cliecked in its 
further giowth. Above the ciborium 
the principal events of the Passion are 
represented. Here are, in relief- 
Christ taking leave of His Mother; 
the Last Supper; the Agony in the 
Garden ; Christ before Caiaplias ; the 
Crowning with Thorns, and the 
Scouipng; the Omeifl^iOD; and, at 
the top^ the RetnmclioiL The last 
is in round sculpture. Thp<e compo- 
sitions show the iuduence of 1. THirer^i^ 
works. The whole is supported on 
the shoulders of three kneeling 
figuTea^Adam Knfik, the scnlptor 
who executed it» and his apprentiees. 
It cost him five years of labour, and 
was finished in 1500, lie received 
from one Imhof, for wliom this work 
was ezeented, 770 ^Iden. It It re- 
corded Ibal this eminent artist, who 
has left behind so many proofs of his 
skill in his native citj*, died in 1507, 
at a great age, in the deepest distress, 
in an hospital at Schwabach. 

A enrions caning in wood, by Veit 
8to88 (1518), representing the Salu- 
tation of the Virgin hy the Anrrol, 5s 
suspended from the roof of this < ■ 1 1 u i c h , 
before the altar. The grou]^ is sur- 
rounded by a ehaplet of roses, in which 
are introduced reliefs depicting the 7 
Joys of the Virgin. Above is God 
the Father, helow hangs the Serpent. 
This work feli down in 1817, and was 
much broken, but has been most skil- 
Ihlly restored. On the high altar is a 
erocifix in wood gilt, by the same 
artifity of even finer workmanship. In 
the ehoir is some tapestry, on which 
are figures of Saints, in the style of 
the end of the latkcenty. In the N. 
aide is an early picture of great merit, 
representing the Virgin and Child and 
4 cherubim ; the head of the Virgin 
is very graceful : below is the portrait 
of the founder, with the arms of the 
Imhof fhmily. The [Hone Pulpit, of 
good workmanship, is modem, de- 
signed by Heiddoff. The iron gates, 
dated 1649, of the S. porch are among 
the best pieces of ironwork in Nnreni- 
berg ; and there are imudsonic bronze 
knockers on almost all the doon« 

On the N«W, side of the ehnfcli Is 

tin* TngendhnmiieTi, a fountain with 
numerous bronze figures, by Wurzel- 
hauer (1589). 

The Vassanar Hanf, at tiie comer 

of the Karolinenstrasse, nearly oppo- 
site St. Lawrence, is a specimen of 
piire German Gothic of the beginDiDi^ 
ot the 14th century. Peter ViiMher^s 
house b in ^ street called after han, 
behind the church to the BL 

In the KonicTPstrnsso, totiic rt near 
the bridge, is tin' Bavarian Industrial 
Museum, open daily from 10 to 12 and 
2 to .5, on Sunday 10 to I ; closed on 
Saturday. It contains a collection of 
models and an exhibition of industrial 
products, besides a library and readings 

Ou the E. side of the market-place 
(Hauptmarkt) stands the 

•Frauenkirehe (Catholic), remark- 
able for the richly carved decora- 
tions, sculptures, &c., which orna- 
ment its Gothic portal. It was 
founded by the Emp. Charles TV. and 
built (1865-1361), by the architects 
Crforge and Fred. Bupprechfy and the 
sculptor Sebahl ScJioiihofer. The porch , 
surmounted by a late Gothic bay in 
the form of an apse, it adorned with 
statues of the Vurgin, Patriarchal 
Prophets, Apostles, and Saints. The 
vestibule is also richly decorated with 
similar figures and with reliefs repre- 
senting events in Scripture. The 
interior contains many monnments 
from dmrehes in Nuremberg which 
have been pulled down. At the end 
of the S. aisle is an altar with coloured 
sculpture in the style of M'ohlgemuth ; 
and on the side-wall a painting in 15 
compartments, dated Ift12,representing 
the principal events in the life of our 
Saviour. At the end of the N. aisle 
is a picture representing St. Gregory 
celebrating mass in the presence of 
various saints, which Waagen hoMs 
to he one of the best works of Wohhje* 
muth; and on the side-wall is a 
riehly sculptured monument of the 
family of Pergeusdorfer (date 1500), 
one of tlie best works of Adam 
Kraft. It represents the sdoialioii 
of the Yifigin by a crowd of irer- 

Digitized by Google 


Bouie 46. — Nnremberg : City Library. 


iVippers, among whom arc a pope, 
emperor, cardinal, Sec. Three of the 
cboir windows contain old glass. 

Hm *Bi>tttifcl VovBtaia (der 
vhoae Bkvmien), in the N.W. angle 

of the same market-place, is an ele- 
gint octagonal Gothic obelisk, or spire, 
63 ft. high; of open work, resembling 
in shape the crosses erected to the 
memory of Qaeen Ele«Mr in Eogltod ; 
it w» «acMrted at the same time and 
by the same architects and sculptor as 
the neighbouring Frauenkirche, and 
was ohgiually painted and gilt. It 
was, m 18Sl-a4» nftoied willi the 
gnaleft fiddhy to tlie old work. Of 
the 24 statues by Saiumhofer, it was 
necessary to re-execute no less than 
16. The ligures carved in stone re- 
present, on the lower tier, 7 electors, 
nd 9 heroee— 3 Christian, Charie- 
magne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and 
Clovis ; 3 Jewish, Judas Maccabaeus, 
Joshua, and David; 3 Pagan, Julius 
C«sar, Alexander the Great, and 
Hector. These are placed against the 
8 pillars in pairs. Above thcie m 
MMcsaad 7 Prophets. 

Behind the Frauenkirche is the 
Goo9e Market, provided with an appro- 
priate foimtaiii^ the hnmie hgure of 
a peaaaat wttli two gene spouting 
water from their anonths, called the 
Oansemannchen. It is by Pancraz 
Labenwolf (1557), who executed 
another fountain in the court of the 

Not many yards distant is the 

dwelling of Ham SachSf the cobbler 
and poet (1494-1576), a native of 
Nuremberg, in a street named after 
him, whicii runs eastward from the 
&E. eoraer of the Hauptmarkt It 
has, however, been nearly rebuilt 
since his time ; and there is a bronze 
slatue to him by Krause on the Spital- 
platz erected in 1874. His poems of 
Tarious kinds exceed 6000 in number. 
His satirical songa^ diieoted against 
ths firman Catholics, were much in 
Togoa at the beginning of the Befbr- 

The house of Jerome Paumgartner, 
Ko. S3, TheitaltuHiiiiiWt v noir the 
8* Qtfv^ 

Cafe Liebel : on it is a relief by Ad. 
Kraft, representing the fight with 
the Dragon ; — in that of Kratit, the 
courtyard is very beautiful. The 
teite ef WiUbald FfarUMiiMr is H<k 
35, in the Ae^diSBplatz ;— Hirschel- 
gasse. No, 1304, now Fleischmann's 
Papier Mache' Manufactory, a house 
built in a mixture of Gothic, By- 
santine, and Oriental styles, by a 
cloth-merchant, on his retam nam. 
his timirds in the East ; Ruppreeht's 
house, containing a good Renaissance 
saloon ; the IlertpJahof (now a card 
manufactory), in the Panierplatz, and 
the neighbouring hease, Petersen's, 
with its pM90e>ting baleonies. 

The house of the bookseller Palm, 
whom Bonaparte shot in 180G, at 
Brannau, for publishing a pamphlet 
ui^aiiist him, is in the Winklerstrasse. 
lung Levis L plaaed aa it an iasarip- 
tion in nd letters to eommeBorate 
the event. 

The ScheuerVsche i/at<«,Burgstrasse, 
No. (;()(), contains a small room called 
the Pfalzgi-afenstnbe, ornamented with 
fine panelling of lime-wood, put toge- 
ther without nails. The £mp. Maxi- 
milian I., the Duke of Alba, and 
Cardinal Granville lodged in it. 

The Adierstrasse is a picturesque 
street Many of eU booses have 
been restored of hrtie years with a 
careful adfamnee to their original 

The City Libxarv, founded in the 
19th aentury, was In 1588 placed in 
^e Dominican monastery. It pos- 
sesses above 40,000 volumes, amoi^ 
which are finely illuminated MSS. 
of the Gospels of the loth, Pith, and 
Idth centuries, of the Psalms of the 
early part of the 18th century, and 
specimens of early pi^Med books. The 
English traveller will regard with 
interest a beautifully illuminated Latin 
Breviarj', executed, as appears from 
the style, between 1300 and 1830, at 
the end of which is this inscription 
" La Liver du Roy du France Charles 
Done a Madame la Roigne Dengle- 
terre.** This queen of England must 
have been either Isabella the wife < 
Bdward II., ov |[«Mierii>3 the ivi^ 

Digitized by Google 


Hciir^ V. Tlic library also contains 
drawings, portraits, and curiosities; 
relics of Luthor-'lni tUk flap aad 
dKiiildii§<im, MSS. in his hand; a 
ptrtof A. Dilrer's work on the Pro- 
portions of the Human Figure ; Hans 
Sachs' Poems; a richly illuminated 
Hebrew book of devotion on Telium 

Opposite die B. e«i of St. Meld 
■tends tbe 

Bathhaus or Town-hall, a large 
building with a ia9ade in the Jtelian 
ityteb bollt Ib hj HohMshuher. 
kidiiiding within it an older town-hall 
of 1332. Portions of the older build- 
ing may be seen in the interior quad- 
rangle and in the street at the hack. 
The gteet hall on 1st fleorv ft. 
long and 40 ft. wide, belongs to the 
tAdw portion of the building, and is 
remarkable for the paintings in oil, 
by Albert Diirer, with which its walls 
are decorated. They have suffered 
aiiith tea time ana injadkaaes re- 
elentiiDB. Tboee on the N. vaU» re- 
jirosenting the triumiduil car of the 
Kmp. Maximilian, and the Unjust 
Jud^e, together witli the Baud of 
Musicians between the doors, are on- 
dmbtedly hie< ne tecoes on the 
side of tin windova am bgr G* Wesrert 

1521 ; among them is a representation 
. of the (juillotine^ which is thus proved 
to be two centuries older than the 
French Rerolation. On tiie 2ad floor 
is the sOMller hall, or (kwmdl Oham- 
h€i\ onUMPented with 9 portraits of 
Worthies of Nuremberg, who have 
endowed the city with wealthy insti- 
tutions, painted in 1825. Open sit- 
tings oC the city conrt and of the 
magistrates are held bcie. In the 
Upper Galh.ry is a representation in 
liijih relief, covering the ceiling, of a 
Tournament iicld here in 1434. The 
knights, &c., represented nearly as 
large as life, were ausabers of the 
patcidan teiilieik The stoves desenre 

Beneath tlu- Kutlihaus are Dmvjtom 
and Subierruitcan Famig&t, extending 
in diffeiMdifeetiowtHKUr the streets 
and houses to the town ditch Otttside 
the walls. They are pardy ezoavated 

in the rock. There can be no doubt>ii 
that these outlets were cou&tructed as : i 
means of pimlely eeo^ying away - 
criminals, also to aflfotd the mngia 

trates the means of security and escape ... 
in of tumultuous risings amoufp ti 
their feliow-citizeus. - 

*iT.illBAU^gQsinuiBwasoii^ii* fj 

ally built in the Byzantine style, 
The oldest part is the Lufifelhol^ ^ 
Kapelle, finished in the 13th century. , 
The choir (iaoi-1377) exhibits great 
elegance, and is in the purest German 
Gothio s^le; the naye is a fine speoi* , 
men of transition work. Of ihm ^ 
towers, one dates from 1300, the other | 
from 1345 ; neither, however, attained 
their present height of 264 feet until * 
1483. The carved portsls, espedailw 
that on the N. side, called the BAdutrm ' 
Door (Brautthiire), deserve attentive 
examination, as well as the carvings 
in high relief by the sculptor Adam 
Krafi't, representing the several events 
of the Passion of oar Laid* On the 
outside of the choir, above the door 
called the Schauthure, which is on the ' 
S. side, near the guard-house, is a 
fine work of Adam Kraftt (1485), re- 
pi*esenting the Last Judgment. The ' 
oahassl bronze Christ« ontsida the W. j 
end, is one of the oldest voadu of art 
in metal cast at Ntireniberjr. The choir 
has lofty and narrow windows 50 ft. 
high; their muliions are wonderful 
worka ef maaoovy. The atidned glasa 
dates from the heghnning of the iGth 
century, and was executed by IBrsoh* 
vogel and Kirn<ih^ rrjer : the Markgraf- ; 
enfenster was (Usio-ned by Hans v. 
Kubnbach. Among the sculptures ' 
aio tibe Agony in the Garden^ and tiM 
Last Supper, a relief on the well of 
the choir, by Adam Kraft; also 
St. John and the Virgin, with Christ j 
on the Cross, in wood, over the high 
allur, by Veit Sto88. The Entomb- 
ment on Uie eelnmn neat la the pulpit 
is atttibnted to Albert Diirer. Tiie 
Komancsque Loffelholz Chapel (called , 
after a Nuremberg family of that name 
in 1453) was intended no doubt ori* 
ginally for a west dicdr; in it is n 
bronze font, in which the Emp. Wcn- 
sel of Bohemia waa baptiaed (ia61)» i 

Digitized by Googlci 

Bavaria. Meute 46^i8L 

said to be the oldest existmg iS urem- 
}m$ vofk ift mgdng. It u highly 
Omamented, and at the base stand 
statues of the Evangelists. In the 
chapel founded by the Mailer family 
is an altar-piece of the Cnicitixiou by 
Lucas Cranach. By far the most 
femailDablo ol^eet is tbe*ilizi]» <f M. 
flaMftlu, which still stands in the 
oentre of the choir, tbonirh the church 
is now devoted to the Lutheran ser- 
vice, it is the masterpiece of Peter 
VUdkerf ( 1455-1 and is the nost 
inportutworkof its kind that German 
art has yet produced. He worked at it 
for 12 yeare (1508-19), assisted by his 
five sons. It is in the rich^t style of 
Gothic architecture, entirely of bronze, 
consistliig of a ikh fretwork oaoopy 
supported on sleiider pillsn, beneath 
which the relics of the Saint repose in 
an oaken chest encased with silver 
plates. The statues of the 12 Apos- 
tles, whieh stand on Imekets at the 
sides of the pillars, sre adtariiaUe ; 
full of dignity and expression, pecu- 
liarly cnim and quiet, the drapery 
flowing like the Italian/* The grace- 
ful cliu&racter, the varied action, the 
ibree of ejiiHUsioii in di6 eonnleii- 
anctis, and tne nstonl faXi and flow of 
the draperies, deserve the hipbest 
praise. Above them are 12 smaller 
figures of Fathers of the Churchy 
irhile about TO fkndfttl representa^ 
tions of Cupids, aninutlS) &c., are dis- 
tributed among flowers and foliage. 
The miracles of the Saint are the 
subject of the reliefs under the coffin. 
"Those on the N. side represent the 
muracbi of SL Maid on Ms retam 
fetm Italy to Ganaanj, *vrlien, perish- 
ing with cold, and finding no fuel in 
the cottage where he took shelter, he 
placed an icicle on the fire, which 
bmntfike ooal, and afterwards mended 
a broken kettle by bleniBg tt» at the 
request of his host; on the S. his 
conversion of a stone into bread, and 
rescue of a man -wliom tlie earth was 
swallowiug alive, on account of his 
bwrsng donbted bis inspiratlott as a 
prophet: thest are admirable."— 
Jtord Lindeay. In a nidie» at the 

f Engravni;,'s c.f it. of all its paiis in 
detail* have been publislied by Scbm^. 

end lacing the altar, is an aUuiirable 
statin of 3m artirt, Fatar Vischer, in 
a mason's dress, with apron on, and 
chisel in hand (1508) ; and at the op- 
posite end a figure, equylly excellent, 
of St. Sebald : the whole fabric rests 
upon 12 snails, having 1 dolphins at 
m eomarar Aoeooding to traditioii» 
Yischer was mis^mUjr paid fiir Ibia 
great work of labour mid art aud he 
has himself recorded in an inscription 
upon the monument that *'he com- 
pfeled it Ibr tbe pndse of God Al- 
mighty alone, and the honour of St. 
Sebald, Prince of Heaven, by the aid 
of pious persons, paid bj tbear Yolntt* 
taury contributions." 

The Parsonage House of St Seba1d*s, 

at the N.W. corner of the square, ne* 
markable for its beniitifti! oriel ^vi^doTv, 
was the residence oi .Mcl ( hi or I'linznig, 
canon of the church and author of the 
poem of ^Thaaerdttifc/ an e wpl y aflfori of 
poetry, publisbadxn 1517, andfecord- 
ing the Emp. Maximiliaafs marriage 

with Mary of Burgmidy. 

Opposite the N. side of St. Sebald's 
is the Gothic Chapel of St. Maui ice, 
( 1 354). For vuaaj years it irss used 
as a magazine for wood, but in 1829 
was restored by the architect Heideloff. 

To the N. of tbe Moritz-Capelle, in 
the Albert Diirer's Platz, is a bronze 
stataa of Dttrer, by Baadi of Beilio, 
eicoted la ISM, possessing great ex* 
cellence as a work of art, and paid for 
by subscription. 100 yds. N.W.. near 
the Thiergiirtiier Thor, is Alltcit 
Diirer's house, marked byameduUiuu. 

Tbe *BBrg, or Oosiis, occnides the 
most northern and elevafid pcMitkm 
within the town. It is a very pictu- 
resque edifice, conspicuous for its 
massive towers, built on the top of a 
rock, and commanding an extraisive 
view. Its first constiniction cannot 
safely be placed earlier than the reign 
of Conrad] II., the Salic (1024-1039\ 
It was a favourite residence of many 
of the German empcroi i*. JNurembei^ 
was eonveniently situated nearly ia 
the centi e of their dominiens, and 
they took pleasure in the prosperity 
of t!5'' city, knowing well how much 
their own ti'easury beuelited by t' 

^i^ized by GoogI 

100 BotUe 46.-- Nuremberg : St. JoM$ (Hmrckyard; Seot. IL 

MfWM dfsmi ftom it, and how many 
ftardjr men-at-arms it could fiirnisn 
tiiem at a pinch to combat foreign or 
domestic foes. They even confided to 
the custody of its burghers the Im- 
Mrld Regalia, wlMi ivifi deporiled 
for three centuries in tilt dll^l of 
the Holy Ghost, but are now removed 
to Vienna. A portion of the building 
is supposed to have been erected by 
Fredenck Tkxhmtm (1187}; tat tn 
earlier date it aatlgned to the penta- 
gonal towerv perhaps the oldest con- 
strnction in Nuremberg; and the 
Heidenthumi (Heathen Tower), so 
called firom some carvioffs once looked 
upon as idoii. It eoirtafit a *iemark- 
able doidilt flii>pil» In two storiefi in 
the Romanesque style: the lower, or 
St. MargareVti, supported by low and 
thick piers, dates probably between 
10S4 and 1089) tte upper of 8^ 
Ottma/Tt or KiMimrkajpdle, resting on 
slight marble pillars with barbarous 
inutations of Corinthian capitals, pro- 
bably of the time of the Emperor 
Henry III., 1039-1056, 

A gateway beyond tlwM diapels 
leads into the castle jard* In the 
middle of which stands a lime-tree^ 
said to be 700 years old ; a marvel of 
vegetation. Its trunk rises as straight 
as a eohmm to alidfl^t of albont 80 ft ; 
it measures 15 ft in circumferenee at 
4 ft. from the ground. The greater 
part of the castle, which surrounds 
this court, dates most probably from 
the restoration of the building in 1520. 
The castle was repaired in modem 
Gothic style for King Max. in 1858, 
and a few apartments are fitted up for 
the Koyal Family ; they contain seve- 
ral stoves of enamelled German pot- 
tery, which bear the date of lo67. 
Heie are also some pictures of early 
German masters : by Alidorfer, Burgls- 
mairj Schduffelin^ and Martin Schdn, 
Near it is a well 350 ft. deep, hewn in 
the rock by prisoners, the labour of 
80 years, nom the edge of the 
water three sabterranean ways for- 
merly led, one of which (that to the 
Ralhhaus) is still open. In the adja- 
cent pentagonal tower may be seen a 
oolleetion of hutrummU o/ T^uriwre, 
ifbich ftrmed the iBfarialNo aeoom^ 

paninMBt of the jnrisprndenoe of the 

middle ages, down to the 17th and 
18th cents. They are partly derived 
from the prisons of the city, and in- 
elnde the rodb in all its multifarious 
forms of horror. 

Here is the celebrated Iron Virgin 
(eiserne Jungfrau), a hollow figure in 
the costume of a Nuremberg girl of 
the 17 cent, 7 ft. high. On touching 
a spring, Ao tnoL ooatisting of two 
massive I folditg doors, opens; their 
inner sides are atodded with iron 
spikes, so arranged as to penetrate the 
victim who was thrust into the Vir- 
^n*8 embrace. Through a trap-door 
m the floor the dead body was after- 
wards dropped into the oblivion of a 
deep well, out of which have been 
taken human bones and skulls. A 
curious collection of other medisvai 
enriodties has been airanged on tlw 
TBiiovs Hoevs of Ae tower* 

The Churchyard of St. John, about 
i m. beyond the Burg and Thiergarten 
Gate, to the N.W. of the Castle, is 
withoiit a parallel In Germany: Hhas 
been the torial-place of the botgher 
aristocracy of Nuremberg for many 
centuries. Among the 3500 gravestones • 
contained in it, all regularly numbered 
aDdmostiydeA»rat6dwithlMronze plates 
bearing coats-of-arms and devicea of 
deceased patricians, the following are 
remarkable : — No. 649, Albert Diirer*8 
grave, a simple bronze plate, with His 
well-known monogram and the in- 
seription, QnidqMAJBberUIhtreri mor- 
taU fuitj sub hoc conditur tumuh. 
Emigrnvit 8 idu9 Aprilis 1528; thus 
rendered by Longfellow, " Emigravit 
is the inscription on the tombstone 
where he lies. Dead ke is not, but 
depirted— for the ar^t never dies." 
Examination has proved that his re- 
mains no longer occupy it, but have 
been replaced by those of others. 
DUrer died of a piteous complaint — ^a 
tMnBsagaiit wife, a perftet Xantippe, 
who plagued his gentle spirit out of his 
body. The grave of Diirer*s friend, 
Pirkheimer^ is numbered 1414; that of 
Veil sum, 268. No. 503 is .Hans Sadui' 
^rave. Sandrart, the painter^ was also 
mterred here* The fi^haun ftmily. 

Digitized by Googic 


wilieh dates from thelStfacentaryjhas 
a vault here. One of its members, 
MwtiiiY a Bati:?« of Nmnbere, made 
the first temttiial globe, and cudmed, 
while Governor of the Azores, to have 
dis<»vered Brazil before Columbus 
reached Cuba. He is not buried here, 
tatatLdsboD. The teoU of the Holx- 
•ahnlwiB (1874*1487) It decorated 
with a sculptured group of "the En- 
tombment/' the last work of Adam 
Krafft (1507). The Gothic chapel of 
St. John (1323-1427) contains a pic- 
tare al tlie Ugh altar hj Wohlgemuth, 
and atmtyee in wood attribntcd to V0U 
Sloss, and at the side altars worin of 
other old German masters. 

The way from he Thiergartcn Gate 
of the town, through the Seilersgasse, 
to tlie ekarchyard, is pi— fori ait 
regular diatances with S taUmmf caeh 
bearing a bas-relief, representing a 
scene in the passion of our Saviour, 
executed by Adam Krafift. They were 
set up bv a citizen of Nuremberg, 
mam/ea lurtiB KetMltit a repiesenta- 
tioa of the Dolorous Way in JenuHilem, 
along which our Saviour is supposed 
to have passed in going from Pilate's 
himse to Calvarv. Ketzel made two 
. piigrimagea to the Holy Land, in 1477 
■■a 1488, in older to brine back the 
exact meamiMMnts. He placed these 
pillars at intervals between his own 
house, which is still standing (opposite 
that of A. Durer), No. 493, and the 
gate of tbe ohnrchyard, corresponding 
with the distance between the real sta- 
tions in Jerusalem. Several of the 
reliefs are defaced by time, and some 
have been restored by Burgtchmiet, 

The Aegidienldxfthi (St. Qilea) is n 
hailding in the Italian etyle, which 

succeeded, in 1718, a very ancient 
chapel, burnt in 1696, originally 
founded in 1140, for some Scotch 
Benedietine monks, by the Emperor 
Conrad III. It eoniains an altar- 
piece by Vandyck, a Dead Qirist sur- 
rounded by the tMo Maries and St. 
John. The angels above were added 
by an inferior modern artist of the 
town. Behind the altar are two 
mMnunental reliefs in bronaet by 
the mt of Peter Yiseher. Hm 

side-chapels are ancient, having es- 
caped the flames. The first, St. Wolf- 
gang's, oonlalna n rede earring of 

the Entombment; the second, St. 
Eucharius's, is in the transition style, 
having slender pillars, witli broad capi- 
tals, but pointed arches; the third, 
buih in 1845, is hung round with 
escutcheons of the Tetwl tu^^ fton 
the 12th to the 18th centuries. A 
sculptured relief here, representing 
the Coronation of the Virgin, is by 
Adam KtoMt, 

Onthearidiof liUielNndi Iste 
Gynm&iium, or high-echodl, fbonded 
by Melancthon, whose statue, by 
i?Mr^/«c/imt6f, erected in 1826, stands in 
front of it. The present building was 
erected in 1699, after the Benedictine 
aibi»ej»whieh ftrmeiij stood here^ had 
been destroyed b^ the fire which ooii* 
sumed the adjoining church. 

On the N. side of the Aegidienplatz 
is the ]i(m»e of Mr. Fuchs, called, from 
the family who built it in 1608, the 
PsOsr^idke JEToim, a fine speeimen of 
the style of the Benaissance, adapted 
to the old German arrangement of 
the facade: it was finished in 1605. 
Within is a picturesaue courtyard and 
sl^rcase, and upmis 8 room with 
fine wood panelluigeoTering the walls 
and ceiling. 

At the E. end of the Aegidienplatz is 
the Landauer Kloster. It was origin- 
ally an almshouse, now occupied by 
the I!taatg«w«KlMM]iBle» or Sehool of 
Design. The chapel roof has the pen- 
dants of the cotcmporary English 
s^le, and is supported by elegant 
spiral columns. Here stood originally 
Diirer's celebrated painting of the 
TV^ty, now at Vienna. 

(Adm. 1 mk.; open 10—1 and 2 — 4, 
Sun. and Wed. free) is placed in an 
old couTcnt (Karth'aoser^Kloster). It 
eontains n Tory interesdng collection 
of national antiquities and historic 
relics of the whole " Fatherland." 
Here are paintings, sculptures, arms, 
coins, furniture, books, MSS., &c» 
and the art eolleetoi ftrmsriy in the 
Rathhaus, and which include* • ••^ 
ehronologioal series of painf 

Digitized by Google 

102 lUmie^^w — Nuren^erg : PicU^re ChUery ; Soot. IL 

and the last wvric of. P, Vischer, 

dated 1532 — a bronze statue of Apollo 
drawing his bow ; aiso the Rosenkranz 
(Rosary), a carving in high relief of 
Scripture subjects — the Trinity, Last 
Judgment, fta^ wadoaed liyrchapiet 
of roses ; very finv work.— -Specimens 
of Nuremberg goldsmith's work, eccle- 
siastical antiquities, church plate, em- 
broidered robes, MSS., inissals, early 
printed books, engravings, musical 
mstmiuentB. In the dmMh, Kaul* 
iMMsh has painted a large fresco; tiM 
opening of the Grave of Charkmagne 
by Otho III. 

In the VV iihelmshalle (iioum xiii.) 
tfcm la a6a6 Bpa^OMii of the aieieni 
atyle of gbuH pamtiag in a window 
from the Royal Institute of Glass 
Painting in Berlin, given in 1869 hy 
King William I. of Prussia n'])rt- 
sentmg his ancestors, the Burgrave 
Frederic of Mmnibeiif laying the 
ianndatkm atone of this monattery, 
which was founded iby Msrguaid 
Wendel in I'm. 

The collection is one of extreme 
Interest, but the objects are constantly 
ahifled from place to plaoe^ afMl the 
Tiaitor ia vecoouBended to puvehaae 
the neweet oatalogae (50 pfl). 

On the first floor is arranged the 
*PlitliTe Gallery (catalogue 60 pf.), 
ftrmerlj at the- Merits-CeiMlley con« 
taining numerous and important works 
of the early Groinan Schools. A mong 
800 paintings, the following may be 
selected i'or examination 

Beahaid SMgel: Yvcpa end 
CbikL — James the Lesi^ Joa^h, 
Simon, and Jude. 

Burgkmair: Virgin and Child.— 
St. Sebastian and the £mp. Maxi- 

Bftrev: Pieth.^Hexoiil«e.p-TheEai- 
perors Charlemagne, Slgtimnnd^ and 


Gossaert: Virgin and -Child in a 

Hans Holbein : Virgin and Child. 

Hana von Mmhaeh ; 8S. Ceaam 
and Damian. 

HogovandevOeaa: Catdinal Bour- 

Joachim von. Sandrart ; The fes- 

tival hrtd In the great hall of tiie 

Rathhaus, at Nuremberg in 1649, after 
the conclusion of the Thirty Years* 
War by the peace of Westphalia. 

The heads are portraits ; that of 
the artiit htmaelf in the fore*groiiiid 
is above all success ful . It waa paintBd 
in 1G50 for the Swedish fr"nerali?simo, 
the Count Palatine Charles Gustavus, 
and presented to the city of Nurem- 
berg by the Grown of Bweden.*' 

Imeaa Orannch : The Woman taken 

in aflultery. — Young girl simpering 
before an old man. — Piet^ — Portrait 
of Luther. 

lEiliter WUhdm («f Oologne): 
Madonnn ivxA the peMlossom. 

Penes: St. Jerome. — Portrait of 
the Austrian creneral, Sebald Schirmcr, 
a Nnreinberger, in armour; one of 
his best wor^s. 

Peter de Hooeh s lalerler. 
BendmBidt : Pertcait of a "young 


Schaffner : Adoption of the Magi. 
Sigismund Holbdn: Virgin and 

Stifluui Kedmer : Gmeiflzion with 

five Saints. 

WohlgemTith : Crucifixion. — St. 
Luke painting the Virgm j below, St. 
Sebastian. On the reverse, SS. Ca- 
tharine and Barbara.-*-6oene8 from Hie 
UfeolSt Vitna. 

Zeltblom : S. Anna» wllh ibnr fe* 
male Baanta. 

Ailm-t JJiirer's house (see above) is 
atin ftandlng, though much altered 

internally, at the comer of Albert 
Diirer's Street, No. 376, close under the 
ca5;tle, near the Thiergarten Gate. It 
is now occupied by a Society of Ar- 
tists, who carefully preserve it from 
fltrtiier injury. It containa aome 
paintings, and ia Bhotwn on appBeatkm 
at the door. 

There h a small TJuuttre here, and a 
club called Mmeunif at the N. end of 
the Kouigsstrasse. Its reading-room 
la well supplied !with newspapeie» 
Strangers are admitted upon the in- 
troduction of a member. They who 
would see the burgher llf</ of Nurena- 
berg at the present day should repair 

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Bauie 45%— fMone Notes. 


to the Tiomnnn, a prarden on W. of tlie ! 
town, in the iMirtheistrasse, belonging 
to a private society, to which strangers 
M admitted, resorted to b;^ the citi- 
cms wmA. liheir iri¥C8 to dnidc eolRee 
and hear mnsic. 

A handsome Jewish Synnnr^nm in 
tho Moorish style, by Woli, was 
opt^ucd 1874, in the Spitalplatz. 
I Ad ^mf fnSk fttm the towii***on 
<be Toad to Hnmmelstein — ia the 
Cagfle of Lichtenliof once the resi- 
dence of Gnstavus Adolphus and his 
danghter Christina. Their sitting- 
room has been preserved intact, and is 

! sliDwii to^inlonL 


Hidoric Nnfp? or? Nit remherg. — Dur- 
I ing the 15th and 16th centuries, Nnrem- 
I berg attained the height of its wealth 
and prosperity. It possessed an in- 
I dte p a ndmt dooMufe, S8 Germ, m* in 
extent; it was able to fttmish a 
contin front of 6000 fight i no- men to tho 
' army of the Emp. Maximilian; and il 
was the eeatre of trade between ICast 
and West, A« elilef mart and ataple 
place for the produce of Italy and the 
Levant, which it received principally 
from Tenice and Grenoa, and distri- 
buiod over the north and west of 
' Kurope, returning in exchange what- 
em ^ Nortk Ml to etfbp< It was 
adminl^ly adapted also by its position 
for nn entrepot to tho traffic carried 
on by nieai^.s of the Danube nnd Kliine. 
But commerce and the carrying trade 
of Europe were by no means the only 
•iMiroes cf ita iveelth ; fttnve^ in the 
extent and eeletxity of Ha mann&c- 
tiire?. it deserves to be considered as 
the Biimingham of the period. Its 
artisans, many of whom may more 
properly be styled arlitta, eapeMly 
tiie irenm of metato, smiths, ar- 
momrs, cutlers, casters in bronze, 
and goldsmiths, were esteemed the 
most cunning and skilful craftsmfii 
in Europe, and their productions were 
highly prized ; tlie eleth wesvera and 
dyers were likewise in hifjk fopote* 
To this period belong the names of 
the Nuremberg artists — Michael ! 
WfMgemuth (1434-1519), and his 
puml ilH»er«I>«rer (1471-1528), painter, 

godplon- wgumftf BMtkeMifliaii, 

nnd engineer ; Peter Ti>>clie.r^ sculptor 
and caster in bronze (d. 1529) ; Adam 
Krafft, sculptor (d. 1507), whose 
works served aa models to improve 
the «Mte of tMr towsemen* To 
tkese may be added Velt I^ms, carver 
in wood, who, born at Cracow in 1 4 17, 
settled at Nuremberg, and died tlu i e 
in 1542. Many disco veri^^ both use- 
fhl and pentlaoiui to umbi^ tat wUek 
may be said to belong ta the arts of 
life, were made here. Thus playing- 
card*;, if not invented, were manu- 
factured here as early as 1380: in 
1390 a citizen of Nuremberg bmit a 
paper-mill, wMiooi dovbt the llist la 
Germany. Records exist of eauKm 
being cast here in 1356: those pre- 
viously in use are believed to have 
been constructed of iron bars held 
together by hoops. The first watehea 
(etf led Nuremberg eggs from tMr 
oval abMie) were made here in 1500, 
by one Peter ReJe ; the first gnnlock 
in 1517. In 13G0 Kudolph invented 
a machine for drawing wire : in 1550 
Bmmm Bbrm ftund out that par* 
ticalar alloy of metaU» eatted ham% 
the brass of earlier times was a dif- 
ferent combination. Hanft Loh^mgery 
the inventor of the air«guii (1560), 
and ChrutopJ^r Deuner, of the clarinet 
(1 r>90). were alio natirea of tUe tAtf* 
Nuremberg also ^ame birtli to VaU 
Jlirschvnrjpl nnd his three sons, a race 
of potters and glass painters. Augustm 
Jlirashvdael travelled into Italy, and 
went to Urtdno, where he learnt the 
art of enam^hkg pottery. He r»> 
turned in 1689» and establiBhed a 
manuiiu^tory of tiiat wire at Nnreifr- 

Various causes contributed to the 
deeagrof IViireiBbergs among the Ibn* 
most may boreekooid the discovery of 

the passage to India round the Cape 
of Good Hope, which turned the com- 
nieri'e of the East away from Central 
Kurope into au entirely new channel. 
The adMi and inisgiuded prejudioee 
of the Imdes and guilds contributed 
not a little to the ruin of its manufac- 
! tnrers. In 1494 the Jews were ex- 
pelled, and forbade under pain of 
deoHi even to alew within the wallr- 
and at a laier pdM the galea w^ 

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Stmle 4fi«<*-JWiMiki9 .* HUtory. Seat. II« 

upon the Protestant weavers ex- 
iled from France and Flanders, who, 
however, found an asvluui in other 
German cities, which their doll Mom 
renderad fiieeenfiil competiton ci the 
short-^ghted Nuremberffers. The ca- 
lamitous period of the Thirty Years' 
War inflicted a serious and permanent 
blow on the citv. The citizens, as 
well as their sc^bom of Angelmrg, 
adt^tad early, and stedfastly adhered 
to, the Eeformed faith. For several 
centuries no Romanist was allowed to 
hold property iu the town, and in 1841 
it contained only 2692 Roman Catho- 
lies, ^o ha^e, it U aaid, iiioveaeed 
since then in a greater ratio than 
the Protestants, at least among the 
lower class. Nuremberg consecjuently 
eagerly espoused the cause of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, who, ui 1688, was 
QOmpelled to throw hlmielf into the 
town with an army of 15,000 men, 
to protect both himself and it from 
the advancing force of Wallenstein, 
which was treble his own. He had 
hardy time to enaeonee Mmadlf be* 
hind a ran^ant, which hia troops, 
aided by the townsfolk, threw up round 
the walls, enclosing the city within a 
ditch 8 ft. deep and 12 broad, strength- 
ened with bastions and half-moons at 
intermhl^Mid defended by 300 pieces 
of eaaiKm« when the Imperial army 
drew near. The fortified camp of the 
Swedes, though hastily constructed 
within 14 days, appeared so formidable 
to WaUeaat^ mat he deelined at- 
tacking it, and preferred waiting 
quietly until fiunine should starve his 
enemies into surrender. With this 
view, he also entrenched his array 
within a strong position upon the 
height above Forttiy to the «Mith of 
the Bednitz, trusting to be able from 
thence to intercept communications 
and cut off supplies from his adversary. 
For nearly 3 months did these two 
mastera of the art of war sit watching 
each other like skilful ehev-players, 
each fearful lest a single move should 
give advantage to his opponent. Wal- 
lenstein, in thus attempting to starve 
out the Swedes, was himself reduced to 
he utmost straits : th«eoimtry around, 
'iqpmitf 7 and tolgnedlj wasted by 

fire and sword, was completely drained 
and exhausted, so that he was obliged 
to send 35 m. for forage, and it be- 
came a qneetlon of donbtM seaiilt 
which party would hold out 
longest. Gustavns had in the mean- 
while received reinforcements, which 
raised his army to nearly an equality 
with that of the Imperialists, and iu 
addition he was backed by ac^OOO 
citizens of linvemberg capable of 
bearing arms, and devoted to his 
cause. This very augmentation of 
force was of baneful consequence 
in exhausting his supplies, which 
were scanty before. The el^, tfaoDgh 
previously well stored by the fore- 
thought of the magistrates, could 
barely furnish enough for its own 
wants ; and famine, and its conse- 
quence* disease, laid tiioiisaiids low,' 
both in the camp and city. The kiag, 
perceiving the impossibility of re- 
taining his position longer, used every 
efibrt to bring on a general engagement 
and draw down the enemy from his 
▼aatage-grouad. Wlieii mm pfored 
unsuccessful, he was driven to the 
desperate and hopeless determination 
of storming his camp near Fiirth (see 
the account of the battle there given). ' 
Wallenstein, secured behind his bul- 
warks, and diowering death upon the 
Swedish ranks, laughed toMOmtte rash 
enterprise, and Gustavus, unsuccessful 
for the first time in his life, was 
compelled to break up from his 
qnarteit and tetmt (Sept. 8, 1632), 
leaving a garrison of 5000 men in Nu- 
remberg. At the time of his departure 
20, 000 Swedes and 10,000 of the citizens 
had perished of disease and starvation 
iu about 8 or 10 weeks ; fire and sword 
had laidwastothesiimNuidiug country, 
redudng it to a desert ; the neighbour- 
ing villages and hamlets were heaps of 
ashes and ruin. Wallenstein managed 
to keep his ground only for .5 days 
after his rival had withdrawn. He 
then bfoke np his camp and retreated, 
having scarcely suffered less than Gus- 
tavus, nor did he venture any attempt- 
upon Nuremberg. The extraordinary 
etforts made by the city to meet this 
exigency completely ezhansted her 
fln a iKfflu resources, and left her eacam* 

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Mouie 45. 


bwed irith a load of debt whose Imiden 
mathuBA oppresBtfdy Halt Ibr move 
then s century. 

The ancient form of government of 
NureinlK i o was deeulodly aristocratic, 
and bore luucii rebembiauce to that oi 
Yenioe. About 30 patrieieii fkaiilies 
for a long time monopolised the chief 
authority, and from among them 'wns 
chosen the coancil of state, consisting 
of 8 members^ who formed the e^eca- 


Down to the peace of Pressbnrg (26 

Dec. 1 805) the city possessed a consti- 
tntion of its own, enjoying the privi- 
leges, grants, and immunities which 
had been bestowed upon it hy the 
▼ariiBM Gennan emperors, beginning 
10 hr back as 1219, sueh as free elec- 
tion of magistrates, and tndepeiideiKt 
courts of justice. 

The Emperor appointed a Burg- 
graf, or 8taatfaelder,who was generally 
a member of some noble or princely 
family : he lived in the castle within the 
walls, and was intended to be n. pro- 
tector of the city, though he was usually 
regarded by the borders as a thorn in 
if! side. The aneestors of the present 
Royal Family of Prussia make their 
fi rst appearance in history as Burgraves 
of Nuremberg. They were constantly 
engaged in feuds with the citizens, 
nirtil at last, in 1417, Frederic IV., 
BoigiaTO of Nuremborg, anxious to 
raise money to purchase the Mark of 
Brandenburg, sold the castle and a 
portion of his rights to the citizens 
for 120,000 gold guldens. 

In 1806» if a aecree of Napoleon, 
Nurembei^ ceased to be a me city, 
and was given over to the King of 

I«eaving Nuremberg, the ItDS is 
bordered by woods as far as 

Datsendteich, much fre<|upnte(l l)y 
excnrsionists from Nuremberg. Tram* 
way several times a day. 

Vouit* Bnmeh rly. to JUdorf ; 
W. to WandeUuin, 

Ochenbmck, whence n road leads 
W. into the pretty Sekwarzach Thai. 
The Ludwigs-Canal is crossed to 

Vaomaikt^uHMhUa (&ooo), fie* 

ooented ibr its aolphor Springs. Here 
u a Gothic choieh, and a 15tfa-ecBt 
town hall. 3 m. R are the impeatag 

rains of Wolfstein. 

The line traverses the Sul/tlial, and 
enters a wooded hilly district, crossing 
the Xa6sr«8lream to Fariberg, in a 
pictaresiine situation, with an old 
chnteau nnd ch. worth visiting. Soon 
afterwards the rly. descends the very 
attractive Laberthed. , 

BttondHNUWO, a Av oarit e eieoision 
fh>m Regensbatff. Here is a laige 
cavern in the nxS:, called the Robber's 
Dm. The rt. hank of the Nab is now 
followed, and the Danube crossed near 

BEGEH8BTTBG (1010 ft.), called hf 

the Enplish Eatisbon, is a city of 
40,000 iiihub. (8000 Frotestiiiitsr and 
Guu Jews^ on the rt. bank of the 
Danabe. A narrow stone Bridge 
(1135-46), 380 yds. long, connects the 
city with its suburb Stadt-am-Hof. 
The name is derived from the small 
river Regen, which runs into the 
Danube nearly opposite. It was called 
by the Bomans Uastra Begina^ and by 
the C^dts JBiif<«(ona. 

For many centuries tliis ^as one 
of the wealthiest and most important 
of the free Imperial cities. A large 
portiflsi of the commerce of £nn^ 
passed throagli it : it had ftetories in 
distant countries, and merchants of 
Kiev in Knssia drew hills upon its 
bankers. As early as the Crusades 
the boatmen of Ratisbon were famous ; 
they conveyed pious pilgrims and war* 
riors down the Danube on their way 
to the Holy Land. In lattr time? 
(from 1663 to 1806) it became the seat 
of the Imperial Diets, 52 of which 
WBfeheldwitluiiitswaUs. TheScteet 
of Ambassadors reminda the apcelator 
of the days when the vast straggling 
mansions composing it were occupied 
by the ministers of the ruling states 
of Europe. The same caoses which 
affiacted the prosperity of Augsburg 
and Nuremberg were equally pre- 
judicial to the srood fortune of Ratis- 
bon ; and in the middle of the 17th 
century it had already fallen into 

decay* Theannalsof the towaieeord 

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no 1^ tfafm 17 sieges wluelL it ondore^ 
since the lOth century, amtnpanied 

by bombardments and heavy exactions 
of money. The last of them, in 1809, 
when the town was stormed by Napo- 
leon, and obstinately defended by the 
Anstriam^ Snflletod tb« levavett injury ; 
nearly SOO homes and the irhole 
gubnrb were then burnt to the CT'onnd. 
Napoleon received a wound in the foot 
on this occasion. • . 

Ia iti present state it has an air of 
dnliUMs; Its 8ti«etf an-iianeiir^iiiaiiy 
of ite buildings are of a verj high 
antiquity—evidently, from their style 
of architecture, older than any in 
Nuremberg. Amonff its ordinary 
dweUlng-houfles may w observed here 
and thare tall battlemented totoers, 
ivith loopholes in the walls ; the habi- 
tations and fortresses, in ancient times, 
of a tyrannical and timid aristocracy, 
who were obliged to be ever on ti^e 
dcfiBBnye, mft against l^eir HaUow- 
citiT^ons. The loftiest of these is tha 
Goldtm Toirrr in the Wallerstrasse ; 
another bears the figures of Goliath 
and David painted on the outside. A 
third ia attached to the inn of the 
Golden Cron. 

The ♦CATHEDRAL of St. Peter, one 
of the finest Cothic churches in Ger- 
many, was founded by Bish<^ Leo 
Tondorftr in the year 1873. its oon- 
itniotion iras eo&tiitned under the 
superintendence of the architects Lud- 
wig (I'^Ori), HeiiH'ich der Zehenture 
(1350), Lie])ii:ut der Mynncr (1440), 
and Andreas Egl (1448). The N. 
toirer mi ooanunoed In 1410, and 
the "W. fecade completed in 14fK(s hy 
Matthew Itoritzer. The ch. was then 
carried on tinder Wolfgann; Koritzer 
(1514) and succeeding architects until 
the beginning of the 17th century, 
▼hen It waa left in an nnfinidied 
state. The compkftlon «f the two 

bonntifu! vr^st towerf; wnf^ bf'frnn in 
1863, uuder the direction of the archi- 
tect Deozinger, and huished in 1870. 
The a part of the W. front is in the 
Decorated style of lihe 14th eentaiy, 
the N. part being a century later. 
The gLMieral character of the bnildine: 
is middle-pointed, with Ferpeudicuiar 

Seoi. IL 

inMrtiona; hnt the a aiale, and the BL 

end of ^fhe N. aisle, are of excellent 
early-pointed work. The W. '*^rtal9 
throwing out a pier in front so as to 
form a double archway, is laden with 
sculptured iigures and elegant oma- 
ments. The cathedral hat the form 
of a basilica on the groiBnd<^plan, far 
the length of the tran?^ept does not 
exceed the width of the nave and 
aisles. The latter terminate with an 
apse instead of pasdng hehind the 
choir. The gieateit tenglh is; 384 ft. ; 
width 128 ft.; height 128 ft. The 
interior is remarkable for the simple 
elegance of its clustered columns, 
the just proportions of the arches 
of the nave, tba anbdned* aadlow 
hue of the stone, and the licbness of 
the old painted glass. The modem 
windows, presented by King Lewis* 
arc iuferior, but that under the S.W. 
tower is oue of the richest in colour 
which the medem artoTMna&eli haa 
produced. The high altar front is 
of solifl silrcr, most beautiftilly 
chased. Above it rises a crucifix, 
finely sculptured. N. of the altar 
rises an elaborate Sacramentshana of 
l49ak0Oit hlgh^adonwd'wiA nnma. 
rous statuettes. The other altars are 
placed under elegant Gothic canopies 
carved in stone. In the N. aisle, in 
the 5th bay frcm the W. end, a^inst 
the wall, ia a iMne of the liirgin, of 
sii^gular heaotf, 4iighly 'varthy of 
attention as a work of art, probably 
of the 14th century. Just beyond this, 
at the N. door, is the monumei^t of the 
Primate Dalberg, in white marble, de 
signed by Canora; and on Ae aame 
aiae» near the end of the aisle, is a 
bronze tablet, with fi rains in low 
relief, representing Christ and the 
Sisters of Lazarus, on the *monument 
of Margaret Tucher (1521), by Peter 
Vischer ; oppodtetotMa ia ihe modem 
monument of Bp. Wittmann (1833), 
by Kberhard, of Munich ; and near it 
is that of the prince-bisliop Count 
H^berstein (1663), containing a relief, 
in wtute roarhle, and 900 h aad s, Jby an 
unknown artist, representing Christ 
feeding the multitude. Near the E. 
end of the S. aisle are 2 good modem 
monoments of Bp. Sailer (1632) and 

Moute4&, — Megembur^: Oa^tedral; 

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l^vana. Boute it^.r-'^^SeMd/ktme Church of St James. 


^ T. Seliirfibl (1841), bodi by Bbo^ 
bard. Jvtt bejrond the door, wittiin 

the S. transept, is a singular Gothic 
well, more tnan GO feet deep, orua- 
meoted with two appropriate figures, 
representing our Saviomr and the 
woman of oamiuna. In the middle of 
the aare^ kneeling at tiie foot of a 
large cross, is the bronze statue of the 
Oardi D a 1 H ishop Philip Wiiliaia Prince 
Bavai ia, 

I The drukuig-eiip of Bt. Wolfgang 
[994) and the fMlnenIi i^pertamiag 

to his holy office are preserved among 
other costly ornaments in the Treasury. 
' An excellent *view of iiatisbon, of 
the distant chainof the Alps to the S., 
ptkd the eomse of the Danube as f&r 
as Donaustauf, and the Walhalla, is 
obtained from the top of the cathedral. 
The ascent to it is by the Eselsthurm 
(Ass's Tower), adjoining the iS. tran- 
|Bept, so oaOed beeanse tiie materials 
for the upper part of the building 
"were carried up it on the backs of 
asses ; riTid for their convenience it 
was provided with a winding inclined 
plane, instead of a staircase. 

To the N.E. are the ^CloisterSy'con- 

taining innch that is interesting in 
architecture. The windows are richly 
decorated with ornaments of different 
periods ; they are lomid-heeded, illed 
with trefoil Craeery, and round the 
inside are figures of the Apostles, 
mixed with ornament in the style of 
the Renaissance. In the walls and 
pavement are many raotttuxtents of 
meaibers of the Chapter^ 

Adjacent, on the E., is the Roman- 
esque Allerheiligenkapelle, a Greek 
cross, surmounted by an octagonal 
dome, stone-vaulted, it has erroneously 
been ealM a baptistery. On the N. 
side of the elobtere is the Alte Som, 
or. Stephanskirchlein, probably nearly 
as old as the Knman period, and in the 
form of a basilica, having vaulted 
semi-circolur niches in the thickness 
of the ym maishre ynH ; in one of 
them, at toe end, stands the altar, a 
block of stone, which probably dates 
from the earliest Christian period : it 
is hollowed out, probablv to contain 
vtlics, attd ifA flRmt permied with 

300 little holes. Opposite to ft Is a 
low gallery, supported on round arches 
by stunted pillars. This chapel is 

lighted by small round-headed win- 
dows, placed high up in the recesses 
on each side. 

aE. of the eMhedrel, in the N.W. 
comer of the Com Mnrket, stands a 
square niassh e tower of rough masonry, 
called the Roman Tower, probably the 
oldest structure in Batisbon, and a 
rello of the Roman oMtle. Olose by 
is "'St. Ulrieh, a fine and curiously 
constructed early pointed building, 
with massive piers and deep ^lleries. 
It has been fitted up as a Museum, 
open daily from 8 to 6, 50 pf. ; on 
Stna. 8 to 19, 80 pf.; catalogue SO pf. 
On the ground fioor are sculptured 
Roman fragments, tombs, sarcophagi, 
and objects in stone. Above, in the 
galleries, pre-historic remains, trinkets, 
bronie implements, pottery, glass, 
coins, hnman skulls and skeletons, and 
various smaller antiquities. E. of the 
Cathedral is the church of the 

Hieder-Xfisster, attached to a nun- 
nery long since dissolved, whose 
abbesses held the rank of princesses 
of the empire, and occupied seats in 

the Diet. It has a Romanesque door, 
and some old tomb-sUU>s in its portico. 

S.El i» ik» 0hmk of ti* Vlainllei, 
witfi a gneefiii I4th cent, dioir. 

The Benedictine Church of St. James 
(8chottenkirche), at the W. end of 
the city, close to the Jacob's Gate, 
was attaefaed to a monastery ibunded, 
like many others, on the Danube, at 
Wurzburg, Vienna, Erfurt, &c.. in 
the 10th and llth cents., by Srotch 
Benedictines, exiles from their country, 
who, being pionsmen and good teach- 
ers, were encouraged by the princes 
of Germany. On the X side is a 
singular projecting *porch of the 
13th cent. — a circular arch, sup- 
ported at the sides by pillars, near the 
bases of which are lioaa It is orna- 
mented with curious carvings, sup- 
posed to represent the triumph of 
Christianity over various forms of 
heathenism. The Churchy probably 
not older than 1100, is a plain baidlieat 

Digitized by Google 

1 08 SoikU Ib.—Megt ii 

walh a flat^roofed nav« aad irsulied 

aisles. Its W. gallery is supparttd bv 
low ntassive columns. On uie iombs 
which Hue the walls may be seeu luauy 
Bootch nammt tneh ai BilUnl* Fkm- 
inf , Btuart, and Arbathnotp Xkit 
adjacent buildings bow wrve At a 
ol«racal Senunaiy* 

Just outside tiie J&cobltltor U an 
old Croat of 1459, rtttortd in 189i^ 
A similar column fitUed the PfttigtV* 
s&ulet ootside the Petersthor, with 
3 3th oonjL reliefs was restored in 

The <Bi» of Bt'SBUMBiBt palm of 
Batisbon, it an inltrotting 8tnietera» 
one of the most ancient in Germany. 

It was founded in 652, and restored by 
the Emperor Charlemague in oi altuut 
the year dOO. It has an isolated tower^ 
oraameatod with ttatntt» and a fare- 
oonrt, In the round style. Over the 
entrance is a restored fresco of Saints 
and founders, and on a wall to the rt. 
is a Komauesque arcade. It contains 
monnmentt of St Emmeran, St Wolf- 
gang (both blthops here), of St. Denis 
the Areopagite, of King Cbilderic, 
who was ariveu hither out of France, 
of the Em p. Arnulph and hiis son, &c. 
In the sacristy are preserved the ela- 
borately ornamented tiWer shrinet of 
Bishops Emmeran and Wolijpngy with 
their crosiers of ivory, mitres, and 
robes. Below the W. choir is the 
crypt of St. Wolfgang (llth cent.) 

The abbot of Sik XSameran enjoyed 
princely rank, and sat at the Diets on 
the bench of Klienish prelates. The 
vast abbey wns converted in 1809 
into the Palace of Prince Thurn nnd 
Taxis. The ^tables are liaiidsome 
and large. The riding-school, built 
in 1830, is decorated with bas-reliefs 
by Schirnyifhaler, representing hoi-se- 
racing at the Olympian Games. The 
cloisters, which have been restored, 
are a fine specimen of the Gothic 
arehiteotnre of the 14th cent The 
gateways at .each end of the eastern 
cloister are remarkable. The Gothic 
Chapel, within the area of these 
cloisters, is an elegant modern struc- 
ture: DanMohei^M ttatne of Ohrist 
it plaeed in it The fionilj vault 

mbury : Maiiihaus, Seot. II, 

beneath, in which are some bvonze 

f5arof>j>brtpi of elaborate "u-orkmanship, 
in open trie to the pubUfi fr ttm 21 tS 
12 every day. 

In Ibe Anlagen, or paUie pleasure- 
groonds, lal l out apon the cite ef 
ancient fort ideations, ovtaide the 
Petersthor, a small eircalar temple 
has been erected as a numnmeTit to 
Kepler the astronomer, who died here 
of a broken heart on Ut wagr to ete the 
Emperor Ferdinand in 1630, and is 
buned in the aei^ihQiiriBg Protettoat 

The *SATKHAtn ooadstt of two 

parts : the older, on the W. side of tbt 
small Rathhausplatz, dates from Ae 
14th oont. ; while that on the N. side 
was completed in 1723. The old 
Rathhaus is a gloomy and irregular 
pile, bat historically intarcatiiig, be- 
cause the Piett of the Empire were 
held in it for ntariy a century and a 
half (1663-1806). The entrance is by 
a very sin^ar Gothic portal. The 
Diet oocapied 6 apartments, now set 
in Older and deomted with "^magni- 
ficent tapestries, unique of their kind. 
They date from the 14th cent., and 
represent the contest between Vice 
and Virtue, with other subjects. 

In the JmpiM Ghmmbor, or Reichs- 

saal, is ?5hown nn tnofchair called 
the Iiupei ial throne, with the benches 
for the Electors and the ecclesiastical 
and civil nMMtbeft* . 

On the gfoond-floor of the building, 
and below the ground, are the Duu- 
gems and Chamber of Torture. Ta 
cell No. 18, Count Schaffgotsch, who 
was accuaed of being engaged in Wal- 
lentteln't alleged trettonable eootpi- 
racy, was confined before his execution 
in 1635. Just outside the Torture 
Chamber is a bench, on which the 
prisoner was allowed to sit for a 
quarter of an hour, to cimsider whether 
he would make a voluntary confettien. 
From this spot he enjoyed, through a 
small opening, a view of the different 
instruments of torture. To these 
were given facetious names. First, 
there is the horirontal rack, teoem- 
bling a long btdttead, and tenidied 

Digitized by Google 




with a roller armed with spikes 
mmdcd off) over ^Hikh the liody of 
the sufferer was drawn Iwekwards and 
forwards. This roller was called der 
gespichte Hose, " the larded hare/* 
The second species of torture, called 
the jS<rai>pacio, resembled the first, but 
yn.% ioflieted Teitlcally instead of 
horizontally, by raising the victim 
nearly to the roof, and then letting 
him fall to within a few inches of the 
grouud. A somewhat similar iustru- 
swnt was named dU tfMtmme Idetd, 
** widced Bess." Another contrivance 
was a very high arm-chair, having a 
seat stnck full of smnll sharp spikes 
of wood about J inches hifb, upon 
which the prisoner was male to sit 
with weislrts on his lap, and others 
lumgiiig from his feet. This had two 
names, der Beiehsfuhl, i.e, " the con- 
fessional,'* and der JungfratienschoosSy 
the maiden's lap.'* Inhere is also a 
wooden horse, named der Spanitehs 
Et' J, " the Spanish ass," on the sharp 
edge of which the cr iminal was made 
to ride ; and two or three other instru- 
ments equally horrible, the invention 
of whicn is a disgrace to hmnan 
naftnro* Opposite the Bathhans is the 
IMUinger House, with a hall contain- 
ing 15th cent, relief worth notice. 
A house in the Haitlplatz, adjoining 
the Kathbaus, has an iuteresting Col- 

iMtiiMi of HIiMllaiMnis Autiqiiitlas, 
and objeets of Natural History. 

The Bishop's Palace (Bischofshof) 
on the N, side of the Cathedral, in 
which the German emperors were 
lodged daring their Tisita to Ratisboo, 
is now a brewery. The £mp. Maxi- 
milian II. died in it, !'2 Oct. IST^l. 
Behind it is the New Palace. On the 
N. side of the ancient building is the 
fFsrto Afwtoila, a ronnd arch of huge 
atone blocks, Ulder which steps ascend 
to the Brewery. Adjoining the arch 
is an apsidal tower with openings for 

Pleasant walk across the bridge 
iliroQgh the suburb of Sladt-ain-im> 
to the ebiireh on the IMfiUiiiiEaits- 
batg^ irhenoe there is a charniing 

Excrasiosr to Wauuixa* 

A small steamer runs 4 times a day 
between Hegengburg and T^onnnstauti 
1 hr. up, i nr. down. On holidays it 
is inconveniently crowded. 
^ The nwr Regen flows into the 
Danube close to the houses of Stadt-ani> 
Hof, below which the railway bridge 
crosses the Danube. The 1. bank is 
picturesque from the outset It con- 
nets of wooded hills, in whose le* 
cesses are one or two eoaatry4ionses 
and tnvorns, or places of summer 
resort tor the citizens. The cliief of 
these is the beer-cellar of Tegernheim. 

Here the limestone hills, which 
have followed the course of the 
Danube from the Swabian Alps, give 
place to porphvry, and become more 
picturesque. Their slopes are planted 
with vine?. 

The Ullage of Donaustanf, with the 
villa of Prince Thorn und Taxis, was 
almost rntirt'ly destroyed by fire in 
the spring of 1880. 

The castle of 0taiif, originally the 
property of the Bishops of Begens« 
burg, was blown up and reduced to its 
present condition by Duke Bernhard 
of Weimar, in the Thirty Years* War 
(1 634 )y utter a siege which its small 
garrison withstood for more than 2 
montlis. Both town and castle now 
belong to the Prince of Thurn und 
Taxis, who has taken pains to preserve 
the ruins, has reiidered them accessible 
by footpaths carried up the height, 
and has improved tlie picturesque 
beauty of the spot by garden and 

Walhalla is be?t reached from 
Regeusburg by carriage. Two horses, 
there and back, for two persons, 10 
marks ; four persons, 13 marks. E!x- 
cept by special agreement to the con- 
trary, the driver stops at Donaustauf, 
and expects visitors to \^aik through 
the shrnbbery up the hill. Entrance 
to the Temple daily from 8 to IS and 
3 to 7, free. The traveller is required 
to put on list slippers at the door 
(20-50 pf.), lor the protection of the 
polished marbled fioor. 

Digitized by Google 


Sect. II. 

The *Wallialla,t a Grecian Temple 
of the Doric order, was built by the 
late Kinjr Lewis of Bavaria, as a 
uatlouai liioaument aud Temple of 
Vmb for Oeamj ; in wliieh be has 
placed stBibifls and bniti of the worthies 
of Germany — her heroes and states- 
men, sages, poets, artists, duiml kuis, 
.Stc- from Armiuiuh, the conqueror 
of the liomaoB, down to Blticher 
and Schwaraenberg ; from the early 
Minnes'anger down to Goethe, Schiller, 
and the poets of the present ei-i The 
highest of a series of 3 terract s t ltd ft. 
high, and £Eiced with mi^onry; serves 
as a basement to tibe temple, to iHiieh, 
on the S. side* flints w stoiie steps 
lead. The proportions of the temple 
are nearly those of the Pfirthenon, 
as may be seen by comparing the 

Parthenon. Wullmlla. 
Eng. fr. in. Kng. ft. in. 
Length • ... 236 10^ 218 0 
Breadth . . . . UKI 3 ISS 3 
Hoight of pedintoiit. SI 3 60 6 
Uelgbt of sixaft of co- 
Inmm .... St 4^ ^ *k 

Tlie ehief sculptors of Gorniany 
have been here employed. The N. 
pediment, by Schtoanthaler, represents 
the Hermannsschlacbt," or victory 
gained by Arminius over the Romans, 
under Varus : thp S., partly designed 
by nnfirh, though executed by Schwan- 
thuier, Germany after the War of 
Libenttipn, receiying the German 
StateSy each attended by a symbolical 
figure, intended to represent the pro- 
vinces and fortresses it regained from 
the Freucli. 

The interior is very i^urgeuui j the 
floor |»ayed and walls fined with po- 
lished marble from the neighbourhoods 
of Bayreuth and Salzburg. Colour is 
freely employed on the architectural 
mouldinge, and even on the caryatides 
which support the roof, which pre- 
serves its external form, and is com- 
posed of metal gilt, the panels orna- 
mented with p!;U!!!a stars upon a blue 
ground. The fcpaee between the ties 
and the roof i& lilled with elaborate 
6croU*work, containing figures of the 

t Xorse, ValtwUa. or, tuon correctly. 

gods and iienes of tkw Qefnum nytho^ 

Behind two Ionic pillars at the N. 
end, opposite to the bronze portals of 
the |>tuieiMl entranee, is a reoM (the 

" opisthodomos The sides are 
'Hvided by projections into .3 compart- 
nu iits, in the centre of each of whicU 
la piucecl one of the 6 figures of V ic- 
tory sculptared in while marUe by 
Randi. Beneatb^ and on each ndc^ 
are ranged the biffits of the illustrioua 
men to whsse memory Uie teazle 

is dedicated. 

The oldest bust is that of Schiller 
by Danntektr (1794]^ Altboogk «p- 
ward^ of 90 were ttdnutted» Luther wns 

exchnlcd until 1850. 

On a frieze of white marble, running 
round the building more than midway 
from the groimd, are represented, in 
relief eeenesilmni andcDt German his- 
tory, from the earliest times down to 
the introduction of Christimiity. They 
are executed in Carrara iiuuble by 
Prof. Wagner of Kome. Above this, 
tablets of white marble are let into tbe 
wall* bearing, in letters of gold, the 
names of the "great and good,** of 
whom no anthontie portrait is pre- 
served. Among them are Alfred, 
Egbert, Charlemagne, Pepin, and even 
Heagfist and Hofsa* The 14 eaiya- 
tides, executed in limestone from the 
designs of Schtoanthalert are intended 
to represent the WnlVyreu,'* t or 
Houris, of tlie ancient (iernian Para- 
dise j tiieir iuiir is coluuied liiuwu, 

desb tike ivory, betnkins gilt, tnntea 
violet, upper draperj white with gilt 

and red edges. 

Thebuildingis liirhted from openings 
iu the roof, glazed with ground glass, 
and from a single window at the N. 
end. No wood has been allowed to 
form part of the &bric ; the iioatoee 
is of cast-iron ; the white limestone, 
nearly appproachiug to marble, of 
which the building is constructed, 
comes ftom Eichstiitt. Tbe first stone 
was laid on the 16th Oet. 1830 (the 
anuivcrsary of tt» battle of Leipzig, 
and it was opeiicd upon the same day 
of the year in 1642. It ib baid to have 

t Yalkyifij Old Norse, Valkyrjor— lUenaiy 
^4jf IMAM. 

Digitized by Google 

Moui^ '45* — StroMuif-^Faswu* 


cpM 8/)00,000 li. (666»<86l.). The 
wdutost; was Shmc, and the whole 

construction is masterly f and mag- 
nificent. Many of the stones are of 
vast size; those which connect the 
piUan above m 15 ft long, and 
required 26 h a nm to 4imw Hieat up 

This highly praised building is more 
striking for excellence of workmanship 
and costliness of material than impres- 
sive «a a Tea^^A of fteew It is as fine 
as a fikilfiil use of marble, gilding, and 
paint can make it, stocked with busts 
on shelves, like a museum or a 
sculptor's studio ; but it ^kils to impress 
the viator bj xli religtona inoeiations, 
partly on account of the-iaeongruity 
with which classical figures of Fame 
are mingled with the Valkyrs of the 
German Paradise. • 

The *view from .the platform of the 
Temple eztinde ow the flat plain of 
Bwaria to the snowy peaks of the 
Alps of Tyrol in the S., to the E. as 
far as Straubing, along the line of 
the Danube, and up the stream to 

On qmttlnf. B^jBnthni^ithe rly» 
oonthiQea&ILto ^ 

Straubing (13,200), the ancient Sei - 
viodurvm. In theoeatro-of itfioes the 
surMintedby 6 pointed spires. Near 
the upper end is the *iate Gothic ch. 
of St. James, with some paintings 
attributed to Wohlgemuth ; at the 
lower end, cLm to the hridg^ i§ 
the CadUf oqw a barrack: in the 
Carmelite or Gymnasml Church is the 
tomb of Duke Albert II., a masterpiece 
of old German sculpture. Outside the 
walls, i hr. from the inn, not fitr from 
the watenldb, ie SiJ Pe<er*s Church, 
an old buuding modernised within, 
but showing, in the Byzantine portal 
leading to the tower, its real antiquity. 
In one of the 3 chapels planted round 
the churchyiBd la m tomh of the un- 
fortunate AgOM Bernauer, daughter 
of a barber of Augsburg, whom 
Albert III., son of Duke Kriiest of 
Bavaria, privately married. On. dib- 
coveriu^ the becrct, his fathet, taking 
advi&tsi;e . of bU abiiiKO Ml long 

•itor, e w iid Agnea to be seiaed, oob« 
deainid to death upon false accnsar 

tion, and cast from the bridge of 
Straubing into the Danube, amidst the 
lamentations of the populace, ▲.!>. Una. 
One of the other ohmls oantaiM 
paintfngi lepresenting ttie triomph of 
Death om thtf- diteiBt eiiieee of 


P'raunhofer, the optician, was born 
here in a street which now bears his 

Stephanspoflching, with the ruined 
castle of I<iatteaiburg (aao ft.), on 
the L, 

Plattling. HeM the Isar is crossed, 

near its confluence with the Danube. 
The latter stream is reached on the 
approach to Vilshofen, at the junction 
of the Vils and Danube. Here is a 
GrotUo ohnreh of 1376. Beyond, on 
the a Hon is hewn in the rock, to 
commemorate the construction of the 
road by Maximilian 1. The fortress 
of Oberhaus is seen before reaching 
gmimij wSiero InggAge is eonndbed. 

FASSAir (950 ft.), the Roman Cadra 
BakuM, nniil 1803 the capital of an 

* • 

• FAsaiiT. 

ecclesiastical principality, with a yearly 
revt.'uue of 400,000 i!., is now a fruuticr 
town of Bavai'ia, and hai> 10,000 inhab. 
Its atiiking aitoation cannot fail to 
miho an iuipnemQOii t|ie lover of the 

ijiyiu^cd by Google 



picture8<^ae. It stands at Jtmction 
of the nvers Inn and Ilz with the 

Danilbe, and consists of Passnn proper, 
bailt in the shape of a triangle, on an 
eminence which occupies the promon- 
torj betwm tiM Dumbe and Iim; of 
the IiiDstfldt suburb on the rt. bank 
of the Inn, rebuilt since the fire of 
1809; of the Anger suburb and the 
Fort Obcrhaus, t^tween the Danube 
and the Ilz ; and of the llastadt iBlnurb 
on the 1. bank of the Ilz. The river 
Inn, at the point of junction, is both 
wider (319 yds.) -and has had a longer 
course than the Danube ; but the 
direction which the united rivers 
folloir after thdr miioii it not that of 
the Inn, hat of the Danabe: that 
stream , n;nrooT?r, though contracted 
here to a width of yds., is 2'i ft. 
deep. For these reasons the name of 
the latter riTer hat heen retained. A 
tomb of 1360, a curious amilptured 
group of Christ on the Mount of 
Oriv(>«, and vnrioiis Fcptilchral monu- 
ments, are worth notice in the chapels. 

The]loin(1668-167S),m the Italian 
gtyle, is distinguished a bell-shaped 
cupola ; tbf exterior of the choir alone 
is a remnant of the noble Gothic 
edifice (1707-1450), which was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1662. Hve statnes, 
erected in 18r>5, decoiate the Italian 
W. front. The eflfect of the interior 
is good, though overdone by stuccoed 
ornami'iitation. In the Cathedral 
Square, (Domplatz) i^ a bronze statue 
of King Maximilian Joeeph I. of 
Bararia (1824). On the W. side, 
opposite the Dom. is the Post Office, 
bearing an inscription, put up in 1790, 
that a treaty was here signed which 
put an end to the Religions War. 
Thia treaty of Fanaa (1552) between 
Maurice of Saxony and Ferdinand 
King of the Romans, extorted from 
Charles V., first gave public recogni- 
tion to the Elector of Saxony and the 
Landgrave of Hetae, and freedom to 
the Lutheran Church. 

The Church of the Holy Cross, near 
the E. angle of the town, a restored 
Romanesque building, contains the 
tomb of Giaela, queen of Hungary, 
and abbesa of the aiSyoioing nonneiy. 

Sect IL 

Besides the old bridge, resting on 

piers t'f frranite, across the Danabe, a 
chain bridge crosses the river a short 
distance aboTC the confluence with the 
Inn (3 pf.). 

The *rortress of Oberhams (1 385 ft,), 
on the left h:mk of the Danube, Hit 
\nu\i hy the Bishops of Passau at 
diiiereut times, to OTerawe the citizens, 
and lenre aa aplaoeof refbge to them- 
selw in the Immt of danger. On mere 
than one occasion, during feuds iriA 
the townspeople, the Bishops' oaniKm 
played upon the houses below. It is 
occupied oy a small garrison, and is 
Still a plaea of eooiideNble atrengtb, 
owing to ita peaitioa on the summit of 
the escarped preoi pice?' ^•hich form the 
1. bank of the Danube, ard command 
the passage of that river and of the Inn. 
The tower of tiie Fort or *BolTedere 
(50 pf.) commands the most exteneive 
view. The Ilz &lls into the Danube 
close under the walls, and is dis- 
tinguished by the intense blackuess of 
its waters. A long flight of steps 
leada from the extremity of the bridM 
in the Anger suburb, round tiie hiU, 
to the back of the fortress ; and there 
is a carriage-road along the river- 
side under the cliffs, which, at the 
point where the^ toaeh the Ilz, are 
bored tlirongb with a Tunnel, cat in 
the granite look, to allow the road to 

The bank of llie river is lined with 
piles of wood floated dowu the lU in 
spring firom ^ fbresta of the BShmer^ 
wald. Beyond thia is the old Caalla 
of Niederhaus, connected by strong 
walls with the fortress above. The 
moment the tunnel is passed, Passau 
is excluded from Tiew, and tiie quiet 
little suburb of Ilistadt, lying at the 
foot of the hill beyond the dark llx, 


About 2 m. up the Ilz is the village 
and Castle of Hals, gituated ou a pro* 
montory, ibrmed hj an eztraofdinary 
bend of the riror, whiaii on one dde 
of Hals runs in one direction, and 
in an exactly opposite dii t ction on the 
other, immediately above Hals is 
another promantory, on wUeh atands 
Be a d iga i t eia Oailia> ao that the doable 

Digitized by Google 

Moute 45. — Famiu: ilte Dom; fmrtress. 

Bavaria. Moute A1,^0emitnden to Samntelburg. 113 

eoTTc made by the nrer nearly re- 

sembles the figure 8. In a wood at the 
foot of the HeschensteiD a subterrauean 
canal opens out, trhich has been bored 

Suite uiroagh the isthmus to convey 
lie floating wood from the weir on the 
opposite side» by which it is collected. 
The view into this valley from the 
heights behind Fort Oberhaus (it is 
not visible from the fort itself^, near 
the noifder magazine, is verv singular. 

The visitor may vary his return 
to Passau by the rig carriage-road 
leading dowii from the gate of the 
Oberhaus, and may re-cross to the 

Hill of *Maria HiLf (Mary of Suc- 

coiir), which rises behind the Innstadt, 
on thp rt. bank of ihe Inn, exactly 
opposite to the Oberhaus. It receives 
its name from a church on the summit 
(1255 ft), containing a miraculous 
image of the Virgin, which annually 
attracts thousands of pilgrims. The 
church is approached by a covered 
staircase of 164 steps. 

The Schafberg, a hill, 2 hrs. distant, 

affords a fine panoramic view. 

The Homans perceived nt an early 
period the military importance of the 
position of Passau. They ereded a 
strong camp on Hie tongue of land 
betveen the Inn and Danube, and 
garrisoned it with veteran Hatavian 
troops, whence its ancient name. 

DiL to (88 m. N.) Freyung (2151 ft.), 
on the S.fii. sbpas of the Bsnurian 

Forest, whence nnmeroQl excttivions 
may be made (lite, 73), 

6, Germ* 

BOUtE 4&, 


Miles. Stations. Koates. 
Gemiinden • • 87,47 
2 Wemfeld . , . 37 
4 Gossenheim 
12 Thttngen 
18 Amstein 

25 Weigolshausen. . 42 
82 ObeniAorf-Seliweinfart 


E.— The rly. threads the pretty 

Wernthal, perpetually crossing and 
re-crossing the stream. 'i m. N. of 
Gdtsenheim is the ruined castle of 
Mamhxag. ThUngen has a eh&lean, 
and at Amstein, the chief place of 
the valley, is an old Schloss. After 
quitting the river, the rly. passes 
Schloss Werueck, now a lunatic 
asy lum, and reaches Weigolshausen. 

ROUTE 47. 


SlUef. Stattoiis. Roalfs. 
Gemfindea » • 37,46 

3 Schonau 
8 Hurzfnrt 
18 Hanunelhurg 

This branch lino runs N.E. to 
Sr]ionaUf with a convrjtt on the rt., 
and thence though the winding Saale* 
thai to KammMlmrg, a pietoiesqiie 
and ancient town, giv. n by Chane- 
magne to the Abbot of Foida. It mus 


Digitized by Google 



almost burnt to the ground in 1854. 
Dil. to (13 m. N.E.) Kissin-en (48), 
passing about half-way the well- 
preserved mSn of Wnherg, 

From Gemiiiidai another rly. leads 
N. through the Sinnthal to Elm in 
Prussia (N. G. 86), passing (15 m.) 
Jossa, from whence a dil. nms daily 
to (11 m. N.E.) Briickenau (43). 

BOUTS 48. 


MilM. StattaH. 

Both. . . 
7 HUp<at«^ 

13 Zell 

15 Aiiershausen 
85 CMlJ^T 

, 55 

BOUTii; 49. 


Neumarkt . 
6 Ghreissibach } 
6 Xreystadt \ 
rt BeOngxiM 


ROUTB 50. 


MilM. SlAtiOBB. 

Stranbing . 
10 Geiselhoring 
6 Sunchiiiig 

2S Vfvlriuni . 


BOUTE 51. 


Miles. StAtions. llontea. 

2 Niinib«rg . 45, 58, 55 

11 LAUF 

13 Schnaittacii 

16 BMohMiMbwi&d 

18 Heitbnuk , , . ISS 

25 Vorra 

28 Kupprcchtstagea 

32 l^eukaus 

47 Sdmabelwaid . • 52 

59 KirchalaibMb . 72 

64 Immenmiiik 

76 Waldershof 

78 Mkt. Eedwits . . 60 

88 Mtihlbaeh 

95 E9SK 63,71,150,159 

N.E.— Stnttp^nrt to Carlsbad. 

The rly. n o- i s the Peguitz Tlial 
uud bkli'ib the lulls on its N. bank, 
running for 20 m, exactly parallel 
with the line to Amberg (59). 

Lauf, an old town willi ffates ami 
gate-towers, half-ruined wails aud 
half*ilUed moat, b famed toe its good 
bread. A second stat. is seen on the 
opposite side of the Tallegr* 

Digitized by Google 

Bavaria, Bouie 52. — SckwJbelwM to Bayr&ath. 115 

al tka E. taie «f the KoBteine, vhote 

stream descends to Markt-BedwiU 
(1740 ft), an active little town. The 
rly. now descends tlie valley of the 
Koslau, and reaches the Au&triau 
fiontUr At XilUbMli, wlwiioe it follows 
the Eger ttieaia to IgiTyiaiiiiiportaiit 
rl/. centve. 

ROUTE 52. 
rair^BSLWAio «o SAtmnrtH. 

Miiffi. Suitiouri. Route«. 
Sclmabelwaid . . 51 

IS MmmKk ... 72 

N. — At Krettsaen, a small town 
tioted taat its ctfthenware, the cele* 
bxsted Aposfle Mugs'* irere made. 

teiaaSttAch Stat., 3 m. a of the 

town, above which rises the hold dis- 
mantled fortress of Rothenl/erg. 

Beicbenscliwand, at the foot of the 
(I hr.) Mansjdrglberg (see below). 

Honliraok (1115 n.)iii thecentse of 
a diskiict of hop-gsideitf, at the foot 
of the Michel sberg. 

The Michelsberg (1445 ft.) may 
be ascended hence in 20 min., but a 
iner'vieir Is cirtalxied fhmi Hie Vaai- 
jSrglbergr (1} hr., descent to* Bdehen- 
schwand in I hr.). 

The rly. soon turns N., and ascends 
through the winding *Obere Pegnitz- 
thal; at the mouth of the Hirsch 
iMclitlifl], on tbe it., lies JBteken" 
hach^ with its Culiaus and difttean. 
I^c3.v ArtcJsJiofen, reached by a narrow 
valley opening W., is a natural Pillar 
or *needle of Doloraitic rock, called 
the " Finger of God,** rising above a 
plateau or Jorassic ibnnation. Be- 
yond Vorra, where the rly. bildge is 
built of shell breccia, the scenery 
becomes very attractive, and at Eup- 
prechtstegen is reached the central 

Soint of the so-called Nuremberg 
witzerland. Plesflant walk through 
the Ankathal to the (C m.) ruins of 
Hohenstein (2080 ft.) ; or along the 1. 
bank of the Pegnitz to (3 m.) Schloss 

The rly. uow crosses several bridges 
and passes through five tunnels, each 
of which is inscribed with some fanci- 
ftd Bame. The valley opens at 

NenhaiLB, above which are the 
rnlus of Schloss YeldeDstdn, with 

turreted walls. [2 m. E., near 
Krottensee, is the *Maximilianshdhle, 
a large grotto with fine stalactites. 
Adm. 75 pf.] Dil. to (8 m.) Potten- 
stein and (14 m.) GSsswefoBtein. 
He&ee Ihe Hj. ascends^ to Sehnabel- 
Wiild,1>e7ond which it tarns E., still 
ascending to gain the watershed be- 
tween the Pegnitz and the Nab. A 
tonnel Under &e Hard leads to Kirch- 
wlfcflwMih. B^ond Immeiireiatli, a 
tunnel 935 yds. long carries the rly. 
into the valley of the Fichtelnab, 
which is crossed on a lofty viaduct. 
Another long tunnel ensues, and the 
train descends to WalisnAsf (1805 ft.) 

BAYRETJTH (24,000) on the Ked 
Main, capital of Upper Franconia 
(1180 ft.), was a possession of the 
anosaton of the reigning royal filSiUy 
of Prussia (Hoheusuleru), when they 
were merely Burgraves of Nuremberg. 
In 1791, the last Margrave dyinnf with- 
out children, it became a dependency 
of the crown of Prussia: but was 
ceded at the peace of Tilsit to the 
French, who added it to the Bavarian 
dominions. Although several monu- 
mental edifices tell of more prosperous 
days iu bjeone times, when the Mai"^ 
graves of Bnt&denberg spent mueh 
upon beautifying and adorning their 
residence (especially from 1650 to 
1750), it has a cheerless and deserted 
character. It is now chiefly remark- 
able as the spot selected by the late 
BidtairA Wagntr for the perfonnaaee 
of his operas. 

By an almost national subscription, 
funds were raised to build a vast 
theatre on an eminence N, of the 
towoi of whieh the foundation*' 

Digitized by Google 

tUnO^ B2.—Bayreuih. 


-WBB laid hf Wsgner litmsdf m 1872. 

The building is well contrived for the 
display of all the scenic effects that 
machinery and electric light, &c., can 
renijter. The interior is arranged as 
an amphitheatre for spectators, with- 
out ttae or stage boxes, and has 12 
outlets. The orchestral spiice is sunk 
17 ft. below th'^ level of the stage, so 
that the musicians are practically 

The old Opera-house (1718) is a 
▼ery splendid edifice, recently xestofed. 

The Alte ScMoss, in the Kenaissauce 
&t> le» is now converted^ into gOTern- 
ment offices* Good view from the 

octagonal tower (apply at 291 Rich- 
ard Wagner Strasse ; fee 30 pf.). In 
front is a bronze statue of King 
Max. II. of Bavaria, erected in 1860. 
The Veue flddeat wm built in 1753 
hf tiie Margrave Frederick. Behind 
it is a Public Garden, and in the 
square in front stands ,an equestrian 
btatue of the Margrave Cliristian 
Ernst (d. 1712), a marshal in the 
Austrian service, riding over a Turk, 
to indicate his having taken a part in 
the relief of Vienna by Johu Sobieski, 
in 1683. At his side stand his favour- 
ite dwarf. 

In the Sclilossplatz is a broose 
statue of Jean Vaul F. Bidder, by 
SchwanthaleTy erected in 1841, the 
gift of the King of Bavaria. The 
house, in the Friedrichstrasse, where 
he liv^ and died (1825), is marked 
by an inscription in gold letters. His 
grave will be found in the Kirchhof 
W. of tht town, distinguished by a 
Uocik of granite. 

The Stadtkirche, dedicated to St. 
Mary Magdalen, is a Gothic building 
(1439-1446), badly restored in 1811. 
Beneath it is the Furstengni/tf with 
numerous tombs of the Margraves. 

Wagner's House is No. 283 in the 

street which bears his name. The 
composer (d. 1883) is buried in the 
gaiden. The grave of Franz Liszt 

{d, iSSg ia in the Boman Catholie 

Sect. II. 

The conspicuontf bmlding N.W. of 
the Stat, is the Imnaiiitalt, a huge 

Lunatic Asylum. To t"he rt. of it is 
seen the Wagner Theatre, surrounded 
by pleasant grounds. Beyond it rises 
the Biirgerrenth, a restaurant with a 
charming view. S.E. of it stands the 
l eniarkable peak of the Rauhe Kulm, 
N.E, of the town is the suburb of 
St. Georgen, reached by a hancisouic 
avenue. The road to the 1., beyond 
the rly., passes on the l.'a lar^ cotton- 
factory, and on the rt. a prison. In 
the Penitentiary to the 1. are ninrble- 
works, in which 34 varieties of marble 
from the Fichtelgebirge are out and 
polished. Further on is a MiUtary 

m. to the E. is the Palace of the 
Eremitage, erected by tlie Margrave 
George William in 1718 j a fanciful 
building with gardenSf containing 
fountains, terraces, statues, &c., and 
a very beautiful park attached to it 
Within the building are shown the 
apartments and bed occupied by 
Frederick the Great; and tne room, 
in which his sister, the Margravine of 
Bayreuth, wrote her Memoirs; also 
a portrait of the White Lady. She 
was a widuwed Countess of Orla- 
miiude, who, being in love with Prince 
Albert the Handsome of Bmndeaiburg, 
mordeied her two children in the 
hope of gaining his affections ; but, 
being spume 1, died of grief in the 
nunnery of iiimmeiskrou^ near hity- 
reuth, and is said ttlll to hannt fhe 
palaces of the Prussian family. The 
Eremitage is said to have cost 
2,000,000 fl., and the Temple of the 
Sun alone 100,000 fl. This building 
is a imitation in miniature of St. 
Peter's church at Bome, having a 
semicircular portico on eadi side. On 
Sundays the gardens are much fre- 
quented by the BaMcuthers; the 
waterworks then play at 5 ^.m. 

Digitized by Google 

Soute b^.—Crailsheim to Furth, 


BOUTE 53. 


VflM. Stations. 


Crailsheim . 





BombtUil . . 

. ee 


Ansbftoh • * 

. 87 








ITiirnberg • 41 

1, 51, 55 




Hersbrnck . 

. 51 



4 Hersbruck (rt. bauk) 




. 54 







. 60 



. 60 








EurtlL . . . 

. 158 

— Exp. only as Ikr ai Nuremberg. 
Beyond Ellriehshausent with a minei 
castle, tbe cly. enteiB Bavaria. 

fieilsbronn. The fine "^church of 
the s^nastEBted Cistereiaii AMiey is 
ricJl in carv«d work, and contains 

some curious momiments of knights 
and margraves (1512-1B03): also 
paiiitia^ by Wohlgemuth and Kuim- 
bach. The choir is of 13th cent 
Gothic ; tbe aialea late pointed. The 
Refectory, now degraded into a brew- 
house, deserves attention for the rich- 
ness of its portal, and tine vaulting. 
The spring from which the abbey 
takes ita name rises wMms tbe ch. 
J^dtM^H bfM pat imeient eburebf 

Stela. Here is FUwr*s leadrpeaea 

factory. The riy. crosses tbe Rednitz 
to Nuremberg, and thence ascends the 
1. bank of the Pegnitz, running 
parallel with Rte. 51, to Mogeldorf, 
10 min. walk from i^ieb are the 
SchvMvtBertbacJc gardens, a fimmrite 
excursion from INuremberg. 

Bothenbaoh. 1^ hr. S. rises the 
Mwits^rg, Fine view, 

Lanf has another stat on the rt 

Hersbmck. Here also are two 
stations, a mile apart. 

Pommelsbrtinn, prettily placed at 
the foot of the Iloubirch. A short 
line oonneets this villatfe with Hers- 
bruck on the rt. bank. Here the 
Pegnitz is quitted, and the rly. turns 
S.K. to Etzelwang. N.E. stand the 
ruins of Kupprechtsteiu and Schloss 

Sulabach (3000), with a large castle, 
the ancient residence of the Dukes of 
Sulzbach. Here, in the Jhmite's Tower , 
Jerome of Prague was confined in 
1415, before being sent book to Goo- 
stance to suffer at tbe stake. 

The Ckinal constructed to unite the 
Danube with the Main and Khine 
reaches its summit-level near i cucht, 
being raised by 20 locks, and carried 
through deep rock-cuttings, originally 
mennt to be tunnelled. It traverses 
a ravine by means of a trough- 

Some furnaces and iron-mines are 
passed on tbe way to 

Amberg (15,000) on the Vils, once 
capital of the Upper Palatinate, sur- 
rounded by wailb and a moat. SL 
MarHn't Ch. has a tower 320 ft. high, 
and contains a monument to P&lsgraf 
Kupert (1397). The ch. wilh 3 towers 
is that of Qtorge, Pine *view from 
the MaridhU/berg, a place of ]pil- 
grimage. At Irrettlcihe the line joins 
Rte. 60, and follows it as flsr as 
Schwandorf, where it turns E. to 
Boding, Qn tbe 1. bank of the Begen, 

Cham (1395 ft.), an old town with 
3450 inhab., luis a 15th-cent. Rathhaus 
and )ate G^hic ebfoeb. ^ br. ovtside 

Digitized by Google 


Boute 55. — Ho/ to TreudUUnffen^ 


Hie town is the ChammUmier, an I 
interesting boildiog. 

AhmsoEwang has an old castle. 
2 hrs. S.W. rises the Ilohe Bogen 
(3510 ft.). Fiue view. At Furth 
(1845 ft,), where n m old castle, lug- 
;e is examined. Dil. to (15 m. E.) 
(Rte. 42). 

ROUTE 54. 


Miles. SUtiona. Itoutes. 

Welden .... 72 
6 Weiherhanuner 
82 Heukireheii . « • 53 

S.W.W. — The Ueideuab is crossed at 
Wdherhammer. Vilieek, an ancient 
little town on the Vils, has a late 
Gothic church. 

BOUTE 65. 


Miles. SUIkns. 

HUes. stations. 

Hof . . , 
4 Oberkotzati 
16 Hiinchberg . . 
fljl Stammbach 
26 FaUs-eefreei 
29 Markt SchorgMt 
33 Neuenmarkt. , 
37 Vntersteinach 
51 Bnrgkimdstadt 
M HoehstadI 56, h.o. 86 c, 

58, 60, 71 
. 60, 71 
. • 69 







LichtonlUil . . 

13 Coburg 5 , y,a. 92 
Erlacgan . , . 57 

NUEEMBERO 45, 51, 53 
Schwabach . . . 
»<rth 46 


4 Spalt 

Pleinfeld .... 65 
Treiiclitlingen • « 37 

Exp. firom Berlin. 

Ho£ (22,000), the most northeni 
town in Bavaria, liius been almost 
entirely rebnilt after repeated fires. 
The public garden on the Therenen- 
»tein IS a pretty spot, and the Jjdbffrin* 
(hmherg with its ruined castle com- 
mands a pleasing view. 

The rly. to Bimberg, after cutting 
through some high groondt ctosses 
the Saale on a viaduct of 9 arches, and 
runs along the 1. bank to 

Oberkotzau, at the confluence of the 
Schwesnitz and Saale. Near Stamm- 
bach on the 1. appear the snmmits 
of the Schneeberg and Ochsenkopf, 
the hiirTiest of the Fichtelgebirge 
range. Falls-Gefrees. The latter vil- 
lage lies 3 m. E., in the LuimitzthaL 

Markt Solittyast. 

Weisaenstadt, passing through Gefrees, 
and to (4 m. S.) Berneck, 61. Here 
the gradient becomes very steep, 
and the riy. descends through nu- 
merons cuttings and across lateral 
ravines to Neuenmarkt. There H a 
fine view here of the Weissmannthal, 
wit]? the abbey of Himmelskron, 
wiiei e the White Lady of Orlamiinde 
died (see Rte. 52). 

i hr. N. is Wirsberg, a pretty spot, 
frequented in the summer. 

Untersteinach. The villa 01 
Sleiiiach lies 3 m. N. The rly. runs 
along the rt. bank of the White Main, 
before reaching 

OoImlNi^ TheTiewofthetown,its 

Digitizeo Ly vjoogle 

towers and spire, surmoanted the 
fbrtremci Fkm&iimrg (now a pnsonX 
is strikiiijip. TbetarroiiiidiBgeoaiitiy 

is very picturesque. 

The Hed Main unites with the 
Maia near Schloss Steiuhausen, 
where the niiwav cuts through a spur 
of tiw hUl^ he&»e reaching Burg- 
knnstadt with an old Schloss and 
R irhhaiis. The Main is crosied near 
Koohstadt IftarktzeiUn. 

Udrtetifm (865 ft). 1 hr, iiilant 

is the sanctuary of IFlenefanheiligen, 

r- built in 1772, to which 50,000 pil- 
grims annually repair. 1 hr. further, 
on a similar height (1380 ft.), standa 
the eeqaettnted courent <» Baas, 
now chateau and seat of Duke Max 
of Bavaria, seated on a wooded height , 
containinLT a fine collection of fossils 
of the neighbourhood. Ichthyosaurus, 
&c., and some woria of art. Magnifi- 
eeot *Tiew. Daoent in 40 min. to 

8ta£blaUia,near which the Siafel- 
herg (1775 ft.) rises abruptly , crowned 
with its chapel. Oppobite, 2fl0 ft. 
lower, stauds the .VeUebery, ^ith a 
diapelandndnedeaBtlfe AtBmberg 
our Une turns S.E., follawiii^ the 
course of the river Bednits and the 

Eggolsheim, some distance beyond 
which risei tke J^lffmtmrff, oaee a 
]iisBtiDg4o^ of the Priaoe BiAope 
of HaiMierg. 

Forchheim (4400), at the junction 
of Uie Wieaent with the Kegnits. It 
was a frontier stronghold of liie 
Bishops of Bamberg, and withstood 

sieges both iu the Thirty and Seven 
Years' Wars. The church contains 
12 scenes from our Lord's Passion 
by M. WohlgemmA* Charlemagne 
fended here; and sereral Diets and 
Cooneila of the Church were held 
here in the middle age5. The old 
chapel of the castle has s<::)ine wall- 
paintiugs of the loth cent. Dil. tu 
.(U1B.K.B.) Mugffmdmft wheta the 
pedestrian, approaehing the district 
from this sifle, may best commence 
his tour iu the Francouian Switzer- 
land (61). 
The shell of the CbiOs ef Bthar/e- 

iieckf burned by the Swedes in 1634, 
is seen a short distance to die W. of 
th< railroad belbre arriving at Balers- 
dorf. A tunnel follows, and the 
Kegnita-thal is seen on the 1. 

Brlangen (15,9U0) chiefly remark- 
able as the seat of a VhiverHiyf num- 
bering about 500 students, founded in 
!743 f)y Mnrp:n\ve Fredk. of Branden- 
burg, whose statue by Schwanthaler 
Stands in front of the building. It is 
known at present as a sehool of Pro- 
testant theology* It occupies the 
Palace of the ^fnrp:rnves of Bayreuth, 
in the centre of the town. Its library 
contains some miniatares, and a 
valuable collection of drawings by 
Diirer and otheis. The town (1060 
ft.) owes its regular plan and straight 
streets to a conflagration -^vhich con- 
sumed the greater part of it in 1 700, 
and its prosperity to the French Pr^ 
testant emigrants driven ont of their 
own country by the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, who transferred 
hither their skill in various maiiutac- 
tures, and their iudu&Uiuus habits. 
€rood (ser here* 

The loch of the Lndwigs-Canal at 
this place i? ornamented -^vith an alle- 
gorical group sculptured by Schwan- 

The Wfirzhorg Une ftdia in before 

Ffirth; on the rt. rises the Alte 
Feste: the HegnitalseRMBsed, andthe 
train arrives at 

ITuiemberg, The Augsburg rly, 
ew s M S the Lodwigs-Canal, and soon 
after the riw Bednita. 

Schwabach. (7800), an active town, 
situate about i m.W.of the station, with 
flourishing mBaafhetaresj the chi^ 
being that of pins. The Oo^ Tmm 
Ch/uroh, an interesting building (1495), 
contains a remarkable altar-piece 
carved by Vett 8to88, and painted 
by Wohkfemulh, besides a Virgin aud 
Oiild hy MairHn iMffa and ether 
mlnahle pictnresw ll has a fine 
Sacraraentshans (1505). 

A few miles beyond Schwabach the 
rly. enters the valley, and runs along 
the L hank of the Badnita. 

Digitized by Google 

.130 Boute 56. — Eochstadt-MarJcizeuln to Saalfeld, Sect. XI. 

Roth (2 400) on the Kednitz. The 
old castle was built in 1335 by the 
Margraves of Brandenburg. 

OMrywmiliiid. Biy. w. to Spotty 
on the Rezat, the cc;itre of a great 
hop district, and birthplace of Spalatin 
(d. 1545). Here the Franeonian and 
Swabian Kezat unite and form the 
Rednitz. To the L, on a urooded Sandseei chfttem of tbe 
Prince T, Wvede. 

BOUTE o6, 


Mike. StfltioTis. lloutce. 
Hockstadt ... 55 

5 Bedirtli 

6 Xfips 

11 Kronach 
16 Stockheim 
81 Ludwlgsstadt ) 
• Leh^en \ 
85 probstzxxxa 
51 SMlfeld , N.O.86 0. 

N. — Nuremberg to Lcipsig. — The 
line threads the pretty Hodachthel. 

At Redwitz the Steinachthal opens on 
the 1., and the rly. bears N.K. to Kiips, 
-where is a castle. Eronach (4000), at 
the confluence of the Hasslach and 
Bodftobt was the birthplace of Lucas 
Cranach in 1472. Above the town 
rises the fortress of Rosenberg. Hence 
the Hasslachthal is followed to the 
coal mines of Stocld^eim, and the rly. 
ascends to cross the watershed between 
the Rhine and the Elbe, desoending 
through the Loquitzthal to LndwigS- 
Btadt. [Branch rly. to (8 m. E.) Lehe- 
Bten, wuli important slate quarries.] 
Bavaria is quitted a mil© S. oi Prob- 
p tiaH > i and the line pur^ue^ a tortttous 
^nne tp fl«a]faUL 

ROUTE 67. 

Miles. Stations. B<Hites. 

BrlaagM » • • 65 

7 Dormitz 

11 Brand 

18 Gxafsnberg 

ROUTB 58. 

H07 to B'VBBKM* 

Miles. Stations. lluutcs. 
Htf . • . 65» 60, 71 
It Vaila 

16 lUixgrto^ttebeii 

This branch riy. mns W. as far as 
Nula* irhere it turns neaily due N. to 

Marxgrun. Thence an omn. runs to 
(.'i m. W.) Steben (!000\ rebuilt after 
a fire in 1877, with the loftiest ehnly- 
beate spring in Germany (213u it.) 
Hmnboldt yrtm mining supemteadent 
here in 1796. Dil. to (S21B. &W0 


ROUTE 59. 

hOnvmbbbq vo BQBUIBRBCBTS.-^N.W* 

Miles. StoOons. Houtes. 
XflkAberg. . « 55 
8 Had brandflgrtia 

Digitized by Google 


Bouie ^.—MunM to Eof. 


ROUTE 60. 


Mites. Statians. 


XiincliAii 87« 54, 64, 69, 









A K. 

Landsnut . . 

. 74 


Keufalim . 

. 50 




Obertraubling . 

. 45 



45, 77 








Sohwandorf. . 

, 53 


ImnlolM . , 

. 58 


Weiden . . 

. 54 



16 Yohenstraus 



Wiesau . . ) 

. 63 

7 Tirschenreath j 


][kt.Bedwita . 

. 51 


Holenbnmn > 

3 Wunsiedel) 






Oberkotiftii . . 

71. 60 


Bof. . . 55,58,71 

N. — Exp. to Berlin, Through- 
carriages and sleeping car. 

Diyerging to Uie rt. from the 
Angsborg line, the rly. runs N. to 

Schleissheim, with a royal chateau 
built by the elector Max Emanuel 
(1634-1700). On the ground floor 
are some German and Italian paint- 
iiigs of no great importance (open 
10-1), and on the first floor some 
Dutch pictures (2-5). The gardens 
axe very enjoyable. 

liiiiiilff (9000), the Beat of a prince 
binhop vmce the 8th eent.| no^ 

merired in the sco of Munich. The 
cathedral (1 161-1205) has been sadly 
modernized, but its *crypt, witii 
doable idsles and curious columns, 
is highly interesting. It contains a 
statuette of Fred. Barbarossa. The 
cloisters have some tombstones worth 
notice, and communicate >vith the 
ch. of S. Benedict f wliicii lias a good 
window. In the Seminartf is an old 
painting of the Virgin, attributed to 
S. Luke. To the AY. of the town, on 
a hill, is the ancient abbey of Weiheii" 
stepJuniy now an agricultural school. 

Beyond Frei^n^ to the 1. of the 
line, is the battle-field of Gammels- 
dorf, where (1313) Ludwig of BaTaria, 
afterwards Emperor of Germany, 
completely routed Frederic of Austria. 

Kooibarg (2000) an ancient town 

on the Isar, with a completely 
modernized early ch., containing some 
richly carved late Gothic wood-work. 
The ilmper is crossed. On the 1. 
Sehhit iSareeik, 
OiindlkofBa; to the rt, 8elil<t8S Kron- 

LAKDSHUT( 18,000) is situated on the 
Isar, here crossed by two bridges. 'J'he 
town has a very picturesque character, 
from the antique architecture of its 
buildings and the number of its towers ; 
the most conspicuous of them being 
that of St. Martin's Ch., 400 ft. high, 
built between 1432 and 1580. This 
church, St. Jodocns (begun iu 1338), 
and the Spital Ch. (begun in 1407) are 
good examples of bvn k-w ork, and of 
a class called by the (.cimans Ilallen- 
kirchen — that is, churches having 
aisles and nave of equal height. St. 
Martin's has modern painted windows 
70 ft. high, and a richly canred high 
altar and pulpit. 

In the Postgebaude (originally 
Chamber of the Estates) are old 
frescoes, which have been retouched. 

The Kew Palace (1536-43) has a 
fine Court and halls of admirable 
Kenaissance work, with a museum of 
architectural and industi'ial models. 
The BatUiant (1446) has agood front 
of 1861, In the restored Council 
chamber t^re some niodern firescoes, 

Digitizeo Ly v^oogle 

122 Moute 61. — Bayreuth to Alexanderahad. Sect. II« j 

Flusiag the entrance stands a bronre 
statue of Max II. The statue in front 
of the Government buildings is that 
ofLudwig the Rich (1479), founder 
of the University, transfer!^ Uther 
ftom Ingolstadt Id 1908, and to Munich 
in 1826. 

The old castle of Trausnitz (Trau 
cs nicht, Truiit it not), overlooking 
the town from the height on which it 
Stands, mm the birthplaee of Oonradin, 
the last Hohenstaufen ; the priion 
of Frederic of Austria for 3 years, 
during which he was confined by Lewis 
the Bavarian ; and the residence, in 
the 18di eenty., of the dukes of 
Lower Ba^a. The ^dutpd (1304- 
81) of very singnlar construction, 
surrounded with a gallery, has been 
restored, and contains some cood 
reliefs, and a ciborium of 1471. The 
eeiifaip and pandfing of tome of the 
rooms are excellent, and the mural 
paintings on the FooVs Staircase 
deserve attention. In the Court is 
a curious well, with wrought - iron 
▼orlc, and hrooae pails St 1858. 
Beyond the Trausnitz is the irillage 
of Berg, whence Landshut may be 
regained by a path through the large 
public gardens. Fine view from the 
klansenberg, ^ hr. above the town. 

Veafthni stands on the JKlMna 
Leifftr ; llggmtlhl, on the Orosse Laher. 
Here the French gained, in I809, a 
decisive victory over the Austrians, 
and Davoust, their leader, was created 
Dnke of Eckmfihl, by Napleon. 

Bsfsnahnrg. Here a bndgeTOO yds. 
long crosses the Danube to walhalla- 
strasse, 4 m. from the Temple, which 
is seen on the rt. 

Segenstauf, beyond which the 
Begen is crossed. To the L rises 
Sehlo88 BirJeensee, 

Haidhof. The little riy. on the 1. 
runs to the nail factory of Maximilians- 
hiitte. N.W. rises the pictures(iue 
rains ntSMm Bwralmgenfeld. 

Sohwandorf, on the main line be- 
tween Nuremburg and Prague, which 
is followed, crossiug the Nah, as far as 
Irrenlohe. The Heidenab and Wald- 
nab unite to Ibrm the Nab, 5 m. S. of 
Woidea (aooo)^ an attmcttre Htfle 

Keustadt an-der-WMmA, Branch 

rly. S.E. to Voliemtrauss. 

Wiesau, with a chalybeate spring. 
Branch rly. E. to TirscJienreuih. 

The vaUey of the R5slau is crossed 
on a lofty viaduct to Eolenbnnn. 
Bnmeh rly. S.W. to Wnnsiedel. 

Rdslau. Dil. to (6 m. W.) Weissen- 
stadt. The Effer is crossed to Uarkt- 
lenten, beyond wlaaA on the h rises 
the EpprecMiUin. At Oberkotmi 
the Saale is crossed, and the rly. tarns 
N.W. to Bo& 

KOUTE til. 


Carriage and pair from Bayreuth 
to Alexandersbad by way of Bemeck, ' 
Bischofsgriiu, and Wunsiedel, in about I 
9 hrs., fbr 20 niln. The oM road hv I 
Gefrees and Weissenstadt is very bai 

The pedestrian will find a direct 
way thither by cross - roads and by- 
paths, through the midst of the ; 

On quitting Bayreuth the post^oad 
traverses the suburb of St Georgen- 
am-See. The lake (See) from which 
it derives its name has been di*ained. 

Ikyoud the village of (3 m.) Bind- 
ladl rises a very steep hill, from tiie j 
aoelivity of as hieh Bayreuth is seen 
to great advantage, and the Eremitage 
appears among the trees on the 1., 
while from its summit the range of 
the Fichtelgebirge opens ont to Tiew« 
Tlio highest point is the Schneebery 
(^455 ft.). At its foot rises the 
White Main, which is crossed by a , 
bridge, about ^ m. before entering 

10 HI. Bansek (128O fL\ a village 
of 1800 hOub^ nKk SM esfiiUMU 

Digitized by Google 


in tiie pretty Tsllej of the 
Odnits tnm^ttream, so wmrow ta 
body to afford room Ibr two rows of 

houses. On the cliff above tower the 
ruins of two old castles of the Knifrhts 
of Walenrohe, destroyed in the Hussite 
War. One of the &mily built the 
little ebapel on his return from the 
I^d in 1480. 
Trie PerJenach, or OehniUSf a tribu- 
tary of the Main, which traverses 
Bemeck, is famed for its trout, and 
lor its pearls, obtainod from a species 
of mossel. A Soyal Pearl-fishery 
idH exists here. The shell in which 
the pearls are found is the TJp'f'o 
fthiffyifng : they are collected in Jnnr 
and July, uud the uuiubcr found iii 
one asascm is siMmt IM. THe fishery 
bpenerred as a royal monopoly. It 
is a pleasant walk of G m. N.E. up the 
valley of the Oeisuitz to Gefreei, 65, 
passing the ruined castle of Stein half 

Tho new road to Wtmsiedel pro- 
ceeds £. from Bemeck through the 
beautiful * Goldmiihlthal, « vrfwy of 
the White Main, to 

19 m, Mishofcgito (S9M ft.) at the 

hase of tfieMisenkopf (3365 ft.),which 
may be ascended in an hour. Descent 
S.W. in an honr to the pretty village 
of Warmensteinach (2065 fl.), or E., 
passing in ^ hr. the tSource of (he Main, 

and iiO nin.) the fFMnmolii^lwii 

(3050 rt.),a group of ro^ocnmumdlng 

a fine view, to the road which traverses 
the valley. Crossinp' this the Nuss- 
hard (3190 ft.), a group of curious 
rocks, may be reached in an hoar, aud 
the smmnit of the Se^hetlberg in | hr. 
mre. *Fine view. 

From the Schneeberg a descent of 
40 min. leads to the Drei Briider 
(2735 ft.), a group of granite slabs, 
and (5 min. Ihttter) the ^BiidoUMein 
(2850 ft.), also oommandiiy an admir- 
able view. An hour heyonothis, in the 
plaiiiy lies 

Weisionstadt (2070 ft.), on the 
Eger. Heaee the ^Bt^m WMMn 
(2885 ft.) may be ascended in an 

hour. « m. S.E. is 
Wwisisdel (1755 ft) a small townl 

of 3500 Inhab., on the Rossla, rebuilt 
sinee • fin fat 1884; the birthpiaee 
( 1 763) efJeaa Paul Ft ledrich Richter. 
His house still stands in the market^ 
place, with bronze hu«t by Schwau- 
thaler. Near this town coal -mines 
are worked. 

Abost 881.8. ofWaiisiedel,a(t the 
end of an wmaoit ef trees, liee 

Aiexandersbad ( I M ft.), a retired 
watering-place, named after the last 
Margtm're of AaiAjaA-Bayreiith ia 
1782. It eoiiKsts <^ tlK AMoit er 

Kurh&m, cad a few cottages near it. 
The Knrhaus is n large building, 
Avith wings, including ball, dining, 
aud billiard rooms, and 80 chambers, 
belonging to 8 eompan^. The ivaftef 
contaus a noiali portion ef saline 
substance, and Is richly impregnated 
with carbonic ncitl ^ras ; and on ac- 
count of its streugLheiiing qualities, it 
is often used as an after-cure (Nach- 
knr), fbUowing a some of the mUm 

Less than 2 m. W. is the ^Lnisen- 
berg (1960 ft.), named after the late 
Queen of Prosda. It esUMtt the 
singular pheaoHieMn of a norartaiB 

in ruins. It takes more than two 

hours to explore it thoroughly. The 
road lies thron^jli ;l wood and along 
the slopes uf a hili, copiously strewn 
wilh loose masses of granite voelt, 
increasing in size and in qaantl^y 
until at length the hill itself seems to 
consist of nothing else but disjointed 
fragments, piled in heaps over one 
another. The result of this sin- 
gular caprice of nalnre is a aort of 
^byrintfa, which has been rendersd 
perfectly accessible by paths, wooden 
ladders, and steps cut in the rock, con- 
structed by the managers of the baths. 
It is so intricate in parts that theassist- 
anee of a goide, though not indispen- 
sable, is at least conrenient. One may 
wander for liours among this colos- 
sal heap of stones, creeping for many 
yards together through the iuteibtices 

of the hnge s^perineumbent manes 
whieh form their rooft; or scrambling 

over project! nfr masses, to the sumini 
of the hill, which is itself a detach - 

Digitized by Google 

Boute 62. — Forchheim to Fegnitz, Sect, XX. 


bloek, ittiM hf a oroeiflx. It «>m- 

raands an extensive view over the 
chiefs of theFichtelp^ebirge chain, and 
towards tile baxou Er^gebirge, aAd 
Bohmerwald mountains. 

Tbe most glrikiog spotft are (he 
Grosse Grotte, Miinsters Denkmal, and 
the view from the ^Burgstein (280O 
ft.), 2u min. beyond the Cross. But 
the wonder of the place is the beauti> 
foi pboqihoTCfleeiiee wUdb is mem in 
the omonies of the roekSy and which 
appeal^ and disappears aceowiillg to 
the position of the spectator. 

The number of trees, sprouting up 
in all directions through the crevices, 
gives the Lnehsberg, at a distanee^ 
Uie appeeiaiioe of a wood; and the 
pjciiliar luxuriance of the dark green 
moss, impart an air of soft beauty to 
this singuiai- scene. The explanation 
of the phenomeDoa may be, eiUier 
that the moantaim has beea shattered 
to pieces by an earthquake, or, which 
is more probable, that it cnnsi'^ted of 
of softer and harder kinds of granite 
intermixed; that the softer parts, in 
pmeas of time, disintegtated by 
moisture and frost, have Mn washed 
out by rain, so that, as soon as the 
supports were removed, the skeleton 
of the mountain fell to pieces. The 
reek in many places io so rotten, from 
the action of tbe atmosphere, that it 
maybe rubbed to pieces by the fingers. 
The soil everywhere about the spot 
consists of decomposed granite. 

15 min. furthnr is the *JE8sse!tt 

(3085 ft.), the finest point of view in 
the Fichtelgebirge. 10 min. below 
the summit on the E. side is a good 
spring. The return may be made to 
Alesaadenbad direet in li hr. 

ROUTB 62. 


Thf> District of Htuggendorf, com- 
monly called the Franoonian Switzer- 
kkndf may be included within a triangle 
drawn between tbe towns of Bam- 
berg, Bayreuth, and Narembefg. It 
abounds in picturesque and beautiful 
scenery, and singular caves replete 
with fossil bones. It is a high table- 
land* interseeted by niimmns iralleys 
200 or 300 ft deep, in whie& the 
charms of the district are concentrated. 
They are usualiy traversed by full, 
clear, winding streams, whose banks 
are cacpeted with verdant meadows, 
and bounded by liigh clifils or wooded 
slopes, out of which fantastically 
shaped crags of limestone burst forth 
in the forms of turrets, arches, and 
pinnacles : while every now and then 
a real eastle is seen perehed on the 
sumniit of a ptojeotiac eliff apparentty 
blocking up the passage. 

The geologist will find abundant 
occupation and instruction in the 
Oaivim in which this eonntry ahonnds, 
and in their fossil contents, consisting 
of bones and teeth of gigantic bears, 
hya?nas, and otlier wild beasts, now 
nearly all exhausted. The caves of 
Gailenreuth and Kuhloch have sup- 
plied most of the cahinets of Europe 
with specimens, and have been admir- 
able described by Dr. Bucklaud. The 
caverns, of which more than 40 are 
enumerated, occur in a limestone, 
locally ealled Hahlenkalk, probably 
allied to the calcareous portions of the 
English greensand formation. 

The most convenient starting point 
is the rly. stat. at Forchheim, whcuce 
there is a dil. in summer daily to 
Streiiberg in 2| hrSiiOr Muggendor/ in 
9f htf, T^nee to Potim^n in 

Digitized by Google 

Bavaria. BoiUe 62. — Muggendorf—J^oUemtein. 


hn. Ffom PottenstuD, diL to 
Pegnits in S hn., 61. If a carriage 
is taken, r\n n^rreemeiit should bedlttwo 
up beforehand in writing. 

A good road ascends the left bank 
of the Wiesent from Forahhdm to 
(1 1 mu) WbM^mgf miMh frequented 
for the whey-cure. Here the beauties 
of the Franconian Switzerland may be 
baid to commeuce. The Cmtle of 
Streitberg, beneath which the village 
nestleB on tho L, and the Ibedal wateh- 
tower of Neudeck on the rt. of the 
ralley of the Wiesent, are visible at n 
distance, but easily contouiHUHl ^vlth 
the fissured limestone clitis aud pm- 
I naeles on which they staad* The 
I Tiew ft-om the castle, or from a 
I detached pillar of rock connected 
I wiili it by a bridge over the near cliff 
' scenery and distant horizon is hue. 
A one-horse chaise (£inspanner) to 
Forchhdm Station oottt aboot 6 niks. 

Continuing to ascend the picturesque 
Tnlley of the Wieaent^ 3 m. above 
iStreitlxM-ff is 

MuggeudoiX, the central point for 
exploring thoFraneonlan Switierland. 
High up in the face of theeUff, on 
the 1. side of the valley, is a caTcrn 
called IlosfumiiUeni Hohle ; guide and 
light for I to G persons, 2 mEs. 

From Muggendorf a hUly road 
strikes 1. oat of the Tallej of the 
Wieeent to the mill of Toos. 

Walk hence In the footpath about a 
mile down the valley to the liiesenhurg 
having ubtaiaed the key IVoui the 
miller. (N.6. A pedaima WBf take 
a more direct path hither from M ng- 
gendorf by Engelhavd^verg, uliere 
also a key is kept.) 

The Riejsenburg is certainly one of 
the chief corioeities of the district. 
I can best describe it by calling it a 
cave with the top taken off, so as to 
leave two arches standing, forming, 
as it were, natural bridges over a dell 
or glen scooped out on the rt. side of 
the Talley. PJIghAi of steps, carried 
up it, lead the visitor oet of the 
valley. The manner in which the 
limestone rocks around have been 
hollowed out into incipient caves and 
arches, shows that the phMomeDMi is 
mmXf and that it aiiset ftem the 

tendency tiiis peculiar foek to de- 
compose in phices end form caverns. 

The pictnre«;que vegetation of the 
doll, the chimps of trees, and tufts of 
lerus aud grass shooting irom every 
crerioe and niehe, iMWiired by the 
moisture and dutdCv the singular 
saddle-shaped masses of turf which 
hang over the natural arches, contri- 
bute to the beauty of the spot." 

Heturning to Toos, ascend the rt. 
bank of the Wiesent Ibr abeat % m. 
till you come in sight of 

Eabeneck. Walk up to the Castle, 
the carriage following by a more cir- 
cuitous road. 

['} m. hifrher up the iralley, near 

Weischen/eld, a i)lcture5:i|no old walled 
and turreted town, is the cave called 
f distershohle, described by Dr. Buck- 
land in the * Reliqai» Dilinriaats.'] 

The usual course is to drive front 

Rabeneck across the table-lnnd, 3 m., 
to the Castle of Eabenstein, one oi the 
most picturesque feudal remains in 
the district, on the edge of a precipice 
nearly 150 ft. high, o^revlooiting the 
Ahornthal (Maple Valle^, which is 
watered by the Essbach. It is im^*^ 
the property of the Count Schbnboru, 
who has restored and fitted up part 
of it as a sanuner residenee, and has 
deposited in it a curious collection of 
fossils, derived from the neighbouring 
cave called *Sophieiihbiile, situated 
immediately below tlie chapel of St. 
Nicholas (Klaashapelle). The keys 
of the entrance are kept at the farm 
near the castle, where lights nnd n 
guide may be procured, for which a 
party pays 2 or more marks, accord- 
ing to the number of lights required. 
Tbs rich beauty of &wils, Wore 
alluded to, is derived from an inner 
cave discovered accidentally by some 
workmen employed in eoiisti ucting 
paths along the side of the valley. It 
IS the most inlerssting in the district* 
abounding in stalactites, and is ren- 
dered easily accesslhle by steps and 

Hence over the high ground to 
retltaitslii, a pietnresqneTillage in 
anotiier rommtio TaUeyt iiiRoiinded 

by a sweep of the Puttlach, with a 
castle on the height above, approached 
bv 367 steps and a drawbridge. Here 
Mto it a mm chnFoh, aad a pilgrimaae 
chapel in « striking sitOAlm OH the 
OUvenbergt reaebed l)f a eeriea of 


A road now conducts through the 
beautiful valley by the Me of the 
winding sfeNMn, Aemmed in partly 
\fj rocks nearly perpendicular, and of 
singularly picturesque forms, leaving 
scarcely room for the small stream 
and road. It gradually opens out, 
and tbe md skirts the green mflodow- 
land which lies along the stream nntil 
you reach the village of 

Tiichersfeld, distant about 5 m. from 
Pottenstein, which lies in the midst 
of a most extraordinsfj assemblage 
of lookii Isolated fragments of an 
enomOQS size and height rise up on 
every side of it. From Tiichersfeld 
the road continues along the course 
of the str^m, passing, hjgh on the 
left» tlie SeUois of Mmfff^ to a 
large open space, where 3 valleys 
meet. The 1. hand road leads up to 

Gossweinstein, perched on the top 
of a rock. The Schloss built ou the 
summit eomSiands a splendid *Tiew ; 
ImaMdiatoly Mov it three (»f the 
dfl^ narrow valleys which ubound in 
this country diverge as from a centre. 
Here is a Capuchin convent and a 
vast Pilgrimage Churchy containing a 
muafllMroTking representation of the 
Trinity. The village at the junction 
of the valleysi just below to the 
N., is 

Behringersmiihle, a favourite^ sum- 
mer resort^ in a chsming ntaatioo« 

The valley of the Wiesent hence to 
Mugt^Ukdorf is wild and romantic, 
the stream edged with green turf, 
while on either side rise rocks of 
fantastio shape, varied by woods of 
fir. On tbe way is passed the Cave of 
QailWiaHi, celebrated for the bones 
of bears and other animals found in 
it embedded in stalactite. A good 
road runs E. from GossMeinstein 
through (4 m.) PottansMi, to (10 m.) 

PsgflmSi a 

ROUTE 63. 



Eger. 51,71tlM|16t 
8 Waldssaasa 
17 Wiesan . . • • 60 

&S. W. Berlin to Mnnieh.— Tha rljr. 

passes Waldssasen, with a suppressed 
Cistercian monastery of 1128. The 
ch. has been modernized, but the 
library oool^iia flame goodoawing. 

ROUTE 64. 


Milit. StAtions. Tlontes. 
Mnnich 66, 60, 69, 70 
5 Pasing 
15 Braek 
80 Chraftath 

85 Kanferte • • • 67 

38 Igling 

48 Buchloe . • 65, 78 
66 Xaufbeuren 

2 Ebenhofen 

4 Oberdorf } 
24 Ftlssen • • 

70 Ounzach 

ttl Samptan . • 

M .lanMnstadI 1 

5 Sonthofen) 
106 OberstanfiBiL 
123 Hergats 




Shortly after leaving the central 

Stat, the park of Mywphwibafg i# 

Digitized by Google 


wen on the rt Bejood VMiaff the 
line crosses the Wiirm and intersects 
a peat bog as fer as Bmck (1735 fit.), 
a prettily situated bathing-place iu the 
Amperthal, with the old Cistercian 
ftbhW of FSrttm/M m the neigh- 

Ghrafrath, with a pilgrimage eh. 
The town (onm. 20 pf.) lies a mile 
S. Steamer thenoe oa the Amper 
river to (4 m.) I^egeih at the N. «x- 
tremity of the Ammersee, and across 
the lake to (22 m.) Diessen (JEUe. 265). 
The Lech is crossed to 

Xaufering ^1940 ft). Passing on 
the I. the chAlean of IgUng, we feaoh 
Bnehloe. The train now turns S. 
into the broad valley of the Wertach, 
and the mountains above Parten- 
kirchen come finely into view. The 
Wertach is crossed to Kaafbeuren 
(8240 ft)y one of the many old towns 
m ibM paxi of Bavaria which once 
enjoyed the privilege of Imperial fite- 
dom. It has now 4000 inhab. 

Biessenhofen. The rly. now leaves 
the valley of the Wertadi, and through 
a deep cutting enters that of the lUer. 

Gttnzach (2630 ft.), the loftiest 
place on the line. The large Convent 
is now a brewery and engine manu- 
factory. To the rt lies Ober- Giinzhurg, 
The rly. now deseends to 

Xempten (2285 ft,\ the Campo- 
dunum of the Romans (14,500 ft.), 
consisting of a Protestant Old towUt 
once Imperial, in the valley, surrounded 
by walls ; and the New town, which 
belonged to tiie abbot (Stiftstadt), 
situated on an emmeniM^ and inhabited 
by Roman Catholics. The abbot of 
Kempten, a rich and powerful eccle- 
siastic, held hia court here in line 
abbot's palace (I8II1 oent). .The 
Qmrchf of Italian architecture, adjoin- 
ing, is of nearly the same date. 10 
m. S. of the stat. rises the * Burghaldef 
with remains of an intienched camp. 
Fine yiew from the 3Sairienberg, 3 m. 
W. of the town. The train backs out 
of the stat. fviews on the 1.), and 
follows the left bank of the lUer to 

Inimenstadt ^2395 ft), a prettily 
rituated town or 90Q0 ltfkb.» on iSm 
tiireshold of the AtgSii inoimiiins. To 


the R rises the iioIaCed Mn<0i» (6710 

ft.), best ascended flram Sonthofetif 
to which a branch rly. runs S.E. The 
main line makes a sudden bend to the 
W., and comes in sight of the singularly 
beantiM Alpsee (93ft5 It), which it 
skirts on its N. bank. A steep ascent 
leads to Oberstaufen (2600 ft.), on the 
"watershed between the Danube and 
the Rhine. A viaduct 180 ft. high 
and long embankment succeed. Fine 
views of the Alps of AppenseU« and 
later of the Lake of Constance. 

Hergatz, with extensive beds of 
peat Dil. to (3 m. N.) Wangen (Kte. 
10). The Rly. is carried on a low stone 
cansewav in the lake, side by ride with 
the wooaen road-bridge» into 

Lindau. This ancient town (3000), 
formerly an Imperial free city, now 
belongs to Bavaria, and opens an im* 
portant outlet for the trade of that 
country with Switzerland and Italy by 
means of its small port on the N.E. 
shore of the Lake of Constance (Boden- 
see), which is itself neutral. It stands 
on an island in the lake (1305 ft.). 
Near the harbour is a bronze statue of 
King Max. II. At the end of the S. 
pier is a large marble lion, said to 
weigh 60 tons, and on the other a 
lighthooM 100 ft high, which may be 
ascended Ibr the view. Ticketi at the 
Custom-house, 40 pf. The Beichs- 
hrunnen, a pretty lodntain, w«B erected, 
in 1884. 

The old walls of Lindau are well 
preserved, but the bts tioii s have been 
laid out in pleMSat promenades. 
Excellent bathing may be had in the 
lake. Near the rly. stat. is a small 
but beautiful church, said to date from 
the 8th cent, but shamefully dese- 
cratedi A hw w ety in the town re« 
tains miotve finpaents of Bonan 

Pleasant walk W. to (f hr.) Schach- 
enbad, and (? hr. further) Wasserhury, 
relntning by steamer. 


Digitized by Google 


Saute 65. — I'leit^eld to BwMoe. 

beet. II. 

BOUTE 65. 


MUes. Stations. Bouto.<^. 
Pleinfeld . . 55 
11 Gtrnzenhauseii . • 87 
19 Wassertrudingen 
27 OettingeiL 
81 IHinNRuiiiixiiflm 
35 Nordlingm . 27,66 
47 Harbnrg 

63 Donau worth • • 68 
63 Nordendorf 
66 V0iting«& 

77 Oberhauieil 

79 Augsburg . 67, 69, 77 
83 Inning en 
87 BobingeiL 
104 Buchloe 

— "Berlin to Lindau. On k'<«,vinij 
Pleinfeld this rly. rnns W. to Gunz- 
duhauseii) oil tiie Alitiiiiidf the birtii- 
pliioe of the dieologian Osiander. 
Near the hoipitalj in the suburb, may 
be seen some remains of the Tinman 
Wall called Teufelsmauer, or Tfahi- 
graben, which extended from the 
Neckar to the Danube, a diatanee of 
leOmilee. Here tiie line tnms S.W. to 
WUMrtefldlngexi, to the rt. of which 
rises tbe Hesselberg, Thence S. to 
Oettingen f290n ft.), nn tlie ]\ omitz. 
Beyond Dmreazimmern, tbe Ipf 
(8235 ft.) is seen oa the W. The 
mined castle of WaUm'Mn^^ee belov) 
rialBS to the rt on the approaoh to 

KoRSLlNOEK (7800), formerly an 
Imperial city, and stiU sumranded 
with walls and towcM. The principal 
*CQitirch, a handsome Gothic edifice 
(1428-1505), ^vhh a tower, 268 ft. 
high, has several pictures by Ilerlen 
aiw Sbshdt/^elein : also the monument 
of Dnhe Albert of tainswick, kiUed 
in 1646, at the battle of NMlingen, 

ornamented with a good relief. A ^ 
splendid Saaramenihaus by the archi- i- 
tect W<^ijrpr and the sculpUff CreUZf - 
of stone. 1 isc> 50 ft. high. ^ ^ 

The Eatlihaus is ornamented with 
a fresco of Judith and Holofemes, 
by Schdu/elein, and also with scenes 
illustrative of the battle of Nordlingen, V\( 
which was gained by the Austrians 
and Bavarians over the Swedes, com- 
manded by Bernard of Weimar and . 
Ck>unt Horn, in 1634. There 18 a r 
small collection of old German paint- 
ings. Horn and 4000 of his men, v 
with the artillery, were taken, and 
8000 were slain. This victory was as < 
important in its eonseqaenees to the \ 
Imperialists as that of lifltzen bad 
been to the Swedes. jf *^ 

Vast quantities of carpets are manu- Vmfl 
factured here. jSordlingen is also ^/f^ 
ihrned for geese, and trades largely in ^ 
their feathecs. ^ 

Harburg (1500), nearly surrounded \ 

by the windings of the Wornitz, is ^ 
most picturesque, surmounted by a 

large and peneet Ooitte, on a rock, \ 

the property of Prince Wallerstein. ^ 

The winding :^nd fertile valley of the i 
Wornitz is j:< w followed to Donan- 

worth. ihe train approaches the M 

Lech near Vofdendorl On the rt. is )^ 

the chfttean of Bohen, a snppreswd ^^ 

linn n or V. «2» 

Meitingeu. On the rt« Schloss «j 
Moarkti an old Koman fort. The 
W^tach k crossed to 

AXrOSBiraO (1340 ft.), a city of 
66,000 Inhab. (2-5ths Protestiint), at 
the junction of the rivei-s Wet ta(?li and 
Lech, called by the Komaus Yiudo 
and Liens, whence the ori^nal city 
founded by them reoeiyed its same 
of Augusta Viudelicorum. ** Owing to 
its advantageous position, it became 
the capital of the province of Khaetia, 
which soon extinguished the name of 
the Yittdelieians, and extended ftom 
the summit of tJie Alps to the banks 
of the Danube, from its source as fiir 
as its contlux with the Inn." — Gihhon, 
ch. i. It attained the height uf pros* 
perity as a free dbr of the ei^pire 
daring the 16lh and 16th eentuiesb 


Pife during the 1 6th century ; at one | most important business at 
^. Gewt, 


^Hjlized by Googic 



Boute 65. — Augsburg, 


▼hen it ranked among the first of 
Europe in the extent of its population 
and commerce, being the staple place of 
the trade between Northern Europe, 
Italy, and the Levant. It was also 
distinguished for the perfection of its 
manuTactures, especially that of linen, 
in which it was unrivalled. During 
the above period its principal citizens 
Were literally prineee. Thzee fnrides 
if Angelrarg, daughters of ample citi- 
rens, were married to royal or princely 
husbands — Clara v. Detten, was wife 
of the Elector Palatine Frederick the 
iTictorious : Agnes Bemauer, married 
ii> Dnke Adalbert III. of Bawia; and 

Philippina Welser, who became wife 
of Ferdinand of Tyrol, son of the Em- 
peror Ferdinand I. in 1550. Bar- 
tholomew Welser, another of the 
fiunil^, fitted out tan esLpeditlon to 
colonise and take possession of Vene- 
zuela, which had been given him as a 
pledge by Charles V., and of which he 
kept possession till after the emperor's 

The patrician honae of Fu^ger, the 

wealthiest merchants, capitalists, and 
speculators of their day, carried on 
trade at the same time both with the 
East and West Indies in ships of their 
own* and were proprietors of the 


2. StMliidi 
S. St. Anne 

4. Barfiiaahirche 

5. Rathhaus 

6. Phtun Qatlerg 

7. thiMum 

8. Fuggerhaua 

9. Post Office 

10. Fuggerel 
U.M0UI OttHtohnm 


(richest mines in Europe. They more 
Hum onee replemshed, from th^r own 
private resources, the exhausted trea- 
suries of the Emperors Maximilian 
and Charles V. They received from 
the former patents of nobility and the 
privilege of coining, money. In 1619 
the ifamily nnmbered, in its 5 branehes, 
4 7 counts and countesses <tf tbe empire, 
all tracing their origin from a simple 
weaver of Augsburg, who at that time 
had scarcely been laid in his grave 
half aoenturv. 

Angsbnig is llistorically remarkable 
as the seat of many Diets of the Em- 
pire during the I6th century j at one 

B, Germ, 

of which, in 1348, Charles V. promul- 
gated the Interim; anollier, in 155S, 
first granted toleration to the Pro- 
testants (Lutherans) of Germany. 
The fortunes of the Imperial city were 
ruined during the 17th century, when 
the religious wars which desolated 
Europe* and the discovery of the 
passage round the Cape, droYe into 
other channels the commerce which 
it at one time monopolised. The sur- 
viving trade and manufactures, al- 
thougn the^jr fbmish no eqaivalent for 
that which it has lost, employ a large 
part of its reduced population. Th*' 
most important bnsmess at prese' 

Digitized by Google 

Bouie 66.—Augiburg : QUkedral ; Seot. H. 


carried on here is bankiug and stock- 

The ntotttion of Augsburg in the 
centre of Germany is favourable for 
the transit trade between the North 
and Switzerland, Austria, and the 
countries S. of the Alps, Tlxis is the 
Staple plaee for the «dlk of Ifaij and 
tiie produetions of the Levant, whkSi 
are distributed from Angalmi^ all 
over Germany. 

A large Collmi Mill for spinning and 
weaving, which employs 1200 hands, 
cstabluned in 1840, is irorked by 
water from the Lech. There is also a 
manufactory of mnchinery. 

The town is no longer surrouiuled 
by walls and ditches; parts of their 
'sito nod of the jda^ are laid ont 
in promenades, within, the qosint 
antique architecture of its houses, the 
size of many of the mansions, not un- 
frcMjuentiy decorated with rich scroll- 
work, or covered from top to bottom 
with perishing frescoes, give an im- 

?ression of departed magnificence, 
'he hon«;c of the Weber family, in 
the Maxiiiiiliaiisstrasse, may be se- 
lected as a good example of its kind. 

The *lfax1mil1aii88tra88e, an Im- 
perial street, as Card. Bentivoglio 
called it, runs nearly N* and S.y and 
is flanked with houses offering fine 
examples nf Renaissance architecture 
in every variety of the style. The 
street contains three Bremao Tonntaliui. 
That nearest the S. end by the Drei 
Mohren. called the Ilerculeshrunnen, 
is the work of Adrian dc Vries (1599). 
The Merkurbroiuien, opposite the Ch. 
of St Maurice, adorned with a very 
poor fignre of Mercury, is also hj ife 
Vrie». The third, close to the Sath- 
haus, cnllec! tlie Augustiisbnmnen 
(1594 J, from the bronze figure of that 
emperor, the reputed founder of the 
city, by Gerhard. 

Augsburg was one of the first cities 
in Europe in which water was supplied 
to the houses. The *Kunstwasser- 
werke, or original Waterworks, much 
developed and improved, arc situated 
near Siebentisehwald* an hr.'s drive 
outside the Rothes Thor. Tickets 
daily at the Rathhnus, gratis. 
Between the Uerqules and Mercury 

fouiitaiiis btands the handsome f ug- 
gerhans, town residence of Prince 
Fugger of BabeMlauseii, adorned 
witn frescoes by F. Wagner (1863) 
illustrating the histoiy of the frinnly 
and their native city. Within are two 
old rooms called the *Badezimftwr, 
now need fbr Exhibitions of the Art- 
Union, and open on Sun., Mon. and 
Tues. ,U 0 to 4 . E n t ranee firom behind, 
in the Apotheker (^rf <s»'. 

The nCown-haii or liathhaus, near 
the N« end of the Maximiliansstrasse, 
is a dvic palace, of Italian nrchitee* 
ture, built by Elias Holl in 1617-29* 
The Golden Hall, on the second story, 
is a handsome, lof^y apartment, 
roofed with cedar^ 109 it long, 57 ft. 
wide, and 54 ft. liJgK It is remark- 
able for being unsupported by pillars, 
and having 60 windows, in 3 rows. 
At the four comei^ are the Fursten^ 
zimmer, with fine wooden ceilinet;. 
From the roof of the Town-iiaii there 
is a good Tiew of the eibr. On the 
N. sidr stands a lotty heifirj, called 
the Tower of Ferlach. 

Tiie "^Cathedral is an ineguiar 

buildmg, of various dates, the shell 
of the nave hexnc Romanesque, with 
late Grothic doufle aisles; Tlie W. 
choir has a good screen of open iron- 
work, and a similarly treated altar 
(1346), with the canopy of an ancient 
bishop's throne aud a very old marble 
chair. Beneath it is a erjpt with low 
columns, and adjoining it, in the S. 
aisle, is a series of portraits of bishops 
of Angsburg. The ancient brazen, 
doors in theS. portal are covered with 
rude reliefs iu the Bvzautiue style of 
art, of sacred and heathen snbjecta 
mixed — Adam and Eve, the Centaur, 
the Temptation of the Serpent, and 
the Signs of the Zodiac (1070). The 
cloister on the N. side dates from tlie 
last half of the 15th century. The 
N. and S. portals, which ate richly 
decorated with sculpture, and have 
two bronze knockers, were added 
between ir^'il and 134G. The E. choir, 
loity and light, eudiiigin auapse, was 
rebuilt in 1356-1410. There is a good 
ancient painted glass window at the 
AV. end of the S. aisle. 
The church contains some remark* 

Digitized by Google 

Bmte 65.— ^flWer^ o/Painiingi, 


able *picture8. On the W. piers of 
the nave are the Death of Mary, 
Nativity of Christ, Coronation, with 
choir or beautifbl angels, and Adora- 
tion of the Kings — all by RoTbein. 
Further E., the Presentation of Mary 
and of the Child, Birth of John, and 
rejection of Joachim by Zacharias — 
iine works of the early German School. 
TluBce ii a ^ood st^ed glass ^doir 
in the N. aisle, and in the N. transept 
a copious fountain of running water. 

The Schloss, or Besidenz, a large 
building S.W. of the cathedral, for- 
merly the Bishop's Palace, is histo- 
rically remarkable, because in it the 
&mous declaration of the Proteslants» 
called the Confession of Augsburg, was 
presented to the Emperor Charles V, 
in 1530. At first he commauded-tbat 
it shonld be read in Latin j to wnich 
Bayer, the chancellor of Sazony, 
boldly replied, *' Sire, we are on 
German ground, and 1 trust that your 
Majesty will not order the apology of 
our faith, which ought to be made as 
paUic as possible^ to be read in a 
language* not understood by the Ger- 
mans.'' He tlien proceeded to read it 
in a voice so loud and distinct that it 
was heard in the adjoining rooms, 
and even by the orowds assembled 
nnder the wmdow in the comrtyard of 
the palace. This important event is 
noted to have taken place at 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon of the 25th June, 
1530, in the large room at the comer 
of the quadrangle near the tower. 
Between the Palace and the Cathedral 
stands the handsome Siegesdenkmal, 
a War Monument by Zumhusch (1871), 
consisting of a bronze Victory with four 
patti, on a pedestal of black granite. 

The R. C. Church of SS. ulric and 
Afra, at the S. end of the Maximilians- 
strasse, is a line example of the latest 
Gothic (nave 1476, choir 1500). It is 
818 ft. long, and 100 ft. high. It con- 
tains three handsome altars of 1604, 
below one of which, on the rt., is a 
vault with the marble tomb of bishop 
Ulrich (10th cent.). Opposite, on the 
1., is the tomb of S. Afra. On the 
same aide^ enclosed by a beantifiil 
iron screen, is the Fugger chapel, with 
the nonbofHsBS Fngger (1589) in 

Carrara marble, and some fine 14th 
cent, carvings. The Confessionals, 
and a bronze Crucifix, all of the 17th 
cent., deserve notice. In the sacristy 
are preserred nnmerous relics soul 

The Protestant Church of S. Anna 
(keys at No. D. 227) has over the 
altar, at the E. end, a work of L, 
Oranaeh, CSirist blessing the Little 
Children. On the 1. and rt. hang 
good portraits of Luther, and John 
Frederick, Elector of Saxony, also by 
Cranach; and below on the 1. is a 
beaatiful stone relief of the Raising 
of Laams (1 ^ cent). On the wall 
of the choir is a work of Arniherger — • 
the Wise and Foolish Virgins. Be- 
yond this is Christ's Descent into 
Hell, by Burckmair, On the large 
organ wings are an Ascension and 
Ammption by Burchmci ir ; the smaller 
ones were painted by Holbein the 
younger. Over the Sacristy door is a 
Virgin and Children by Cranach. On 
the S. side of the church is a cloister 
full of tombs. 

The Barfiisserkirche, founded in 
1300, but altered in the 17th cent., 
has a fine organ by J. A. Stein (1792), 
and some curious epitaphs (iu the 
transept). The /ooownfrosse, a cha- 
ractenstic m^isBYsl street, leads 
hence to the 

Fnggerei, a distinct quarter, named 
after its founder, Hans Fugger the 
Rich, in 1519. It forms a pictur* 
esque and interestine group of build- 
ings, much resembling a mediaival 
college. It is entered by 4 gates of 
its own, and consists of about KU) 
small houses, let out at a low rent to 
poor Roman Catholics. 

The *GALLEKY OF Paintings, in the 

suppressed Nunnery of St. Catherine, 
is open daily from 9 to 1 (fee). It con- 
tains some most interesting specimensof 
masters of the early German ( Swabian) 
school, especially of the Holbeins, 
Burckmair, andZeitblom. Catalogue, 
badly printed in small German tj'pc, 
1 mark 50 pf. The Italian paintings 
are ommportant, but the cabinets 
contain some admirable little pictures 
of the Dutch school. 

K 2 

Digitized by Google 

132 SouU 65. — Augsburg : 

Maximiliana'Museum, 6eot* II. 

Altdorfer : Crucifixion. — Holy 
Family, with a choir of Angels. 

Barthel Beham : Portrait. 

Bnrckmair: Basilica of S. Peter; 
Fission Sems willi S^te.— S. Gio- 
vanni in Lateiano ; Passion Scenes 
with Saints. — Basilica of S. Croce; 
Passion Scenes with Saints. — The 
Euip. Heury II. and S. George. — 
Virgin and Child enthroned, with 
Bainti.— Small Gnudfizioii. 

Oranaoh : Phaiaoh oTerwIielmed by 
tlie Red Sea. 

Cnyp : Shepherd and Shepherdess. — 
Circnmcision of Christ. 

Siflror: Bfadoona with the pink.— 
The Yirg^ interceding. 

Path in the Wood. 

Holbein (the I-^hler) : Legend of 
S. Ulrich.— -Beheading of S.Catharine. 
—Small Crucifixion, Deposition, and 
Entombment.— S. Paolo fuori le Mura ; 
Passion Scenes with Saints. — Trans- 
figuration. — Feeding of the Four 
Thousand. — Healing of the Possessed. 
—Basilica of S. M. Maggiore j Passion 
Scenes with Saints.— Vinrin and Child 
with S. Anna.— Cmciflxion of S. 
Peter. — Passion Scenes. 

Jacopo del Barbari : Partridge. 

Koch : S. George and the Dragon. 

XiaonardodaTlnci: Head of a girl— 
a Flemish imitation. 

Harco d'Oggloaiio: S. M. Blag- 

Ostade flsaac) t Peasant's cottage. 

Paxmigianino ; Virgin and Child, 
with a young Monlc. 

Poelenbnrg : Waterfall. 

Pynacker: Evening landscape^ with 
two men at supper. 

Sohaffiier : The Last Supper. — 
Christ before Pilate^— The Deual of 
Peter.— Christ Washiog the Disdples* 

Schalken : The Mocking of Christ. 

Snyders : Bear Hunt. 

Steen : Merry Party. 

Unknown (Eaily German); Fonr 
Latin Fathers. 

Vandyck : Sketches in Grisaille. 

Van Goyen ; Landscapes. 

WohigemutiL : Crucifixion and As- 

Wonwenaan: Hawking. 

2sitblom: Legend of S. Valentine. 

In the Maximilian s-Kusenm are 

some interesting local antiquities. 
Ticket of adm., 50 pf, at the house 
opposite ; 10 to 1 and 2 to 5. lAbrary 
open daily, 11 to 18 ; Wed. and Sat., 
1 1 to X . The mnseum contuns Boman 
tornb;^, pillars, and altars ; a fine 
Roman bronze head of a horse, life- 
size, was found in the bed of the 
Wertach. Here is a curious picture 
representinjg the meml>ers of the piin- 
cipal fiunihes of Augsburg in the 16th 
century, in foncy dresses of the colours 
of their armorial beariiiirs. at an enter- 
tainment given to the Emp. Maxi- 
milian, interesting pen and ii^ 
sketches ; portiait group of celebrities 
with the younger Holbein, at the 
fountain opposite the Ratliliaus, in 
black cravun; numerous letters of 
Luther, &c. ; two fine Holbein por- 
traits ; portraits by an unknown 
master (1543) of Conrad Featinger 
and his wife Margaret ; coins, medals, 
iron work, and pre-historic relics; 
curious table of Solnhofen stone, en- 
graTcd with the Zodiac anda calendar t 
alabaster reliefs of Italian work, and 
various architectural fragments. On 
the second floor, extensive Natural 
History collections. 

In tne same street is the bronze 
statue of Hans Jakob Fngger the Ifioh, 
erected in 1857, and opposite to it is 
the house where Phuippina Welaer 
was born in 1530. 

The Three Koors Inn has existed as 
an hotel from tiie year 1364 at least, 
since it is mentioned in the town 
record? of that ycnr. The house was 
formerly part of the Mamioti of the 
eldest branch of the Fugger family. 
Here were entertained the Emperors 
Maximilian L and Charles V., the 
latter of whom resided liere a year 
durirp: the Diet of Ancrshnrg in 1530. 
The house has been almost entirely 
rebuilt, and nothing ancient now 
remains hat the dumney-pieoe of the 
banqneting-room in whieh Cliarlea V. I 
was entertained by tho wealthy mer- 
chant Count Anthony Fugger, on his 
return from the campaign agaiost Tunis 
m 1588. I Ibel myself,'' said the host, 
" so amply repaid by the honour 
tliis visit that this boad now beooanea 

Digitized by Gow^i*. 


SotUe 67. — Augeburg to Bchongau* 


pseless ; " and immediately he bnrned 

in a fire of cinnnmnn the docilitient 
which he held as a security from the 
Emperor for a heavy loan in aid of 
tbat campaign. 

The newspapers of the principal 
states of Europe are taken in at the 
club eptahlishod in the Bon rse, called 
itfj/ V nu, opposite tlie Rathhaiis. 

Augsburg is the birthplace of Hans 
Holbein the elder, &ther of the pcdnter 
ao well known by his works in Eng- 
land, where he died. His grandfather, 
also of Augsburg, was a respectable 
artist. The Theatre, at the end of 
Foffgentnate, is a very handsome large 
edifice (t878) ; FeUner snd H^er» of 
Vienna, architects. 

The principal Cannon Foiindry in 
Bavaria is situated at Augsburg ; 
several richly-ornamented brass pieces 
Biay he seen in flraat of the AnmaL 
(Zeoghaus), hearing dates between 
1500 and 1544. On the fnrade of the 
arsenal is a large and rather spirited 
bronze group representing the Arch- 
angel Mraiael tnhmphing over Satan 

There are two annual fairs at Augs- 
hnrnr, each lasting a fortnicrht : one 
beginning on St. George's Day, the 
other on Michaelmas. 

Oootinning S., the rly. traTrerses the 
Lechfeld, whm the Hungarians de- 
feated the Germans under Lewis the 
Child in 910, and in 9''>r> were in their 
turn beaten, and finally driven out of 
Germany, by King Otho T. 

Inningen, with the WeUevimrg, a 
chateau of Prince Fugger, on the rt. 
Thence the line runs a little W. of 8. 
to Baohloe, 

BOUT£ 66. 


Miles. SLtioai. Roui^. 
Hordlingen . 27, 65 
3 Wallerstein 
6 Xarkto&ngen 
10 DinkelsbthI 
27 Feuchtwaagiii 
M BomMlhl . • . . Ss 

The rlv. runs N.W., passing Waller' 
stein, wim its picturesque eastle, and 
MarJctoffingen^ | m. E. <^ which lies 

the chateau of Maifn'ngnn, ■^vith ^^ome 
armour and a library. Dinkelsbiihl 
(5235), an old town on the Womitz, 
with walls and lowers, has a late 
Gothic church with some good car- 
vings. In the market place is a statue 
to Chr. V. Srhrnid. a writer of chil- 
dren's books, who was burn here 
(d. 1854), Feuchtwangen has a Gothic 

BOUTE 67. 


Ullm, Stnttnr!4. Routes. 

Augsburg . 66, 69, 77 
7 Bobingen 

98 KmuHning . « , 64 
25 Landihe^ 
48 flehOBgan 

This line runs due S. towards the 
BaTarian highlands. It crosses Rte. 

64 at Kaufering, and proceeds to 
Landsberg (5240 ft.), an old town on 
the Lech, with a church of 1498 and a 
restored lUthhaus. Schongan (2250 
ft) is an ancient town with ezcelh**** 
Baths {/ohamMad), 

Digitized by Google 




Miles. StaUoQS. 

5 (hindelflxigaiii 

8 Laning-eii 

11 Diilin^en 

16 Hockstadt 

19 BlindlMliii 

27 Donauv^&rtii 

36 Bain 

42 Unterliauaaii 

46 Keuburg 

60 Ingol8tadt 

. 69 


87, 77 

AMifo 6S.—Neuojflngm io XnffoUktdi. fieot II. 

Bavaria iu 1083. The most cele- 
brated battle, however, fought on this 
groimd, tiikm its name from tiie 

Blindheim (Blenheim), the scene of 
the famous victory guiued in 1704, by 
Marlborough aud Kugeue, over the 
French and Bavarians, nnder Ifamfaal 
Tallard and the Elector of Bavaria, 
who lost 40,000 men, killed, wounded, 
and prisoners, 120 pieces of cannon, 
and 300 standards. The French were 
drawn up behind the small stream of 
tiie NebenMeh } their 1. wing extend- 
ed to Liitzingen ; their rt. wing rested 
on TUenheim, which, during the early 
part of the action, forniod nn insnr- 
mountable obstacle to the eiluru of 
the EngUsb, nntn MarlboTOngh 8lul» 
lolly transferred the attack to the 
centre of the line, and succeeded in 
breaking it and in crofifiing the Nebel- 

Donauworth (4000), formerly a free 
Imperial ci^« At me he^nning of 
the 17 th centy. its inhabitants had 

adopted so warmly and generally the 
Reformed doctrines that the Catholics 
were obliged to content themselves 
with one lurarohy that of the Convent 
of the Holy Orotic The fimatic abbot 
of this establishment ventured, in 
spite of the popular prejudice, to con- 
duct a procession of the host through 
the streets, and was assaulted by the 
mob, barely escaping with hie lift. 
In consequence of this aud other 
violent acts of the citizens, the town 
was placed under the 1 an of the Km- 
pire (1607) } and Maximilian, Duke 
of Bavaria, with an amy of I7»000 
men, was ordered to carry it into 
execution. The punishment inflicted 
was the abolition of the Protestant 
religion, and the confiscation of the 
privileges of the town, followed by its 
transfer to the eleetor. The conse- 
quences of this event were of the 
hio-hest moment iu the affairs of 
Kuiope : the mimediate result was the 
formation of the Protestant League 
and Catholio Union ; and thus Uiis 
apparently insignificant riot was the 

spark which lighted up the liamo of 
the Thirty Years' War. 
The suppressed Convent of the 

E. — The line mm nt first due N., 
and crosses the Danube to 

Gimdelfingin, a small town on the 

BreT!z,with a ruined castle. Lauingen 
(4000 iuhab.) boasts of having produced 
the most learned man (Albertus 
Ma^us, the ma|[^cian and Bishop of 
EatisbonXthe most beautiful woman (a 
Countess of Dillingen), and the largest 
horse in the country ; and the por- 
traits of all three may still be seen on 
the walls of the HofUmrm, a tower 
180 ft high. The OOhie ParUk Ok, 
(1576), containing the mausoleum of 
the Dukes of the New Palatinate, 
deserves notice. A bronze statue of 
Alb. Magnus (1193-1280) was erected 
in the market-place in 1881. ^tween 
this and the nesct &tat is the Garolbien- 
Canal, upwards of a mile long, con- 
structed to avoid the windings of the 

Dillingen (5500), once famous for 
its Univerrity, abofidted in 1804. 

The most conspionous buildings are 

the Jestiits' College and the Epucopal 
Palace of the Bishop of Augsburp'. 

Hochstadt, where the French under 
Marshal Villars, aided by tiie Elector 
Max Emanuel of Bavaria, defbated 
the Austrians under Count Styrum in 
1703. Here also the Emp. Henry IV 

a victory over Guelph 1 

■ IV. I 
. of j 



Boute 69.— mm to Mumck 

Holy Gross, a vast and imposing 
Indldiiiff, is now the propei-tj of 
Prince Oettingen-Wallerstein. In the 

ch. is liTiricd tiie uufortunatc INTary of 
Brabaut, wifeof Duke Louis of Bavaria, 
beheaded (1256^ by her husband on a 
groundless suspicion of her fidelity. 
A crofls, erected in 1834, marlca the 
nte of her execndon. Above the stat. 
rises the Schellenberg, memorable for 
a daring and reckless achievement of 
Harlborough, who stormed aud carried 
entrencned tMm^ of the Bawiaaa 
constructed upon it, a few weeks 
before the battle of Blenheim. 

The Danube is now crossi d to 
Genderkingen, and the Lech, which 
flows in firom the S., to Baia^ beneath 
whose walls Tilly received his death- 
wound, while defending the passage 
of the liCch airainst the army of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus. He died at inirolstadt 
on April 23rd, 1632, in iiis 73rd year. 

VBterhansen. Between this and 

the adjacent Tillage of Oberhausen 
stands the monument of the brave 
Latour d'Auvergne, who, refusing any 
rank in the army, chose to remain the 
** first grenadier of France." He was 
lulled here by an Austrian lancer in 
1800. To the L, across the river, is 
seen among woods the eb&teau of 

Keuburg(8000), a very picturesquely 
sHoated town of great antiquity. 

The Chateau of the Dukes of 
Bavaria, of the line of Pfalz-Neuhurg, 
at the E. end of the town, now con- 
verted into barracks aud public otfices, 
< has a fine gateway and some richly 
j eanred ceilings. In the muimm of 
the Historical Society is some old 
tapestry, representing the journey of 
Otto Henry to the Holy Land. Tne 
Uofldrche preserves somu liaudsome 
vesCments, and the LOmwy in the 
Bathhausis worthafisit 
The Donaumoos, a' level moor of 
i about 20 sq. miles, partially drained 
for cultivation, aud occupied by 
eolonists brought hither from various 
parts of Bavana, Is traversed to 

Ingdlstadt Ceotral Stat., so called 
because it is the centre of the rly. 
system. The town, 2 m. distant, is 
reached by tramway. 

BOUTB 69. 


jVIiles. Stations. Roateti. 

% mm 11*12,17,24,75 

7 Kersingsii 

16 Gunzbnrg 

19 Neuoffiagen . . 68 

21 Offingen 

S6 Bugsn 

62 Oberhansin 

53 Augsburg • 6(»^67, 77 

66 Hoohzoll ... 77 

87 Pasing 

92 Xilnohen 

87, £5, 80, 61^ 7Q 

E. — Orient Exp., Paris to Vienna. 
The train fsrosms the Da^be to 
Nm-Uknt on .the Bawian bank, 
where the Undan ily. diverges it., 
and runs to 

Hersingen, near which, on the op- 
posite bonk, rises Ekhingm, fi^rmerfy 

a rich Benedictine monastety, and 
Napoleon's head-quarters in 1805. 
Marshal Ney obtained the title of 
Dake of Elchingen for im daring 
passage of the^rirer at this jioint. 

Leqiheini with its castle, in ancient 
times a sanctuary for those who had 
committed manslaughter. This place 
and the adjacent Fahlheim are famous 
for snails, which are bred, fattened, 
and exported in casks by millions, as 
a delicacy of the table. Here begins 
a flat peat-bog, called Ried, w£ich 
extends for 20 m. down the river. 

Giinzbai g (4000), at the condueoce 
of the Giioa uid Danabe. 

The pictnresone town, the Qtmlia 
of the Romans, nas numerous towers, 
and a Sihloss, built by Karl von Bur- 
gau, sou of Ferdinand of the Tyrol 
and Philippina Welser. On wooded 
hills to the rt are seen presently the 
castles of Beiaenhurg and Landettrost 
At Neuoffingen. tlic Danube is quitted. 
Near OfQngen tiie train crosses the 
Mindelf on which river lies 

Digitized by Google 


Baute 70. — Munich to Simbach. 

Sect, n 

BttrgHu (2200), a busy town, with 
ftik old castle. A dreary countiy Is 
trayersed to Oberliaiisen, and the 
Weria/ek is crossed to Augsburg. On 

leaving this city, the rly. crosses the 
Lech to Hociizoii, and traverses a deso- 
late moor, ascending gradually to 
Pasing, where it crosses the Wurm. 
Further on, the royal palace and park 
of Nymphenburg is seen on the L, and 
the Martfeldy or drilling ground, is 
skirted to Kunioli Central Stat. 

KOUTE 70. 


IfUCB. Stnttnns. Routes. 

Munich, Central 37, 55, 
60, 64, 69 

5 „ South 

6 East 
19 Schwab en ) 

0 ErdingJ 
47 Amphng 

52 Hiihldorf ... 73 
60 Neuotting 

68 Marktl 

76 SIMBAOS ... 66 

The shortest route to Vienna and 
the East, traversed by the Orient 


The rly. makes a wide sweep round 
the city of Munich, passing near the 
Colossus of Bavaria, to the Southern 
Ely. Stat. (Stldbahnhof), then cnwsing 
the Isaron two bridges* and reaching 

OstbaJinhn f, for the E. of the city. 

Schwahen. J)ranch rly. to (9 m. 
N.) JMinpr; diL thence to (11 m. 
K.W.) Freising. HehenUnden, a vil- 
lage some little distance to the S., is 
insignificant except for the battle 
fought here, Dec. 3, 1800, in which 
the French under Moreau completely 
defeated the Austrians under the 
Archduke John, and took 10,000 
prisoners and 100 cannon. The well- 
known lines of Campbell would lead 
one to suppose that the Isar was in 

sight, or at least near the field, where- 
as it is 20 m. distant. 
Ampfing, near which the Emp. 

Lewis the Bavarian vanquished and 
took prisoner his rival, Frederick the 
Handsome of Austria in 1322, The 
little church to the 1. was erected by 
the conqueror in gratitude for his 

Miihldorf (2700) li«8 bclow the 
level of the Inn, 

Neuotting Stat, 2 m. N. of the 
town. M. to (13 m. N.) Eggenfelden. 
A mile to the E. is Altdtting, a rnucb* 
frequontcfl place of pilgrimage, con- 
taining a miraculous l^lack Virgin, 
said to have been brought from the 
East in 696. During the Thirty 
Years' War it was removed for safety 
to Salzburg. The hearts of many 
princes of Bavaria are deposited in 
this sanctuary, and the names of the 
most distinguished pilgrims, from 
Charlemagne and Otto of Wittelsbach 
down to Pope Pius VL, are recorded 
on tablets pf brass. 

In the Parish Ch., surmounted by 
two spires. General Tilly, the fierce 
champion of the Roman Catholic 
cause during the Thirty Years' War, 
is buried. Its treasury cont^ns 
various relics and ecclesiastical curio- 
sities. The rly. tiow runs near the rt 
bank of the Inn, which it quits at 
^ Varlctii, and reaches the last Bava- 
rian Stat, at Simbadl, where luggage 
is examined before entering Austria. 

BOUTB 71. 


Miles. StAtiODS. Eoutes. 
Eof . • 6$, 58, 60 
8 Oherkoteau . 55^ 60 
8 Eehau 
21 Asch 
34 Franzensbad 
88 ^er 51, 63, 150, 159 

S.E. — On the rt., near JRehau, rises 
the OroBse Romberg (hue ♦view). 

Digifizeo Ly v^oo^Ie 


The Bohemian Custom-house is at 
Asch (13,500), a manufactnringtowii, 
2 m. N. of the stat., and reached by a 
branch rly., which ffoes ou to {9 m.) 
Roa O mcih netr Bid Elster (tee below). 
Hie Hai2ibei|p,ab<yTe Aieh, oonmiaiids 

Franzonsbad (2000% in T^ohemia, 
situated on a dreary upland slope 
ftcing the S.« among low, romia* 
iMbeked hills, has been created by its 
mineral-sprinp-«;. It consists of n few 
Tectaiijriilar streets, the chief of which, 
the Kaiserstrasse, is lined with avenues 
of cfaeatnat-trees. Franzensbad is less 
fireqoented and lively than Cbriabad 
and TepUts; but aboot 10/XM>palieiite 
irisit it in the season. 

The Wiesenqnclle contains much 
carbonate of iron^ and is largely^ 
diarged irith earbooie add gas. It w 
cffica<uoas in curing female eompUdbiti. 

An irregular Temple is ««cted oyer 
the Franzensquelle, an alkalo-saline 
chalybeate water, with a h ng colon- 
nade, extending to the KurhaWf in 
vbieh ^ Tisitofs assemUe in tiie 
inofming, and balls and eoneerts are 

given darin? the season. 

There is raui:;ic every moruiag in 
front of the well. In the Park is a 
bronze statue of Francis I., founder of 
die baths, designed by MmmCMisr. 

Mud-haths. — Franzensbad lies in 
the midst of n drained peat-bog nearly 
2 m. lortg, and in some places 10 ft. 
thick J composed of decayed vegetable 
matter, inefading trunks of trSes, in- 
termixed with black earth* teeming 
with gas. The black peat-earth is 
carefiiUy sifted, and dissolved in tabs, 
T^y the admixture of water from the 
mineral springs, to the consistence of 
mud. The mixtme, black ss ink, is 
heated, by oansing sleam to pass 
through it, to a temperature of about 
80 ' Falirenheit, in which state the 
patient is immersed in it. These mud- 
baths are a powerful remedy in certain 
eases of paralysis, &e» 

■} hr. S. rises the Zammerbilhel 
(1640 ft.), an exTiriCt volcaiu) eoiisist* 
ing of a conical iieap of scoriu: with 

basslt in cotnnms^ thrown up from 


beneath the ini<ii»elale, The geolo* 

gical phenomeoa conn^tcfl with it 
have been described by Goethe. It 
commands a fine view, but a still 
finer may be obtained firom the ehapel 
of St. Anne, on the hill of Griinberg 
(1970 ft.). The old C€utU$ of Seeberg 
and Liehejistein. \^ hr. and 2 hrs. 
N.VV.. are intei-rsiinu- in themselves, 
and the uarruw vaUe^s liiey com- 
mand very pictvrssqiie^ 

From Eger, a rly. nms N. to 
(20 ni.) Bad Elster in Saxony, a 
watering-place known in the 14th 
cent., and now much frequented. 
The Balhs, ehiefly alkaline and saline* 
lie 2 nu W. of the stat. There are 
also 14 cells in peat<batha. 

BOUTB 72. 
imnarHARKT to wsidbv* bt 

Xenenmarkt • • 55 
8 Trebgast 

13 Bayreuth ... 58 

25 Kirchenlaibach . 51 
M Xemnath-Keustadt 

49 VeUen ... 54 

S.E. — The rly. at first runs due S. 
along the valley of the liotiie Main, 

entering a deffle at ^Ve^osl The 

country becomes open on approaching 
Bayreuth, and the large Wagner 
Theatre and Lunatic Asylum are seen 
on the rt. Ikyond the stat. and suburb 
of S. Georgen the Eremitage is passed 
on tiie L, and at Kmnnm Neuriadip 
the enrious peak of the Kanha Knlm 

rises on the rt. The country now 
beeoiiies more wooded and hilly, and 
the rly. travei-ses pine-WOods nea**' 

an the way hence to WMmu 

Boute 72. — Neimmarkt to Weidm. 

Digitized by Google 


EOUTB 7a. 





Boseahiim S7SlS71»S7S 









MiiMdorf • • 

• 70 




Nemnarkt • • 







PUstiBg . • 

• 74 


Landau • • • 

. 74 


Flatting . « 

. 45 












*£lSSV8T£Zir • 

• 156 

jEtovto 78«— BMsnftetin to JBUemtein. Sect U 

before reaching Zsailniiyi wliera tbe 

forest is quitted. 

Neam&rkt, ou the Mott, has two 
late Gothic chorehea. 

The riy. now runs among hills, and 
ascends to Trennbachf descending 
thence through the Vihthal to 
Frontenhaosen, nearly 2 miles from 
the village, which lies on the 1^ and 
has a late Golhie ehueh. The Vila 
la now crossed, aad a lofty viaduct 
over the Seegraben conducts the rly. 
to the watershed between the Vils and 
the Isar. Crossing the latter stream 
we reach PiliUng. 

landau (3200), with large breweries, 
on the rt. bank of the Isar. Beyond 
Platting, after passing on the 1. the 
ruined castle of Natteriilbtrg, we cross 
flie Dannlie on an iron bridge, \ bol 

lODgy to 

Deggendorf (1055 ft.), a prettily 
situated town of 6200 inhab., and the 
seat of a great trade in timber cut in 
theBaierischwald. Its church possesses 
auraeiikma valbn, wlddi iroie atoleo, 
aceoidiiig to a tradition common in 
many parts of Europe, by the Jews, 
and treated by them with sacrilegious 
indignity. The story is represented 
in a series of 24 paintings on the 
walla of Uie ch. Fine view from the 
Getersberg^ j[ hr. to the N.W. Pleasant 
walk to (9 m. N.) Busel (2555 ft), 
and thence to the hr.) *Uauwtein 
(2675 ft.), overlooking the valley of 
the Danube; 

Dil. to (3 m. W.) Xetten. irhere 
there is a Benedictine Abbey founded 
by Charlemagne in 792. 2 m. further 
N. is the castle of Egg, an almost 
unaltered feudal stronghold, well- 

The rly. beyond Deggendorf enters 
the ^Bavarian Forest, and is admirably 
engineered. It ascends for about 
4 m., crosses the valley, and turns 
back nearly due S. in an abrupt 
cunre to 

Vlriehaberg (l8S6 fu\ Fine views 

are gained on the ascent, and two long 
tunnels are passed l)efore reaching 

Gotteszell (1905 ft.), with the ruins 
ofaQsterdanabboy,* flLW.xiaeathe 
* mnekmMn (8585 ft), to which an 

Digitized by GoogU 

N.E.— Soon after leaving Boten* 

heim this rly. quits the Mumehline, 

and turns N. to Bott, with an old 
Benedictine abbey, to the I. A lofty 
embankment crosses the valley of the 

Wasserburg (3700), a small and 
ancient town, picturesquely situated 
in a dell, nearly surrounded by the 
river Inn, which bends round it in 
the Ibrm of a hone-shoeu It lies 8 sl 
£. of the Stat., and is not seen from 
the rly. on the rt. Most of the houses 
are constructed on arches, and the 
most conspicuous and elevated editice 
is the castle built by the counts of 

The train skirts a small lake^ and 
soon afterwards crosses the Inn over a 
lofty viaduct and descends its rt. bank 
Ofliay with a monastery ou the 1. 
% bejofid whioh Uea the Conrent 
ill, TThe rlTcr la a0iSn CRMied, 


Bcwle 76» — 277m io Kempten, 


liOUTE 74, 

uludau to landshut. 

IfUM. Stationi. Itontes. 
Landau • • • . 73 
2 Pilsting. ... 73 
10 Dingolfing 
n landdiiift ) . 00 
M Veunarkt) 7a, 76 

S.W. — The rly. ascends the 1. bank 
of the Isar. IHiigdfliigt an ancient 

town, lies on the rt bank. From 
Lanclshnt a rly. crosses ihr Isar, and 
ruus to Keamarkt-an-der-Bott. 

easy path ascends. The train now 
turns N.E., and soon descends to 

Eegeii (1760 ft.). Dil. to (8 m. 
N.W.)Sdd»»mai« (see below). Above 
Begen, to the rises Wetstenatein 
am PfiM, n ruined castle on a rock of 
qoartz, a broad vein of which, mixed 
with hornblende, runii liiruugiiout the 
forest The rly. creeses the Begen 
stream three times, and ascends to 

Zwiesel (1840 ft.), at the confltiouce 
.of the Kleine and Grosse Kegen, and a 
good centr« for excursions. Fine view 
from the Zwieselberg (2250 ft.) i hr. S. 
Carriage rood to (6 m. E.) Ober- 
jFVatiauiK, whence it 2 hrs. on foot to 
the summit of the ♦Eachel (4 7!>5 ft.) 
Below, to the S.E., lus the limheUeCy 
a mountain tarn, one of the sources 
of the Ik. 3 m. fhrther E. rises the 
Lnsen (4510 ft), 2 hrs. S. of which 
lies the village of St. Otwald (2nno ft ). 
4 m. further S. is the little town of 
Grafenau, whence a dil. runs to (27 m. 
6.E.) F<mauy or by Frauenau to ( 1 8 m. 
N.W.) ZwieuiL 

9 m. W. of Zwiesel lies Bodenmals 
(2 •2^:') ft ), reached by a good road. 
Thence the *Arber (4 785 ft.) may be 
ascended in 2 hrs. The descent ma^ 
be made on the N.W. by Sommerau to 
(2 hrs.) LMergf where is an interest- 
ing Romanesque church. 2 m. W. is 
Lam, whence dil. to (15 m. W.) 

A path, easily found, leads E. from 
Lohberg over the frontier Col between 
the Bavarian and Bohemian Osser, and 
descends to Eisenstein, in about 5 hrs. 

Leaving Zwiesel, the rly. crosses 
the Regen and the Kolbersbacb, and 
ascends the 1. bank of the former 
stream, pMsing numerous glass works, 

Eisenstein (22G0 ft.), the Bohemian 
Cubiom-house, a quaint and primitive 
little town in a highly picturesque 
situation. The Qroue Arher rises 
finely to the W. Charming walks^and 
easy ascents in the neighbourhood. 

ROUTE 76. 


Mil«8. Stations. Routes. 
Ulm 11, 12, 17,24, 69 
2 Neu-Vlm 
8 Sendin \ 
6 Weissenhm) 
16 Illertissen 
19 Altenstadt 
23 £ellmunz 

28 KflnuningwL • . 78 
68 Kempten^. • . 69 

S.S.E. — Crossing the Danube to 
Neu-TJlm, this rly. turns S. to Senden, 
where a branch une leads E. to (5 m.) 

Weimi^m. On the rt., across the 
river, is Ober-Kirchherg, a chateau of 
Prince Fugger. The rly. follows the 
lUcr to Illertissen, where is a castle 
standing on Roman foundations. Near 
Altenstadt is the large ^ftteau of 

Digitized by Google 


Route 7(5. — Neumarlct to Pocking, 

Sect. XL 

Kfmmingen (8400), nntil 1802 a 
free city of the Empire, has ancient 
walls, and a large liop-trade. In the 
church are gome Gothic * Choir stcdUy 
noblj eurvedf and attribatod to Jorg 
Syrlin. The mam line from Munich 
is joined Jmt before neacbiiig 

BOUTB 76. 


MUe«. SUtioim. fioutes. 

Veumarkt • 78» 74 

12 Eggenfdlden 

22 PfarrkircheE 
31 Bayerbacll 
40 Pocking 

E. — This branch rly. followg the 1. 
bank of the Kott, and crosses it at 
Pfankirchen. From Pocking a tor- 
tuous line, with general dirtcliuu Js., 
wUt ran to PMsas. 

From Eggc nf Iden there If a dll. to 
(13 nu S.) Dteuolting (70> 

ROUTE 77, 


Milts. StRtiort". Routefl. 
Augsburg . 65, 67, 69 
t XMtaU ... 69 
5 Friedbeig 

16 Aichach 

25 Schrobenhatuieii 

MtlM. stations. RODtM. 
58 Keustadt 
62 Abensberg 
07 Tlialdoff 7 : 

3 XelMflit 
71 Saal 
74 Abbach 
76 Oundelshatuen 
83 Sinzing 

f5 Mtaiing ... 45 
87 BagaBibng • dl^eo 

N.E. — The line runs due E. as far 
as Hochzoll, when it turns 1. to Fried- 
bergi an old town on the Aeh, with a 
mooera ohnreli oontidiung freseoea hj 
Wagner, Thence to Alcbach, ntar 
which on the rt. is the minedlcastle of 
Wittelsbach, the cradle of the reijrn- 
ing Ijonse of Bavaria. Its fomukT, 
Otto, was laid under the ban uf the 
Empire for the maider of the Emp. 
Philip hi 1198 : lua pOMessions seized, 
and his cnptle destroyed \n 1209. All 
obelisk was set up here in 1832. 

Schrobenbausen on the Paar, with 
a 15th cent brick churcb. 

Iiig<Madl Centra] Stat, 9 an. tnm 

the town. 

Vohbnrg stands on the she of the 
"Roman Germauicum j its castle, the 
seat of a long line of counts, was 
the asylum of the unfortunate Agnes 
Bemauer, whoee story is told at Strau- 
bing. S^he was here privately married 
to ;^lbert Duke of Bavaria, 

Mttnchmiinstery vhere was a iiene- 
dictine abbey. 

Vanatadwiii-fZer-DbiMNi; FootpatK 
to (6 m.) Eining, through the Tillage 
of Gifgging, with a" sidphnr spring. 
The church has a fine 19th cent. 


Abeufiberg, ou the Abensduss, with 
an old eawie and a ehnrch worth 

notice. S. of it are the pilgrimage 
ch. of ^/<er8(7or/ and the abbey church 
of Bf'hurg (1150). Near Eiuing on the 
Danube, 5 m. N., are the remains of 
the *Boman canm of Abnsina, ex- 
cavated in 1879. They consist chiefly 
of Baths, but a small eoUeetion of ue 
objects discovered here may be ?ftni 
in the village ; the rest hare bom 
reiuuved to the museum of Laud&hut. 
On the opposite hank Ilea J7MMr» 

Digitized by Google. 



whence a bont (5 marks) may be takeu 
I down the river to (5 m.) Kelheim 
(see below). Beiow Hienheim begins 
the celebrated rampart called the 
JkviT* WaU (Teulelniiaiier, or Pfobl- 
gmbeiiX constructed by the Emperor 
rrob!i^, A T). 277. "Instead of re- 
ducing thi \\ nrlike natives of Gennany 
to the condition of subjects, Probus 
oontented himself mth the hnmble 
expedient of raising a bulwark against 
their inroads. The country which now 
forms the circle of Swabia had heer\ 
I left de«;ert in the age of Augustus by 
tiie tnunratiun of us aucient iuhabit- 

antflL The fMlity of the soil soon at- 
tracted a new ooloay ftom the adjacent 

provinces of Gaul. To protect thf^so 
! new subjects a line of frontier garri- 
■ sons was gradually extended from 
the Rhine to the Danube. About the 
I reign of Hadrian, wben that mode of 
defence b^n to be practised, these 
garrisons M ere connected and covered 
j by a strong entrenchment of trees and 
palisades. In the place of so rude a 
buliraife the ^peior Probw om- 
stmcted a stone vail of considefable 
height, and strengthened it by towers 
' at convenient distances. From the 
neiphbonrhood of Neustadt and Ra- 
tisbou on the Danube, it stretched 
across hills, Tallcys, riyeis* and 
morasses, as far as Wimpfen on the 
Keckar, aud at length terminated on 
the banks of the Rhine, after a 
winding course of near 200 miles." — 
Gibbon, * Dec and Fall,' Ch. XIL N. 
of menheim, the HienheivMr WM 
occupies the delta of the Altmtihl 
and Danube. A pleasant walk leads 
through it to (3 hrs.) Biedcnburg^ ou 
the Altmlihl. 

Thaldoit 8 m. W. lies WeUmUmrg 
(see below). 

Saal. Branch rly. 3 m. W.) to 
Kelheim (3000). (Celeusum of the 
Bomans), with well-preserved walls 
and; gates at the E. extremity of a 
defile, on the spot where the AUmiihl 
joins the Danube. The AUmiihl has 
been rendered navigable as far as 
Dietfurth, where the Ludwigs-Oaiial 
begins, and if continned as fbr as 


Bamberg on the Main, a distance of 
about 107 m. The summit level is 
near Neumarkt on the Sul^, where the 
canal is 300 ft. above the level of the 
Dannbe at Kelheim, and 360 It above 
that of the Ilegnitz at Bamberg. It 
has 100 locks. The dimensions of 
the canal are 54 ft. in width at top, 
and 34 ft. at bottom; the estimated 
cost, 817,5002. A barge may be tracked 
through it in 6 or 7 days. It was 
begun in 1837 at the instigation of 
Kiii^ Lewis of liavaria, who thus 
realised, after the lapse of 1000 years, 
the iavourite scheme of Charlemagne, 
of connecting the Black Sea with the 
German Ocean. As a commercial 
speculation it has proved a failure. 
The Gothic church of Kelheim (1468) 
has been restored, and decorated bv 
modern artists. On an altar to the 1. 
isaPieUby VeUSUw. 

The Xichaelsberg, betvien the 
Danube and the Altmiihl, commands 
a noble view up the gorge of the 
Danabe. Its simimit has been made 
acceadble by a carriage^rood, partly 
cut in the rock, leading up to the 
*Befreinng8halle. or Hall of Libera- 
tion, a rotunda tciuiik' bcgun(1842) by 
I^wis King ui liavaria from Giirtner s 
design, to commemorate the war 
against Napoleon I. It was inaugu- 
rated in 1863, and is 204 ft. hi-h. It 
includes a circular, domed hail, round 
which are ranged statues in Carrara 
marble after Schwanthaler, with 
bnmae shields made oat of French 
cannon, and bearing names of different 
victories gained by the Germans, with 
the names of their leaders. The 
walls inside are lined with marble, 
the roof supported on pillars of granite. 
The echo is remarkable. Adm, daily 
8-12 and 2-6 ; small flee* 

Pleasant excursion up the 1. hank 
of the picturesque ^Alimuhlthal to 
(11 m,)BiedmUmrg (carriage 6 marks; 
with 2 horses, 9 marks) The road 
leads by (3 m.) Olu rau (^Schulh rloch 
cavern ou the rt.) ; (f) m.) Neu-JiJmingf 
with the ruin of JUandeGk; (8 ui.) 
JTwisftauMfi, above which, perched on 
a rook, rises Pnum (ftotpath her^~ * 

Boute 7 7, — Saal — Michadsherg. 

Digitized by Google 


EaiUe ISr^uehke io Memmingm. 


to Eiedeuburgi passing tlie Klairm, 
a striking point of Tiew); (11 m.) 
Xiftdenburg, with three casUes, at the 

mouth 'of the pretty SchamhachtJmh 
The pedestrian may hnd an agreeable 
road aloug the rt. bank. 

The *y alley of the Banabe above 

Kelheim is highly picturesque, and 
the banks so precipitous on both sides 
that the scenery cau only be enjoyed 
in a boat. The train may be taken to 
(7 m.) Thdldorf, whence it ii 3 nu to 
the abbej of 

Weltenbiirg, planted on a spot 
where the Danube mak^ an abrupt 
bend. It was one of tbe oldest Bene- 
dictine monasteries in Bavaria, and is 
said to occupy the site of a Roman 
station, Valentia^ and of a temple of 

Boat to Traunthal (2 marks), an 
old monastery prettily situated on the 
1. bank, whence a path through woods 
leads to (20 miu.) Uie Befreiungslialle ; 
or to Kelheim direct, 3 marks. From 
Weltenburg (ferrv across tlie river) 
the BefreiungsbaU may be reached in 
an hoar. On tlie ridge between the 
Danube a n rl Alt 1 1 1 ii h I are' the remains 
of three Boman walls. 

Beyond Saal the rly. skirts the 
Teufehfelsen, and crosses the Danube 

Abbach, with a sulphureous spring. 
The tall round Hungerthurm li all 
that remains of the Heinrichshurg, 
which occupied probably the site of 
the Boman AMUaam; it was long 
the reddence of the Bavarian dnkes, 
and was the birthplace of the Emperor 
Henry n. (the Saint), in 972. When 
he kept his court here, the chronicles 
record that he made a daily pilgrimage 
on foot to early mass at St. Bmmeran*s 
eh. in Katisbon. The Danube makes 
a great bend between Abbach nnd 
Katisbon, so as to double the direct 
distance between the two places. 


Chmdelshansen. On the opposite 
bank lies Obemdorf, where Otto of 

Wittclsbacli, the murderer of the 
Emperor Philip, was overtaken hj 
Heinrich Celantin t« Pappenheim, 
and kUled (1208). 

Sinzinff. Branch rly. W. to (4 m,) 
AlUng. Here the river Laber fiills 
into the Danube. Near Pru/ening, 
which has a second stat. on the line 

to Nuremberg (45), tli<' Nab, -i mnch 
more consitlerable strcuiii, enters it. 
Here a long bridge crosses the Danube 

to Batisbon (liegensbnrg). 

BOUTE 78. 


Miles* Statitm. 


am Eouiea. 

• 6^65 

• . id 

W. — ^Beyond WtedergeUingen the 
rly. crosses the Wertach. Wlldslhaim 
(3350) was the capital of a principality 
created by the Emp. Joseph I., in 
order that he might bestow it upon 
the Duke of Marlborough, as a reward 
for his victory of Blenheim. The 
possession of Mindelheim gave the 
Dnke a seat in the Diet ; but it proved 
an empty honour, for the principality 
was resumed by the Elector of Bavaria 
at the peace of iiastadt (7 Sept. 1714), 
and no redress or eq^uivalent iras aver 
given by the emperor to the hero who 
had saved his thrones. The brave 
soldier of fortune, Georir von Frunds- 
hei g, who scaled the walls of Home 
along Willi tlie Constable de Bourbon, 
was bom here, and is bnried in tha 
Parish Church. He served under 
Maximilian and Charles V. 

Digitized by Google 

C 1*3 ) 





CWom-AMMftj— [Jfoney* — Matiwa^ — Sikmgen, Separat-JEilwagen— Posthi^^ 
LaufzeUeL—Autlrim Police.— Aualrimt ^ JUk9bUmd$ and SHrnery ; Objeci$ 
aiMtm$t,-^Tour of Salzburg.- Salt^imf^^M^Warhfr-CariiUhia oni 



85. Salzburg to ViennOjkjliiUI 154 

8G. Simbach to Wels .... 192 

87. Wels to Ascbach .... 192 

88. liastoMieheldorf • • . 192 
88. lias to QuiiNick-Wart> 

berg 193 

90. Wcseley to St. Valentin, by 

Budweis and Gaisbach- 

Wartberg. ..... 193 

91. Braimaa to Stemdorf. . • 194 

92. Vienna to St. Polten. . . 194 

93. St. Polten to Tulln . . .195 

94. Vienna to Kreiuft, by £L06« 

temeuburg . • • • . 195 

95. Yleniui to Mannerwlorf . , 198 

96. Vienna to Neiista4t» 1^ 

Pottendorf 198 

97. Anistetten to Klein-Kcitiing 199 

98. Leobeibdorf to St, Piilten . 199 

99. Scheibmiibl to Scbrambach 199 


100» Poehlarn 

to lUenberg^ 


101. Vienna to Murzzuschlag, 
byNenstadt, * . « . 

108. Vienna to IdUBuHmrfk ^7 


103. Vienna to Oratii by the 

Semmering 206 

104. Gratz to Txieste, by Mar- 

burg, <K]Ii, laflMMh, and 

105. Vienna to Aspang, by Sol- 

leuau and Neustadt . . 

106. Trieste to Venice, by Mon- 

fiU/tOM^ Qoriida, and 

TTdiaa . 

lu7. St. Peter to Fiume . . . 

108. Passau to Neumarkt . . . 

109. Passau to Vicuna, by the 

Danube 225 




A black and yellow stripe, the colours of Austria^on the toll-bar and custom- 
house door, and the double-headed black eagle with outspread ivings bearing 
two crowns and sceptres, mark the ihmtier of the Imperial and ]£>yal (Kai- 
ierlich-Koniglicb) dominions. The traveller, on arriving at an Austrian 

custom-houSe, is addressed with p^reat civility, and requo«;tcd to declare if }\<^ 
has any contraband articles. Those cxpiessly forbidden, and not aduiiUed 
even on payment of duty, are playiui^-cards, almanacs, tobacco, snutts, cigars, 
and soakd letters. If the stranger anaweia iu the negative* the examinatioii of 
baggage ta very slight, and be will be (mtiject to no &rther trouble, unless 
there be reasonable cause for suspicion of smuggling. Travellers in private 
carriages are (with few exceptions) dismissed exempt from any search; in all 
cases the custom-house proceedings are conducted with courtesy and polittness. 

t German, OetUrrei 
RaJcamka; Valathaad 

tUe Eagi KJogdom); Magyar, Os»irdk'orszag ; Bobemian, 


144 Aiutrim Hbney — MM Ooaelm, Seoi. Ill* 

Traveliiug carriages, wearing apparel, and trinkets or jewels for personal use, 
pay no diit^. 

The strictest preotmUom are nged to prevent the introduction of lotoooo, M 

it is an ImperiaT monopoly. A small quantity oi it, or of pmt f^ eigarSj or teOy 
under 5 ibs., mav be passed oa paying du^ ; but it must be declaied at once, 
or it will be for&ited« 

Austrian Mo^tY. 

The Austrian silver florin of 100 kreuzers is nominally worth about 2». 
English, but the paper currency reduces its valtie, which flnctfiatcs irom time 
to time. The silver currency of the Empire is known as Conventions-Munzc 
(convention coin) ; the paper evrrency is denomiiiated OeBtreiohisohe Wahrung 
(O. W.) (Austrian standard of <v«ine). The paper florin is the noognised 
circulating medium. Gold pieces of 10 florins or 20 francs exist, Imt nro 
chiefly current in France or Italy, where thoy pass as Napoleons. 

For the comparative values of the Austrian coiuagu with England and 
other countries, see the Mauty Table in tbc Itiiraductory Information to South 

The traveller is advised to enlmnge his gold into banknotes of the 

Austrian Wahrmirj, takin^i: care previously to note the actual rate of exchange 
in one of the Austrian daily pajHjrs. The K. K. Natioruil Bank issues notes of 
1, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 1000 fL The most convenient are the 5 fl. and lu 11. 
notes. The traveler will receive in paper from ISO to \» Ikirins a £10 
Circular Note^ according to the rate of exchange. 

The silver coins consist of florins, ^ flonnSi and pieces at 90 and 10 
kreuzers, the metal hein^ largely alloyed. 

The C02;>per coins consist of 4 and 1 kr. pieces, e<|ual to id, and ^ 


The extension of the sj'stem of late years has been very rapid, and the 
traveller may now penetrate into the most attractive portions of the country 
without difficulty. The lines over the Breuner and the Semmering are 
remirtsMe alilie for the mgineering sldll in thilr coii8lnietaon,nnd die beantj 
of the scenery traversed ; and the connecting links between these two lines 
open up some of the finest scenery in Europe. The last carriage of express 
trains on the mountain lines is fitted with glazed sides and morable seats like 
an American car, for the convenience of flrst> class passengers who wish to 
enjoy an uninterrupted view of the country. 

Separate eompartBwnts are reserred Unr ladies, and smokers and non- 
smokers are placed in separate carriages. On the Government lines 55 lbs. of 
ln^<m^e is allowed free. Befireshments are to be had at ewerj sta^on of 

EiLWACEN, OR Mail Coaches. — Sei arat-Eilwaqen. 

In Austria, as in the German Empire, the Coach-office and Post-office ate 
managed by the Government, and are generally under the same roof. 

The public conveyances are, as a rule, unsuited to ladies, owing to the 
crowding, the incessant smoking, and the often dirty company. 

Upon all ilie principal post>ro«ds on which an ESlwagen trmirels, m par^ 
amounting to 4 persons, on agreeing to pay the full fare, mav engage an 
Eilwagen to themselves, even on days when the regular Eilwa^en does 
not go at all: this is called a Se}xirat-Wagen. 1 he expense is aliout 4 kr. 
per m., which is more than the fiire by the ordiuai*y Eilwagen, but much 
less for 4 persons than posting, while it possesses niost of the adfantages of 

Digitized by Google 



that mode of travdUiig. In order to obtain such a conveyance, it is necessary 
to wpfij at the oiftoo ilio day belbra it is mmtcdv aad to pay the wholo ftni 

Einspanmr. — In Salzburg aud Tyrol the postmasters will readily furnish a 
One-horse ciiaUe to 1 or 2 persons, having a small quautity of baggage, at the 
nte per post of 1 H the hone^ 15 kr. the open carriage, or 31 hn a eowed 
oarriage, and 15 kr. tbo potlilfion. It may M oateolated at ooetiDg aibont 4d, 

per EDglish mile. 

The A^tf^frinn'pmt contains 2 Austrinn m. (= 151 72*9 metres or 8000 Klaf- 
tern) or 4 Stunden or hrs. ; it is equal to nearly (9'42) Eng. ra. The 
aireiage rate of trayelling is a ^si in 1 hr. 30 min. The roads are better and 
tiie e^ed greater tltta in Bawia. 

Laufte&L^la some towDs of Aoatria* and indeed throughout the State* 
of Germany, N. and S., a traveller may bespeak horses in all the large towns, 
to be in readiness for him at erory stage along his whole route, as far ns the 
frontier. To make such an arraugement, it is only necessary for him to apply 
to the Ezlrapoet OiBee from 12 to 94 hn, befiire the time of etvting, to etate 
in writing when he intends to set out, and what route he propoeee to Mlow. 
This order is called a Laufzettel (literally, current tickets. The previous notice 
is required in order to prepare the postmastere along the line. The traveller 
who fwails hiniscli of the LaufVettel may stop to sleep or dine, or for nny other 
purpose, and may order beds and dinner fur a certain number of persons; but 
most specify vbat delays he intends to mako, and at wliat hoar he purposes to 
arrive at, imd to set ont from, each station, when he applies for it» If the 
traveller be not panetoal, the horses are not kepi in readiness longer than 
6 hrs. at any station. 

A Laufzettel cau be obtained at most prjst-offices. It will abridge the time 
lost in changing from 20 to 25 min. Its utility is especially felt on roads of 
sseondary importsnee, where no more than 6 hones are nsaallj h»t at a 
post-house. It Is an inestimable comlbrt» for» by specifying in h the piaeea at 
which you menn to sleep, and the aooommodation which you reqture, you 
find the fioo I people ott the watch for yoo, and thus half the fttigne of 
travelling is avoided. 

The Ausibiam Poucb. 

To the English tiwreller 6ie police regulations are not more oppressive than 
In other continental countries, and the officers hy whom they are administered 
are usually distingnished for the ciTili^ and politeness with which they treat 


The careful watch which is kept over the public health is deserving of notiee. 
The large towns are divided into districts, each of which is placed under the 
care of able medical men, who are paid for attending npon me poor, and are 
bound to administer to their wants; notice must be sent to them of eTery death 
which takes place, and no interment can be p( i formfti nnti! th( v have examined 
the body. Careful superintendence is exercised over the markets, to prevent 
the sale of unwholesome food. Vendors of drugs are prohibited by the severest 
penalties from dispensing any of a poisonons natnre witimnt a wntten order of 
a known phyaidan, 

AmnniA, m ImuBiTAm, aio» BsAinm oi m Scbnbbt. 

Education is more widely extended in Austria among the common people 
than in any other country of Europe except i'russia j and this entirely by 
S» Germ* ' * ' Ii 

Digitized by Google 


Sect. in. 

Government itself, for the Austrian rulers turned their attention to this sub- 
ject earlier than those of most other countries, and have been ceaselessly 
employed for the last century in establishing schools throughout their 
dominions. The immber of persons who can rSbd, vrite, and onderBtaiid the 
elements of arithmetic, is beyond companson greater in the hereditary states 
of Austria than in England or in France. 

lu Austria proper every child must go to «;chool for a oertain number of 
years; eveu poverty is no excuse, since Buiiooisi are provided in every parish 
with sucii endowments as to enable those who cannot pay the very small sum 
repaired, to oMain gratuitoos instraetion. No person can marry, or set up in 
any tvade» iritliont prodn^g a writtea certificate of attendance at school. 
Numerous normal or pattern school?;, in different parts of the country, furnish 
a supply of teachers; that of Vienna alone sends out between and 1700 
annually. The schools are so arranged that a child can pursue that course of 
tn^^g wMA will best fit him for Us Ihtife eafMr, and ftnun Hie primary 
schools he goes either to the Grymnwdnm and Univenity, or to the pmetieal 
schools and the Polytechnic, according to his bent. 

Among the highland peasantry of Austria, Tyro!, Styria, &c., the stranger, 
provided he understand the language, and will mix with them on friendly and 
lamiiiar terms, meets with a kiudness and simplicity of manners which leave a 
most fivmmble impression behind, TlMir loyalty and demotion to their sove* 
xeign, their strong religioo ft^n^ and their total freedom from discontent 
and murmurin^r- their dances andmerrymakin?r?, their substaTitinl houses, their 
well-supplied boards, their good clothes, and liap{)y faces, contrast most agree- 
ably with the condition of the peasantry in many other parts of Europe. The 
oldrlkshioned potiteness whieh prevaife among this simple bnt Idndhearted 
people is particularly agreeable. 

Nearly one-fourth of the surface of the Austrian dominions is occupied hy 
the Alps, and their wide-spreading ramifications, commencing on the W. at 
the frontier of Switzerland with the Khastian range, and extending through 
the Noric, Salzburg. Carnic, Styrian, and Jnlian chains, £. into Hungary and 
SUvoniay and & into Dalmatia and tlie Littoraie. Sir Hnmphry Davy 
declared that he knew no country to be compared in heaaty of scenery with 
these Austrian Highlands. "The variety of the scenery, the verdure of the 
meadows and trees, the depths of the valleys and the altitudes of the moun- 
tains, the ell aruess and grandeur of the rivers and lakes, give it, I think, a 
decided superiority over Switzerhmd." It is hardly possible to speak without 
enthusiasm (^f the OBchanting scenery of Salzburg and its neighbourhood ; of 
the lake of Kimigssee, the pass of Lueg, the secluded baths of Gastein, and the 
glaciers and pyramidal peak of the Orossglockner. The vale of the Danube^ 
from the point where it enters Austria, below Passau, to Vienna, is little 
inferior to the finest parts of the Rhine. A little to the E. of Salzburg, 
between it and Vienna^ is the Sahkaamargut, one of the most enchanting 
districts of lake and mountain in Europe, aiid hardly snipassed by anything in 

ReichenhalL | Seissenberffer Klamm. I Wimbachklamm* 



Seissenberger Klamm. 




Bad Gastein„ 

Digitized by Google 

Introd. A Farinight'a and a Week's Tour, 147 

A Vwmamfs Tcub thboooh Balskajbo and thb 8AfiHAmictoi6PT. ' ' 

Days, Startimj frrmi 

1 8alzbarg by St.Wolfgang to Ischl. 
9 Ischl by €mifliid«ii and bade 
3 TlsH Wifm Stnib»aMeiid Bchaf- 


l)ay>!. Starting from ■ ■ • 

1 Linz, Trauufall, Gmiindcn. 
* 9 I«eh!, aseent of Sdttfbere. 
8 yiait WirenStmbBiidSt. Wbt^ 

^ 1 1 ^ ^ 

4 Aussee — Visit Alt-Aussee. 

5 Aossee-^'Gniiideltee, Teplitxsee, Kaunn c me e ^ 
C HaOslstt, fltnib Waterflul. 

7 By Qoflanxwang to Gosau, Vordersee, Hintersee, and baek to €Kwii, CBf 

should Hinter-See not be visited, on to Abtenau. 

8 Abteuau, GolUng, Yi^it the Oefeo, and by the beautiful pass of Lueg to 


9 To Gwteiii by pa» of l|ie KUmim. 

10 Visit Nassfeld. 

1 1 Back to Hallein. 

12 Visit Salt-mines, Uerchtesgaden. 

13 Konigssee. Obersee. By Reichenhall to Munich, Innsbruck, or 


^ Guide required. 

Ischl, UaIim 
Alt-Aussee, / *™* 
Aussee, I hr. 
Ober-TVnm, 2^ hrt. 
♦Hallatett, ? | hr. 
Hintersee, ( * 6} Jof. 

*Gosau, ) d| hrs. 
Zwiselberg, >*2^ hrs. 


* Sleeping-placec* 

♦GoUing, 3 hrgt • 
Konigssee, 2 hrs. 
*BerehteMideD, } hr. 

[via IKIimiberg.] 
Halleiu Salt^mioe, 9 m. 
Uallein, J hr. 
♦Salzburg, j 

St. Gilgeu, >Diligeiice in 10 hrs. 

The iralleys of fl^rol abound in interest, and all that is worth notice in 
them is mentioned in detail in the description of that country. Vicntvt, the 
Imperial capital, is one of the most gay but at the same time most agreeable 
places of residence on the Continent \ whether the sojourner devote himself 
to pleasure, teienoe, GiteriitiMre> or art It yields to fbw cities hi arehitectural 
spundovr and in the charms of its environs. Styria and Carinth ia are bat fi 
continuation of the romantic scenery of Austria and Tyrol ; and their moun- 
tains enclose, besides, inexhaustible mineral treasures of lead and iron. The 
valleys of the Mur, the Euns, the Drave, and Save, especially the Save, have 
each their own peculiar attractions. Cbmibta is a country of wondM ; its 
limestone noimttlna are of sabterrancML eirrems, at the head of Vhich 
stands tlie Cave of ^AcMi5er{/, without doubt one of the world's wonders, and 
alone worthy of a journey to explore it. A little S. of it is the flourishing 
seaport Trieste, and lower down the interesting Roman remains of Pola, and 
Diocletian's Palace at Spalato, ' ' 

JMMnkt, lhal alngouKr heUMam, as ihe Oermaiis call it, summnded by a 
maAy dfenlar iraH of laonnlaiBi iriOi only on opening in i% tfarongh wfakli 

1. 2 ^ 



Sect IIL; 

the Blhe Ibds iti way out to the sea, draining by this sole oatlet the whole 
ecmiitiy, is picturesque only in the Ticinity of its hilly borders. The Sudetic 
mountains on the N., those of Glatz on the E., and the portions of the Erz- 
gebirge and Bohmerwald adjoining Teplitz and Carlsbad, are by no means 
deficient in beauty. In the centre of the kettle stands Prague, the Tshekhian 
capital, imposing from its situation and buildingSi and full of the^ most 
iatefe^ing historiod «89ociation& 

The limestone mountains of Sabsburg, Styria, Tyrol, Transvlvania, andBa- 
raxia aboond in deponto of salt, which are enTelopdl in the atrata of the 
moontainy to me a homely phrase, like apples within the crust of a pudding. 

These deposits are worked by mines at Hallein, Ischl, Hallstadt, Aussee in 
Austria ; at Hall and Iveichenhall, in Tyrol ; at Maros-Ujvar, Parayd, and 
elsewhere in Transylvania (where the salt occurs in beds of pure rock-salt, 
which are quarried like marble) ; and at Berohtesgaden, in lEtavaria* 

The salt rarely occurs in the pure condition of rock-sEdt, or in large manes 
capable of being quarried like stone, as is the case in the Cheshire mines, but 
is dispersed in veins and threads, intermingled with bituminous clay, marl, 
and gypsum, which are soft and crumbling, and easily dissolved in water. In 
order to obtain it, pits and galleries are cut through the solid limestone rock 
as Ihr as the softer beds containing the salt Here a small chamber is esea- 
vated, wooden pipes are lud down to it from above, and out of it ; but tibose 
forming the outlet below are stopped up with valves, capable of being opened 
and shut at pleasure. This being done, a mountain stream of fresh water is 
introduced from above and is conducted in the pipes through the passages of 
Hie mine into the ezsatated chamber, until it is quite full up to the ceiling. 
The water immediately begins to attack the sides and roof, dissolving the salt 
which it imbibes, and disintegrating the clay and other matter to the depth of 
several inches, so that they fall to the bottom of the pool. 

The void thus occasioned in the chamber is filled up with more fresh 
water, more salt is washed out, and this process is repeated imtil the water is 

time required to satniatis it wies ; thus, at Hallein and Berchtesgaden 9 
weeks suffice, in Aussee and Hallstadt 6 weeks, at Ischl 1'2, and at Hall a 
whole year is necessary to convert the water to brine. The pipe in the 
bottom of the chamber is now opened, the mountun is as it were tapped, the 
salt water is drawn off, and is oonTc^ed In wooden pipes to the boiling- 
houses. The chamber, when drained, is found to haye extended upwards and 
sideways between 1 and 2 ft. ; but, at the same time, its floor has been con- 
siderably raised by the fallen materials detached from the roof and sides, and 
deposited at the bottom. Previously to filling it anew with water, the stones 
and rubbish are extracted, the mud and earth are beaten down firmly, and, as 
a fhrther precaution to prevent the chamber leaking, its floor is cowed with 
a layer oi tenacions wK^p kneaded with wooden inallets, and carefnlly spread 
over it. By this means each chamber is constantly ascending within the 
mountain, and in process of time a lower chamber occupies the same level 
which the one above it held some vear^ before, though the thickness of solid 
matter between them it not diminished. VHieA ue chaniber is properly 
prepared, the process of fillhig it is commenced anew, and is continued until 
It becomes so large that there is danger of the earth giving way : it is then 
abandoned. There are sometimes 30 or 40 of those excavations in one mine, 
situated one above the other, in different stories as it were ; and the stranger^ 
tiumgh tdd there la such a reservoir immediately over his head, seeks in vain 
for the least indention of it in the humidity of the roof of tlie chamber ia 


Digitized by Google 


Salt Mime, 


which he happens to be. When two ehunbers appioieh fo near that the 

division between them threatens to give way, it is necessary to check their 
further horizontal extension by puddling the sides with clay, or even by 
building vast partition- walls or dykes. It sometimes, indeed, happens that 
tlie ttotiBt^ 18 tr a vet a ed by land-springs, which, secretly penetrating the 
strata, loosen it by degrees, and at last produce lerioiis aoddenta. Yery in- 
jurious inundations sometimes take place when a chamber unexpectedly 
reaches dangerous ground, where the water cannot be held within bounds. 
The roof then gives way, bringing destruction upon works and workmen. 

The strata of the ceiling of one of these chambers are contorted and curled 
not vnllke marble paper in appearance. In those mines which are shown to 
strangers, one of the larj^est chambers is pniposely kept half filled. On enter- 
ing it the visitor finrls himself on a sTidden upon the margin of a subterranean 
lake of inky blackness, agreeing -vvitli the descriptions of that of the fabled 
Styx. The walls of the cavern are illuminated^ and each flickering taper is 
Mfleeted bade UB tfie unndBed surfbee of the water. He Is ferried aerois in a 
flat boat by one who would serve as no bad representatlTe of Charon, and 
safely landed on the opposite side to thread other passages and trace his way 
out to daylight. The roofs of these passa/zcs are entirely unsupported by 
props or pillars, and are not arched, but quite fiat ; when, therefore, it is con- 
sidered that the rock composing them is often so soft as to cmmble at the 
touch, how wt a superincumbent weig^ of the mountain presses upon them, 
and that they are sometimes from 5^ to 600 yards in dremnfierenoe, it Is 
wonderful that accidents are not more frequent. 

These mines are open to visitors, and they are provided with guides and 
dresses. English travellers should on no account umit to visit them, in 
some the mode of descent is norel, via. by sliding down incfined planes 
aomewhat in tiie manner of the numhtgnes rmses. The visitor, protected 
by a leather apron, seats himself on two sloping bars of wood, and, as he 
descends, holds in his right hand, to regulate his course, a stout rope, which, 
in slipping rapidly through his hngers, feels, in consequence of the friction, 
like a bar of hot irop, in spite of the coarse gauntlet which is worn as a pro- 
tection. It has a singular appearance to the uninitiated to see the guide, who 
precedes them to show the way, suddenly sinking into the earth as it were 
beneath his feet, and to watch the taper which he carries gradually diminish- 
ing and disappearing. If the visitor feel alarmed, he may place himself on 
pick-a-back, as it were, to descend, resting his arms on the attendant before 
aim ; b«t aa tho desoent la neither di&olt nor dangerous, Hiia is rarely 
resorted to. A sncoflssioA of 3 or 4 of these desc^ta(caltod BoUen) carrica 
the visitor deeper and deeper into the mountain, until ho arriTCS at the bsiton, 
or at one of the excavated chambers mentioned above. 

As the salt-mines are almost invariably situated high up on the mountains, 
and the salt-paaa or CTaporating houses in the valley at some distance below 
them, the brine is oonyeyed in wooden pipes to the place where it is to be 
boiled* If the forests are exhausted, and Uiere is no supply of fuel to be pro- 
cured near the mines, aqueducts and systems of pipes are constructed many 
miles in length, witli reservoirs at intervals to carry the brine to some spot 
where wood may be procured in plentv, as it is less difficult and more econo- 
mical to trani^ort.the water than the »ieL Theae ccndtdn aometimee extend 
30 m., and in one instance, m Bavaria, nearly 60 m. They are carried along 
the sides of precipices, through tunnels or canals cut in the rocks, and over 
deep ravines, supported upon piles or props. Near lieichenhall (see Ktes. 185 
and 229; the water is actually transported over two ranges of mountains, sur- 
jnomting a- height of more than 1500 it by 4he aid of Teiy powerlhl and 
ingmionsly contrived hydraulic pumps. 

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SaU-Wark^-^finadm and CamMa. UL 


The salt-pans and method of evaporating the brine need in Austria are 
very old-fashioned compared with the improved system adopted in England. 
The word pan literally deSiCribes the species of tray which is employed ; it is 
oomposed of miftU plates of iron stoutly riveted together ; it is about S ft. 
deep, 40 ft. long, and in ft. wide, and is laid upon a niiml)er of pillars of 
fireproof brick about ft. high, like those of a Roman hypocaust, which form 
the furnace, the space between the pillars being filled with fuel. The billets 
of wood are skilfidly thrown in at one end, and the current of air carries the 
flame in a few minutes to the opposite extremity, causing it to spread out 
like a ftn among tbe pillaii, diftnbntinp the heat equally to all ps^. The 
increase of temperature causes the thin iron pan to heave and twisty and it 
would even curl up like a leaf in a candle, were it not kept down by numerous 
wooden props wedged in between it and the massive roof of the boiling- 
house. Sometimes a hole is burned in the bottom, or a crack is produced ; 
and as it is not possiUe to pot ont the five merely on aeooont of It, a man is 
sent into the pan to seek out the leak. This is a hazardous enterprise, as he 
runs the risk of being nearly stifled by the vapour, and of being boiled alive 
if he lose his footing. For this purpose he is shod with a pair of high pattens, 
not unlike two stools, upon which he wades through the boiling brine. The 
Are is continued for a week or a fortnight together, day and night, without 
interruption, the salt heing remoyed as fiMt as at ecystaluaes^ and fmh hrine 
introduced to supply the vacuity. At the end of that time the fire is 
extinguished, and the pan is taken out and subjected to a complete process 
of tinkering ; the thick crust of gypsum or calcareous matter which adheres 
to its bottom and sides is broken ott', and the faulty plates are replaced by 
WW* It is calcnlated that 100 lbs. of satarated water or hriae prodnoe 
86 Ifw. of salt. . 

Travelling is rough in both these countries, except in the frequented Alpine 
districts, and in the larger towns. The population of the latter is SlaYonic. 

Thecliain of ^ JnUan Ai^ esttenmng in a^reetion K.W. to S,E,, 
through Camiola and Is€lia« is remarkable to tiieiminienflennBltber of caverns 
which occur in it. There are, it is said, more than 1000 between the Isonzo 
and the frontier of Bosnia. It is one of the peculiarities of the limestone of 
which these mountains consist, to disintegrate in places and to be cleft by 
fissures, so that in parts they may be said to be hollow. Large lakes are 
iMSMd within them, and streams lUnw throagli them» Mowing a nMl»4ike 
course, engulfing themselves in gaping caverns, ai|dMp|»e8iteg above ground 
at intervals, before they finally terminate in the sea or in some great river. 
The want of moisture on the surface, occasioned by the fundamental rock not 
being water-tight, and the rain passing off through cracks, gives to the greater 
poition of this ittstriet a eharaoter of the moat repnlsiTe barrenness, ezeept in 
the valleys. • It is in all respeeta a desolate and howling wilderness. The 
Julian Alps eross the line of ronte between Laibach and Trieste, and the 
traveller traverses the district called the Kfiret with eyes aching from the 
reflection of the sun on the white rocks, to relieve which he looks in vain for 
a spot of verdure. 

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Iniiod. The Wi»r€$t--TrMU!porting Timber. 


Thx Forest — Rdbsen-— Kiausen— Bechen. 

The forests of Tyrol aud Styria, by tlieir magnitude and number, form one 
of the distinguishing features of those countries, when compared with Switzer- 
land. Thejr cover the middle region of the Alps, and encroach more upon the 
▼erge of the eidtiTaled fields, ▼Mch occupy the lower part of the valleys, 
than in Switzerland. 

It might at first be supposed that these vast storeheiises of timber, from 
their extreme remoteness and the difficulty of access, would hardly be of any 
value to man, and that the trees would be allowed to flourish and rot, un- 
disturbed by the axe, on the spot where nature sowed them. This is by no 
means tiie case : there are many remote districts of the Anstnan Alps wikera 
timber is the sole produce, where the people draw their subsistence entirely 
from the forest; and human ingenuity has contrived means by which the 
stately stem of the Tyrolese larch, which has grown to maturity close to 
the glaciers of the Ortlerspitze, is transported to the arsenal of Venice, or the 
port of Trieste ; while that which has flourished near the fountain-head of the 
Siilitaali majF be fooad ia the coirse of a tew months firom the tim when it 
has ^tted its native forests serving as a mast to some yessel of wm or mer- 
efaandise on the Black Sea. 

There can be no difficulty in the transport of the timber growing on the 
borders of a navigable river ; but it is a different thing when it grows at the 
distsnee of many miles from any stream capable of floating a log, or where the 
streams flow in a direction oppodte to that in which the wood is to be carried. 

The first of these obstacles is oreroome by means of slides (called Riesen) ; 
semicircular troughs formed of six or eight fir-trees placed side by side, and 
smoothed by stripping off the bark, and extending sometimes a length of many 
miles. They are consti ucted so as to preserve a gradual descent, are not 
always straight, but are made to eonre lonnd the shoaldmof the moaatainst 
being at times omned in tnnnels through projecting roolcs^ and at others con- 
ducted over ravines and depressions on the tops of tall stems, like the piers of 
a bridge, until they terminate on the borders of some stream capable of 
carrying them onwards. The Austrian forests are everywhere traversed by 
these contrivances, which form, in fact, a rude railroad for the timber. The 
woodcntler waits tor an oaportonity when the ground is slippery, and the 
rivers are high, to launch forth the timber, which liaa been cat many weeks 
before. The logs descend with the rapidity of an arrow, SO great is the force 
they acquire, that if by chance a log strikes against any impediment in the 
sides of theslide^ it is tossed out by the shock, and either snapped in two like 
wax, or shiyered to splinters. 

The streams which tnnrem a fofest district aia often so shallow and so 
mnoh inipeded by xoeks, .that even after lain tliey wonld be insufficient to 
carry forward the wood. In such cases a strong dam or lock (Klause) is 
built across the stream, at a point where its banks are narrowest, usually at 
the mouth of a gorge, aud the waters are pent up by sluice-gates uutii tiiey 
haTo risen ao as to lonn an artificial lake. In taia sheet of water the logs 
ftom the aorrounding fiyresta are eolleoted. At a g^ven signal the sluice-gates 
are opened, and the pent-up waters force their way down the valley, bearing 
along the wood with which they are freighted, until they reach a larger Stream 
capable of floating them on its surface without artificial aid. 

A few only of the finest trunks are formed into rafts, aud transported down 
the Danube mto tlie Black Sea, or into the Adriatio^ for shi^ilding. The 
mater part of the wood ia oonsumed in the ooontry where it grows, for fad, 
for supplying the salt-pans and mines, or is converted into charcoal for the 
smelting and forging of iron. But it constantly happens that a ridge of hir^ 

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The Fcreii — Trmuporiing Timber^ 

moimtams intervenes between the forests and the salt-works or furnaces ; and 
that the timber (pwwa «ear to Btreams floiwiag la a eonlnury direetkn to tte 

point where it is wanted. Under such circumstanees the treef» instead of 

bring thrown down from the height, must be carne<? np the ascent, which is 
of course much more diflRcult. The transport is then ctlected hy means of a 
▼ast inclined plane (called Uolzaufzug, wood elevator;, extending from the 
bottom of the TaU^ to the sommift of Aefieatett diffor height oyerhaDgii^ 
it. A number of wagons are eonatructed lo nm ap and down it in a sort of 
nulroad ; when load?, they are attached by ropes to a species of windlass, 
eommunicating with a water-wheel, which is put in motion hy turning on it 
the stream of a monntain torrent. By this means they are raised to the top 
ui a precipice m&uy hundred feet high, and are then transported dowu the 

opponte fliae In fhe a«iial manner. 
The baainen of the woodman (Holskneeht) afibrda ooeniialion fbr a great 

number of persons. They set ont early in spring in gangs, and repairing to 
the spot where the wood is most abundant and of the finest growth, they build 
themselves rude huts of logs aud branches, and begiu lustily to ply the axe. 
The trees are then sorted into stems suited for masts or shipbuilding, which 
are merely lopped, and Into wood fit fbr fhel, which la cut into logs, split, and 
dried ; the whole is then heaped up in atlleki. As aooQ as the winter has 
fairly set in, and the snow has fallen deep «o a-^ to fill np the hollows in the 
mountains, the woo lcntter pnts the cramp-irons upon his feet, and either by 
the aid of oxen or upon a haud-siedge, convevs the wood to the borders of 
■ome nd^tbonring predpiee, or to the ride of one of the flUdca above men- 
tioned. The now is partially removed firom the trough of the slides, aud a 
few logs are thrown down to smooth it and make the passage clear. Water 
is also poured down it, which, speedily freezing, cover?; it with a sheet of ice, 
and serves to diminish greatly the friction, mid to asbibt the rapidity of the 
descent. The logs are then discharged, aud descend with the quickness of 
lightning into the deptb bdow, passing in a few minntea over a distance of 
aeveral miles. The d^ct of snch a discharge ia much heightened when the 
Riese, or slide, terminates on the brow of a precipice overlooking a lake. 
The mountains around re-echo with a report like that of thunder: vast trees, 
hurled forth with the ease of a bundle of sticks, clear half the width of the 
lake in their leap, and descending with a splash into its waters, ruffle the 
surface far and wide, and strew it, as it were, wltii the fragments of a wredu 
The dnto of the woodman do not end when he has thus discharged the 
wood ; many logs and stems arc arrested in their prop:res'? by proiecting 
luasires of rock, or tufts of bushes, and may be seen adhering to the sidrs (if 
the raviuu or precipice, looking at a distance like straws scattered over the 
hillside. The woodman must disengage these, and see them ftlriy and 
prosperously on their way ; at times, where tht timber falls from a great 
height, the hardy woodman is let down by a cord, axe in hand, in the face of 
a precipice or cataract, to clear away all obstructions. In like manner he 
must push off and set adoat the timber which runs aground, or is stranded in 
the bed of the river. 

Far the purpose of eoUeeting the swlmndng wood (Schwimanhela) a tgedm 
of barrier or grating of wooir(Rechen) is erected across the rivers aft the 
entrance of the great ralleys, or in the neighbourhood of the salt-pans and 
charcoal furnaces. It is here arrested and sorted according to its (quality, 
by the persons to whom it belongs. Different proprietors distinguish the 
wood belonging to each of them by cutting the lo^ a particnlar length, 
so that even when several ownefs discharge their timber into the river at 
the same time, it is easily sorted and appropriated. A tax of a certain sum 

of wood U paid for th^ tt8« of the river and the servieet of 

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Introd. Ausirkm him omuL Oookery. 158 

Styria lias advantages in maiutaiuing the laxuriance of her forests which 
the other States of the Austrian Alps do not possess, especially her neighbour, 
OBriathift. In olden times that eoontry riTolted her sitter Btate In the jpra- 
dnetion of timber, which has latterly teached its minimum. This arises 
preatly from the diff«'rence of tenure in which the forest lauds are held. In 
8tyria they are almost exclusively iu the hands of large proprietors, such as 
wealthy noblemen, town corporatious, leli^iuus sucieties, or the ijruwu, all of 
whom take caie that the tenants or woodmen do not denude them indieerimi* 
nately, but plant saplings where trees have been eat down. In Carinthia the 
owners of the forests are the small farmers, who are an improvident class, and 
recklessly cut down old trees without planting new ones, regardless of the 
interests of posterity, until they ai^e now but scauty woods, scarcely yielding 
Sttfficient fiA fat household purposes. This devasta^on of the Carinthian 
fbrests has preatly increased the bleakness of the country, owing to the 
exposure of its valleys to the cold winds from the north and east. 

In some of the remote forests, trees of huge diinensions may be met with, 
giants of the vegetable creation j a larch which stood near Matsch, in the 
Viutscbgau, wa& called the Eang of the Larches, and seven men could scarcely 
snrromid its trank with outstretched arms. A fir (Pinus jpisea), growing on 
the Martinsberg, in the forest district of Ztrl, measured 5 ft. in diameter at 
9 ft. from the ground, and at a height of between 90 and 95 ft. from the 
ground still retained a diameter of between 8 and 9 inches. The Siberian 
pine, called by naturalists Pinvs cernbra (Zirbelnusskiefer), which grows only 
on the limks of vegetation, on the hordera of riaeiers and cnrerlasting snow, is 
much piiaed in Tyrol, as well as in Switzerland, for the facility with which it 
is cut into figures, bowls, spoons, and other utensils and toys ; it is out of this 
wood that the inhabitants of the Giodenthal carve the crucifixes, &c., which 
are so abundantly dispersed through Tyrol j and the pretty toys of Bercbtes* 
gaden are of the same material. 


Austria is imiverMilly allowed to be the land of good living, and dinner is a 
portion of the business of the day regarded with more importauce here than 
elsewhere. The toMe ^Mte system ht as foreign to thb countiy as to England , 
and no Austrian will dine otherwise than a Ta carte, Unfortunatdy ^r the 
English traveller, the time at which everybody is expected to dine, niirl at 
which therefore the best ibod is prepared, is the impossible hour of one 

The restaurateurs of Vienna, Prague, and Pest, are not less skilful than 
those of Paris. Styrian capons, Danube carp, and Pogasch, a species of perch 
procnred only from the Platteosee in Hungary, are among the peculiar 

delicacies to which the epicure will direct his attt^ntion. All the prhicipnl 
cities are well supplied with game, and throughout Austria the puddings 
(Mehlspeisen) have attained the summit of perfection. Our business is chiefly 
with the " eoisine sanvage,'' and the prospects of the tray^ler in remote 
districts, far away from cities, and in the midst of the mountains. Dinner is 
al ways commenced with soup, usuallv bread or egg soup, very tasteless. To 
this succeeds boiled beef, and then the national dish, chicken, cut into pieces 
aud fried in lard, called gdiookenes Huiin, or, vulgarly , Bockhiihnl ; it is on 
the whole not a bad dish, and is, beyond doubt, the best mode of dressing a 
lireah-alanghtered fowl, as it rarely happens that the animal is killed until the 
dinner or supper of which it is to lorm a part is already ordered. The traveller 
may safely ask for this dish when in a hurry. Sauerkraut, which is cabbage 
cut into small pieces, laid in a cask between layers of salt, pressed down by 
^eighui above, and thus pickled in its own juice Ibroiz or eight months, is ^ 

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Boute S5d — Sahhurg to Vwtma, Sect. liL 

be met with everf when; but the Bnfl^uh tardj nraeeed io aeemamodating 

their palates to it. Even the epicure, however, mny dine in eontent if the 
bill of fare do but contain front (Forellen), and tlicro are very few seasons and 
sitnatioos in which they are not to be met with among the mountains. They 
an brouglil to table eitiwr ftied, «r -dmiily boQcd in water and vinegar 
(blaugesotten), which gives the dark-blue colour to their coats. Chaasoia 
venison (Gemsfleisch), and game of various kinds, including black cock 
(Schildhahn), and aometiniet oock><<rf'thfrw)ooda (Aierhahn), are bj no nwaaa 


The wine* of Austrian growth, chiefly the produce of viucyaidi» arouud 
VieMat are Ibr tiiemost pnri not ao palailible to the English taste as aie those 

of Hungary, The YOdaw and Kleslemeubcrger are reputed to be the best 

Austrinn -wine*?; whilst nmongst those of Hniiirary, the Ruszter nnd the 
Nessmiiiiler are good white wines, and the Ofner, Erlauer, Yiiaayer, and 
Adelsberger, good red wines. 


BOUT£ 8& 


SalsbugSYl, 274, 275, 278 

3 Berg Maria Slain 

9 SeeMrchcn 

16 Neumarkt : JBLostendorf 

17 Stemdorf ... 91 
IS Stxaitwftliibni 

41 YdoUabniek . « 276 

41 Attnan^ . . , 297 

65 *LAMBAOa . . .277 

63 Wels , , . 8fi, 87 

78 linz ... 88, 89 

81 Xlaiamtlaehen 

85 Astsn 

87 Enns 

93 St. Valentin . 90, 290 

101 Haag 

106 Asehbaeh 

117 Amstetten • « , 97 

129 Kcmmelhadl 

187 Fdchlam • , « lOQ 

142 Melk 

158 St. Polten 92, 93, 98 

189 Porkeiadnf 

192 Hiitteldocf 

194 Teniing 

197 Vienna W • ♦ ♦ 93 

Bearing N.E., the rly. runs to Berg- 
Xasin Plain ; to the L rises the eon- 

spicuous pilgrimage ch. of Maria 
Plain (1720 ft.), built in 1G74. nnd 
celebrated for its sunset *vipw. Tlie 
Salzach is crossed to Seekirchen, ^ m. 
S.W. of the lake. DiL to (8 m. N.) 
Mattsee, with its three pretty lakes, 
at the foot of the Tannherg. The riy. 
now skirts the WaUereee (small 

Keiimarkt-lgstiadwt 1 hr. N.W. 

rises the Tannbeho (2570 ft.), f 

Straaswalchen (1875 ft.) Dil. to 
(12 m. S.E.) Mo7idsee. The striking 
peak of the ScJia/berg is now seen ou 
the rt 

VMlAhrack (1430 ft.) on the 
with remains of gates and walls. On 
a height E. is the oUL Gothie ck oi 


Lambach (1110 ft.), a town of 

IGOO Inhab., mentioned in record! 
as early as the 8th centy. Above it 
rises a stately Benedictine Motuisttrtj^ 
(1082), celebrated for its libmry aud 

t Alpine suiuiuiU and load-side places 
which lunre aa Ian aie ntiiM in antfl 

Digitized by Google J 


collection of engravings. There are 
also some old Gcmiau paintings. In 
the church are 9 altar-pieces by Sand- 
rari. About 1 m, ftom Lambach, on 
the opposite lide of and at the junction 
of the Trann -with the Ager, is the 
singular Ch. of Bdura, dedicated to 
the Trinity, and built iu the shape of 
a triangle, with 8 fronU, 3 towers, 
3 doors, 3 windows^ 3 altars, decorated 
with Sicilian marble of 3 colours, 
having 3 organs, and 3 sacristies. It 
cost 333,333 fl., and was finished in 

Welt (1026 ft.) An old town on 

the Traun (6000), the Roman Ovilabis, 
with remains of gates and walls. In 
the old castle to the S.E., the property 
of Prince Auersperg, the £mp. Max. I. 
died in 1819. 

'LISZ (815 ft.), a town of 45,000 
Inhab., the capital of Upper Austria, 
is beautifully situated on the rt bank 
of tiie Ilaii]ioe,lieie oroMed by a stone 
and iron trellioe bridge 310 yds. long. 
It existed as a Roman colony in the 
4th century, under the name of Lentia, 
and fell to the Dukes of Austria iuthe 
12th centurv'. 

On the & ride of &e Kaplanhof- 
strasse is the *Kew Mosenm, contain- 
ing objects of antiquity and natural 
history found in the province, Celtic 
remains from HaUstatt, old armour, 
anna of the rebel peasants, a model of 
the Salzkammergut, and a portrait of 
Stephen Fadinger, the leader of the 
peasant insurrection in IG26, and of 
his opponent Count Herberstein. The 
handsome building, surrounded by a 
garden, cost £20,000. Beneath the 
cornice is a friese, designed Igr Pro- 
fessor Zurstmsson of Leipzig, and 
sculptured by Ciillen, representing the 
religious and artistic history of the 
prorinee. It ooet £2,750. In tiie 
Capuchin ehnrdi of fit. Xatthias is 
the white marble tombstone of the 
Austrian General Montecuculi (1680), 
the opponent of Tureuue and the 
Prince de Condu. 

The imposing Gothic Cathedral, de- 
signed by Statz of Cologne, has a 
^ioitf choir surrounded with chapels. 

When completed, it will be one of 
the largest churches in the Empire. > 

In the centre of the Franz-Josephs- 

Platz, near th'" rivt r, rises tlu' white 
marbl* Trinity^ Cuiuum (Dreifaltig- 

BauU 85. — Line : Proieatani Insurrectum* Sect. ILL 


Mtsniile) siogolarly placed between 
figntes of Jupiter and Neptune, to 

comTnemornte the escape of the town 
from two threatened attacks of the 
plague and the Turks. 

There is a good Tbaatre here ; and 
many gardens and taverns in the vici- 
nity are resorted to by the iahabitants 
as places of recreation. 

The principal attractions of Linz 
are the beauty of its situation and the 
remarkably fine views in its vicinity. 
The best point of view is the *Jager- 
mayr, which may be reached by the 
Kapuziner Str. and the Freynberg(6ee 
below) in 40 mm. The bill is also 
aooesstble by a flight of steps and a 
footpath commencmg a little above 
the bridge. From the *Stone Tower, 
built exprt'ssl} for the view, the towTi 
of Linz, the windings uf the Danube, 

toj?ther with the eharch on the 
Poetlingberg on the t^posite side of 

the Danube, nre seen to great advan- 
tage. It is possible to approach the 
brow of the hill, and see the Danube 
beneath your feet forcing its wa^ 
through the narrow gorge which it 
passes before reaching JLinz. But the 
most striking feature of the view 5s 
the siKAv-clad chain of the Salzburg 
uud Styrian Alps, which stretch along 
the S. horison as te as the eye can 
reach. Ck)nspicuous among these moun- 
tains is the Traunsteirit whose prooi- 
pices overlook the Trann Lake. 

10 min. E. of the Jagermayr is the 

^Fraynhefiir, oi^ which stands a round 
tower of red sandstone, built by the 
Archduke Maximilian of P^ste, by 
way of experiment in the construction 
of the fortifications. Attached to it 
are a ehnieh in the Byzantme style, 
and other buildings Fine *yiew from 
the platform. 

Another view is to be obtained from 
the *PdstliTigberg-, the highest emi- 
nence in tlie vicinity, 3 m, N.W., 
(1765 ft.), on the left bank. 3 m. 
from Urfahr, the suburb on the 1. 
bank, is the pilgrimage church of S. M. 
Xagdaiena, surrounded by a group 

commanding a very 
* artenfiTe view. The exearrixm nay 

be continued through, the Sad^rabm 

to the beautifhlly situated ruins of 
♦"Wildberg (an hour's drive from 
Linz), where the Emp. Wenzcl w as a 
captive for three years. £-hr. beyond 
it is the KirehsMxg (2985 ft.), a 
small bath-house; and |-hr. further, 
the '^Oiselawarte (3135 ft.), a fine 
point of view. 

There is a good swimming bath on 
the bank of the Btrasser Insel, just 
below the town, readied by a iemr 
(2 kr.). 

Tt was in the country ronivl TAnz 
tliat the formidable insurrection of tlie 
Protestant peasants of Upper Austria 
broke out in the beginning of the 17th 
century. EmWdened by Tilly's vic- 
tories and instigated by the Jesuits, 
Ferdinand II. had adopted the most 
energetic measures for the " extirpa- 
tion of heresy " from his dominions. 
Protestants who refbaed to embraee 
Catholicism wete enjoined to dispose 
of their property and quit the conn- 
try : and the close of the year 1026 
was fixed as the term beyond which 
" heresy '* would be no longer tole- 
rated within the hereditaiy dominions. 
Upper Austria, at tlus mriod, was 
occupied l)y the troops of Ferdiuand's 
ally, Maximilian of Bavaria. The 
commander of the Bavarian troops 
stationed at Liaa was Connt Berber- 
stein, a man of a Btem» unrelenting 
disposition, and a sworn enemy to 
Protestantism. No sooner had the 
priests taken possession of a church iu 
which the Lutheran service had been 
celebrated Aan they proceeded to 
reconsecrate it, and tlioroughly puri^ 
it from the stains of heresy by a due 
sprinkling of holy water. In the spring 
of 1625 a number of priests, during 
the performance of sucn a ceremony, 
were driyen out of the church of 
Zwiespfldten, near Frankenburg, by 
the enrn ired peasants of the neighbour- 
ing villages. Ilerberstein punished 
the peasants by banging 17 of them 
on the eaTcS of the chnrdi item 
wliich the priests had been ciqielled. 
This was the immediate cause of the 
insurrection, which soon beciime 
general. Stephen Fadinger, a hatter 
by trade, bnt at that time one of th« 

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wealthiest peasants of the province, 
placed liimstlf at the head of a con- 
siderable body of insurgents. Fa- 
diogar displayed great skiU In organiz- 
ing his peuant army, with which, in 
the summer of 1626, he invested Linz, 
where he was killed by a cannon-ball 
as he was reconnoitring the fortifica- 
tions. Afterwards a person called the 
Skidmtf whoM real name is anknown, 
but who is supposed to have been of 
noble birth, was chosen by the pea- 
sants for their leader. Under his 
guidance they fearlessly encountered 
Uie numerous bodies of Austrian and 
Bavarian troops, untii Pappenheim 
was sent with a force sufUcient for 
the efi'ectual suppression of the rebel- 
lion. He defeated the Student at 
Itfferding, after a sangninary eeinbat 
in which 3000 peasants were slain» 
and again at Gmunden : the peasants 
oflfered the most desperate resistance ; 
but at VVolfsegg the Student was 
killed, and his small band of followers 
eompletely routed. 

Quitting Linz, the rly. turns S. to 
erosB the TKaon at gleittJIgnehen. 
On ^e rt. bank lies SbMerg^ the 

scene of a severe engagement between 
the French under Massena and the 
Austrians under Hiller, in 1809. The 
passage of the bridge was contested 
"With great slaughter: a desj^rate 
eombat was kept up m the village 
from house to house; and marks of 
shot and balls may still be seen on 
the walls and signs of the inns. Is early 
12,000 nwn fell in the eonffiet. 

Asten. 3 m. S.W. stands the Au- 
gustinian Couvont of St. Florian, the 
towers of which may be seen rising 
abore the trees. Tlus saint, emment 
both in Austria and Bavaria for the 
aid which he is believed to give in 
extinguishing fires, was bora at Enns. 
His portrait is constantly seen painted 
on the outside of houses, in the act of 

E raring water tnm, a boeket upon a 
ouse ou &re. 

This monastery is one of the most 
ancient foundations in Austria; but 

the existing palatial edifice was erec- 
ted in the reign of the Emperor 
Charles VI. Beneath the handsome 
chunsh is a ISth-ewt. crypt. The 
Kaiser saal is a svv^uons apartmwt 
adorned with frescoes. The Library 
is still very rich, though it has suffered 
serious spoliations : it contains 40,000 
vols.; and the Picture Gallery is 
rather remarkable for extent than 
excellence, the greater part of its 
contents being copies. There is an 
extensive and remarkably fine collec- 
tion of coins and medals most judici- 
ously arranged. The eeeledasttes of 
St. Florian are remarkable not only 
for their learning, but for their skill 
in agriculture, which has conferred 
benefits on the surrounding district. 
3 m. E. is the ehfttean of Tillysborg, 
a iqnare building with towers at the 
corners. It was built, in 1636, by 
Count Werner von Tilly, who pulled 
down the castle of Volkersdorf, which 
stood nearly on the same site, and 
which had been given by the Etoperor 
Ferdiasod II. to the Count's uncle, 
the renowned General Tilly, who, it 
is said, beheld his mansion and estate 
from a distance one day, but never 
took the trouble to visit it It now 
belongs to the Abbey of St Florian. 

Enns (920 ft.), a town of 4000 In- 
hab., on the 1. hsmk of the river Enns, 
which separates Upper from Lower 
Austria, and enters the Danube a little 
below the town, Enns stands on the 
site of the Roman station Lauriacum 
(whose name is preserved in the neigh- 
bouring village of Lorch), which was 
the aeene of a emel persecution of the 
Christians by Gaierins, a.d. 304. 
Among the victims was Floriani a 
Christian tribune, who was thrown 
into the Enns from the bridge, with 
a millstone round his neck. The 
walls of Enns were built with the 
ransoin-vioney paid for Bichard Osur- 
de-Lion. The tall Totcer in the mar- 
ket-place was built by the Emp, 
Maximilian. On a height overlook- 
ing the riTer stands tte eMmn of 
Count Auecaperg^ to whom Snnf 

The river Enns^ vhich diTides 

Digitized byGoogle 

Houie 85.— PodUam— ft. PdUeiu Sect. III. 

UfMr liRHIi'Lower Austria, Ss Cfossed, 
ana the rly. turns S. to Haag. On the 

I. is Schloss ^^alaber(j. Thonce S.E. to 
St. Peter, B. of which stands the large 
Benedictine Contreiit of BeUemMien. 

Jjottetten the country becomes 
more interesting, and h enlivened by 
views of the Danube on the 1., arul of 
the Styriau Alps ou the rt. The rail- 
md nm« ftkmg tlM iMiik of totrent 
Ybbs, and crosses it befblW reftoldng 
Kemmelbaoh. The rly. now ap- 
proaches the Danube. 1. on the op- 
posite bank, are seen Perseubeug, a 
summer villa of the Emperor's and 
Ae double raiiet of the pilgrimage 
^ftaateh of MtukfTsfoii. Th» Briaf 

FocMam, one of the oldest places in 
Austria, said to htre been in posses- 
1^ Qdt the Matigraveii Btidiffer I. and 

II. between 916 and 943. Ktidiger of 
Pechlam (Beohl;ireu), a famous hero 
of the Nibelungeu, cannot be identi- 
fied with either of these personages, 
ftoog^ there is pfobobly eome legen- 
dify eonuection between them. The 
reader of that fine old German poem 
need not be r'^iTiinded how Etzel 
(Attila) sent Kiiciiger to Worms to 
fetch Chiiemhilde, and how '*der 
note Riiedf|;ef " sod JBM^ Hur 
bride rode, with a gallant train, tnm 
Passau to Molk (Mcdeliche) and 
Vienna Weiteneck appears on the 
opposite bank as the train approaches 
Xelk or Molk (1000), lying at the foot 
of tiie rock on whieli, 180 ft. above 
the river. tUmde the celebrated ♦^ene- 
(h'rfine MimtutBry, rebuilt between 1 707 
and 1736, by an nrcbitect from St. 
Piilten, named Jacob Pxa-udauer. It 
bears the appearanee of a palace 
rather than tliat of the secluded re- 
treat of cloistered monks. In the 
latter part of the 10th century Mdlk 
was a frontier stronghold of the 
heathen Mug^ urii, and was taken from 
Aeir last Dttke, Geisa, the IMher of 
St.fltepben, the first Mng cndOhris- 
tian sovereign of Hungary, in 984, by 
Leopold I., the founder of tlie l^ben- 
ber^ line of princes, who, in the pre* 

g year, bad beett oiealed bgr the 

Emperor Otho II. Margratre of Aim* 

tria. Leopold, on gaining possession 
of Molk, built a castle and a clmrch 
ou the site occupied by the present 
monastery. MSSk eontinned to be the 
residence of Hm Babenberg MargraTeo 
for upwards of a century. Leopold 
and his five immediate sncees«;ors were 
buried in the crypt of the ancient 
church, from which their remains, to- 
gether irith those of 6 ICargmvines, 
irera removed In 1735, and placed in 
a marble monument iu the church of 
the present monastery. At the time 
of Napoleon's invasion (1805-1809) 
enormous contributions were levied 
on the monks, and their edlars sap- 
plied the French army with 15,000 
gallons of wine for several days in 
succession. The greater part of its 
revenues, confiscated by Buonaparte, 
have since been restored. The Churchy 
gorgeous with gold and red marUo 
within, is celebrated for its fine organ. 
11 Ba ben berg princes lie buried here. 
The Library of 20,600 volumes and 
1500 MSS. Qpcli^ding many fine 
miniatures, a Jdoethliis of llm een- 
tury, &c.) is a magnificent apartment. 
The collection of paintings is exten- 
sive, and there are a munber of old 
German picture-^ in the Abbot's house 
chapel. Here also is preserved tiie 

JfdW JDwic, a cmdfix of sfhrer gilt, 
2 ft. high, adorned irith Jewels (1363). 
In the Trcamry is a wardrobe of richly- 
worked mass robes ; a crucifix con- 
taining a fmgment of the true Cross, 
the gift oi Margrave Albert the Vic- 
torioos la 1045; and a handsome 
goblet formed of^ wash-gold collected 
in the Danube (1660). Charming 
view from the Convent windows. 

The FarUih Church (1481 j has some 
evffioQS stone^worfc, and contains seve* 
ral monuments. 

Beyond a short tunnel are passed 
three rnltied rnstles. The Styrian 
Al|»sl)ound the S. iioriiJon, tiie Oetscher 
beiii^ conspicuous above the rest. 

8i Mten (WJSMH) on the Trfdsen 

river, an episcopal see, has a modcr-* 
nized Abbey church of 1200. and an 
important Military College. Its name 
is m oontfMlidii of St. Hippolytus. 

Digitized by Google 



On the 1. lies the chateau of Pottea^ 
brunn, surrounded by a fosse. 

The chain of hills called Wiener- 
iraldy Btretehlag ftom the Stjrrian 
Alpt to the Danube, is ]jenetnitea by 
2 tnnn els . The scenery V very pietu* 

resqiic as fnr as 

Purkersdorf, at the foot of the 
Riederberg, a considexable 'village. 
Hie rly» emees the Wieti» ftn anraly 
torrent descen^ag firom the Wiener- 
wald, "vvhich gives its name to thi* 
capital of Austria. On the i t. is the 
JDeer and Wild Boar Park of the 
PkUaee of Seh&ibnuui: It is a wild 
and retired spety forest trees alter- 
nating with open glades, and contains 
nearly 2000 head of wild swine : it is 
a strictly private preserve of the 

Weidlingaa. On the 1. lies Haders- 
dorf, once the estate of General 
Loudon, who is Iniried in the park 
beneath a monument of sandstone, by 
Zauiier. Over the tomb kis wxie 
placed the iasoripdon i 

Non patria, non imperator, sed conjux ! 

At Mnria-Brunn there is a Pilgrim- 
age Church, and an Augustine Con- 
Tent, new eonyerted into a Foresters' 

Hiitteldorf. The village is com- 
posed either of villas and country- 
seats of the Viennese, or of taverns 
and public gardens, where the citizens 
entertain themselves with ainiie sad 
dancing on holidays. A little to the 
rt., beyond the villap'e of Fenzing, 
lies the Poioce oj tkhmibrunn, (See 

Vienna TerminiiS ^ outside tiie 
Mariahilf lines. 
There are seven Bailway ^^iOlif. 

(See Index.) 

Soon after leaving the station the 
traveler is stopped at the£Mii»or 
Lines — gates in the outer lines of 

fortifications, which arc kept uji for 
revenue purposes. Here a carriage- 
tali of 4 kr. IS levied. 

VI£inrA (435 ft.), capitia ef the 

Austrian dominions, tlic* residence of 
the Bmperor of Austria aod the seat of 

the g-ovemment, has, including the 
outskirts, 1,2UU,UUU iuhab. (15,500 
Protestants, 80,000 Jews, and 2500 
Greeks), exclnsiye of the garrison 
of 24,000. Within the 10 districU 
of the city >tself the population 
is about 800,000. It receives its 
name from the Wien, an insigni- 
ficant stream, crossed by 15 bridges, 
which unites itself with the Dquml- 
Canal, a small branch of the Danube, 
dividing the city from the suburb 
called Leopoldstadt, and crossed by ^ 

34 Suburbs (Vorstadte) encompass 
the city on all sides, and greatly sur- 
pass in extent the city itself, tliough 
not^ older than 1684 ; those which 
eidsted pierioosiy liaviag hesn de- 
stroyed by, or on the ap p roach of , the 
Turks at the time of their last siege. 
They are now mei^ed with the 
city in 10 districts (Bezirke). After 
passing through the suburbs, the tra- 
veller enters open a bdt of Bonle* 
vards, laid out upon the ground which 
formed the 6iV-acf«down to 1858, when 
the bastions which surrounded the 
city were blown up and levelled, and 
Vienna ceased to be a fortress* These 
Bonlevatds, called iZt^^eneirde the 
city, and are lined with private and 
public build i TICS of most sumptuous 
architecture, liegiiiiiingat the Aspern 
Bridge, they take the names uf Stuben, 
Pad^, Kolowrat, K&mthner, Opem, 
Burg, Franzens and Schottcn-Eing. 
Within this circle lies the old city of 
Vienna : it is so limited in extent that 
you can walk through it iu ^ hour. 

l^enaa and its saDorhi mi^ heeonk- 
pared to a spider's web in the arrange 
ment of the streets, as they all tend to 
meet together in one point in the 
centre, near the cathedral of St. Ste- 
phen's, and radiate thence through 
the sabortas aa fiir as the outer Iidm. 
Within the fdder qoarter lie the palaces 
of the Emperor and some of the princi- 
pal nobility, the public offices, the 
hnest churches, and the most splendid 

In tiie Herrengasse, Scheakenr 

strasse, and Wallnerstrasse, in the 
quarter called tichotteuTierteli on the 

Digitized by Google 


BmU Bo.-^ViemM: Opernring^ Seot. III« 

new Boulevards, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Imperial Palace, are 
congregated the princely abodes of 
Austrian, Bohemiaoi, and Hungarian 
nobility. Among these the Palace of 
Prince Liechtenstein, in the Bank- 
gasse, ib most conspicuous, from the 
extent, splendour, and reined taste 
displayed in its arehtteetonl design 
ana internal arrangements. It occu> 
pies ne;\rly one side of the street, nnd 
contains a valiuible library, a theatre, 
and extensive stables. It has been 
almoet entirelj rebnilt, and its prinF 
cipal apartments decorated in a style 
of the greatest magnificence, at a cost 
of 60,0un/. Tt is shown to strangers 
at times, and is well worthy of a visit. 
The palace of Count Sch&nbom (Renn- 
nsse) iras bmlt byFlseber of Erlaeh ; 
Suit of Ptinee MUethdiy (Wallner- 
strasse) occupies the siteof tile hunting- 
lodge of St. I.rdpold. 

Starting irom the Aspern Bridge, 
adorned with allegorical statues by 
Mclnitaky» abng the Stuhenringt we 
pass between the Franz Josef Gate and 
barrack on the rt., with parade ground 
in front; on the 1. the (Justum-house, 
and a little further on the Industrial 
Hnseum. In the Parkring (rt) is the 
*Palaoe of Archduke William, a Re- 
naissance edifice by Hansen (1865-67), 
on tlie I. the Stadtpark, a prettily laid- 
out garden with the Kursalou at the 
tether end; and on the rt, again the 
building of the Horticnltoral Society 
(Gartenbau-Gesellschaft), at the back 
of which IS the Stadttheater. 

On the Kolowratring stands the 
palaoeof tlie Archdnke mdwig Victor 
and the NtitM CbsAusin Bemiiesance 
style, A*om Ferstel's design. Here 
Schwarzenberg Street and Square 
cross the Eing. From this the Heu- 
strasse leads past the Schwarzenberg 
Palaoe to the Mnaemn of the Belve* 
dere. We then come to the Kanifh- 
Twrrrvg, and the Imperial Hotel. I'he 
S. end of the Karnthnexstrasse termi- 
nates at the Gothie 

*Eli8ahethbrttoke, built by Forster 
in 1854, and adorned in 1867 with 8 
marble statues. On tho W. Ride, Jaso- 
mirgott, by Melniuky ; Duke Leopold 

the Glorious, by Preleuthner ; Count 
Niklas Salm, by Purckershc^er \ 
Bishop Kollonitz, by Pilz. On the E. 
side, Rudolf IV., by Gasser ; Count 
Kiidiger von Stahremberg, by Fessler; 
Fischer von Erlaeh, by Ctesar; Josef 
von Sounenfels by Gasser. 

The Opemning Is distinguished b^ 
the grand Opera Houses opposite whMUi 

is the Heinrichshof, designed by Han- 
sen, the palatial residence of Herr 
iieinrich Drasche, the well-known 
termeottamannfiietar«>. l^finescoea 
between the upper windows are liy 
Professor Kahl. The corner house 
belongs to Drehcr, the great brewer. 
S. of this is the SchiUerplatz, with the 
new Academy buildings. Passing rt. 
the new Palace of A^ehduke A&ert» 
we come into the Burgring^ pass the 
Hofgarten and Burgthor, opposite 
which, forming one side of the square, 
rise the vast Imperial Stables, and 
the new la^iffiil MxmmuL These 
latter were designed by Muenaueft 
with suggestions by Sempei'. They 
are in the Renaissance styb^ and face 
one another, with their lesser fronts 
towards the Ringstrasse. When com- 
pletad, the building to the E. will 
contain the Belvedere Picture Gallery 
and other collections illustrative of 
the history of art, now scatteied 
about the city, whilst the sister edihce 
will be deroted to Natnial History^ 
&c. Bending ronad the Volkigartfln* 
through the Franzensring, we have a 
grand pronp of now buildings, the 
new Townhall {iiathham); a fine 
Gotbie edifice by Schmidt, containing 
grand halls and central stalvease, the 
new Court Theatre, a Renaissance 
edifice by the architects of the Im- 
perial Museums, the new Parliament 
Houses (^lieichsrathggebaude) hi the 
Greek style^ witii n peristyle of 34 

marble QOlnnmSt desigued by ILinfirn^ 
the new Palace of Justice built hy 
Wielemamis (1875-81) in the German 
lieuaissance style, and the University, 
an imitation of early Florentine He- 
naissance, by Feratei, at the back of 
which is the Votifkirche. The next 
bend takes ns into the Rrhoitenring, 
in which is the new Kzehange^ a 

Digitized by Google 









ganpre) leading through archways, 
uudur |)iivat« houses, and a oross court- 
yards ftom one streut to another, 
Mnring m short cuts. 

senal, 9 to 2. 
Monday. -1- Imperial Cabinet of 
Gems, Couis, and Medals (AntikeD- 
CabiDet), 10 to 2. Albertioa. 9 to 2. 
Count Czemin's pictures, 10 to 2. 
Schonborn Gallery, 9 to 3. 

ToESDAY, — Belvedere Picture Gal- 
lery, 10 to 4. Egyptian Museum aud 

uiLjllLuG Google 

Jtues n with 8 

*««*^.«ance bt>le, and tlie Univeniity, 
an mutation of early Florentiae 

"aissance, by Ferstet at the bade of 
wnich IS the Votifkirche. The next 
Deua takes US iDto the Schottenrfng, 
VJiich is the new ¥Tch f\^g **j a 

Digitized by Google 

Atisiiri^ 85.-— DayA, ofAMiticn io OoUeetians, 161 


UenalssanCe building by llansea and 
TieiZt measuriug 100 yds. by lOS. 
Jjeaviog the Rudolf Barraeks on ibe U 
ire come out upon the Danube Canal 
again, nearly opposite to the Augnrten 
Bridi^e. If we turn to the rt. along 
the Franz-Josefs-Quai, on the bank of 
the Donau-Canal, as far as the Aspern 
Bridffe, we shall have made the 
complete i^rde of the old eity forti- 

In the city the tlioroughfares are 
narrow, the houses lofty and crowded 

together ; whilst the saWhs aie laid 
out in wide and well-paTsd handsome 


The d well ing-liouscs in Vienna are 
mostly of very large dimensions, and 
it rarely happens that they are en- 
tirelT occapied by one family. 

There are many single edifices 
which are let out m stories, or flats, 
and approached by a common stair, one 
floor oiieu coutaiuiug 2 or 3 domi- 
ciles. One of the largest bmldings in 
the city is the Schottenhof, attached 
to the chureh of the Irish Benedict- 
ines, who were invited to settle here 
by Henry II. of Austria, in 1158 ; 
though they were replaced afterwards 
bj German monks, the oonvent is still 
named after them. Opposite this build- 
ing is another nearly as large, called 
the Molkerhoj, belonging to the 
Monastery of Molk, The Trattnerhof, 
in the Graben, produces 60,000 gulden 
of rent yearly, and is inhabited by 
400 persons. The Bfirger - Spital, 
formerly an hospital, now converted 
into dwelling-houses and lodgings, 

{»rodnees annually 170,000 gulden, 
t has 10 courts, 212 dwellings, and 
1200 Inhab. The Starhembergische 
FreikauSf however, in the suburb of 
Wieden, is still larger; it is an estate 
in itself, with 300 dwellings, 6 courts, 
31 staircases, and SIOOO Inhabt 

There are in Vienna a great numy 
thoroughfares or passages (Durch- 
giinge) leading through archways, 
under private houses, and across court- 
yards ftrom one street to another, 
serving as short euts. 

S, Garnu 

These hours are' liable to 
change ; but accurate information on 
this head is giyen didly in the ' Wiener 
Zeituug,' just after the advertisements 
of the theatres; or in the * Fiemden- 

Admisiwu irnxj be obtained to 
moat of these collections on days and 
hours (except between 12 and 2)» 

even in winter, ^vhon they are not 
publicly open, by payment of a fee to 
the custodian^ which a valet de plac^ 
will arrange. 

Daily except Sundays. — Imperial 

Library, 9 to 4 (closed in August). 
Technological Collections in the Poly- 
technic Institute, 9 to 5. Picture 
GaUery of Prince Leichtenstein* 9 
to 4. Pictures of Count Czemin, 88 
Glacis, Josephstadt. 

Sunday. — The Palace Chapel (Hof- 
kapelle) at II, attcuded by the^ Im- 
perial family ; the chapel u ordinary 
and small. Cathedral service (St, 
Stephen's) at 9 ; the music is good, 
but the choir inferior; also church- 
music at St. P< ter's. The English 
service is perluiiued at our Ambas* 
sadoi^s; the Presbyterian, at 7, Breite 
Gasse, Mariahilf. There are two 
German Protestant church e^? in 
Vienna ; the Lutheran chapel ( ik ihaus 
der Augsburgischen Confession) at 
Ills Dorotheengasse ; the Swiss 
chapel (Ik'thaus der HeWetischen 
Confession) next door. Picture 
Gallery ntid tlie Ambras - Museum, 
and antiques in the Belvedere, 10 
to 1. Pictures in the Academy of 
Fine Arts, 10 to 1. Oriental Museum 
on the first floor of the Exchange, 
9 to 1 (10 kr.). Civil-Arsenal, 9 to 2. 

Monday. — Imperial Cabinet of 
Gems, Coins, and Medals (Autiken- 
Cabinet), 10 to 2. Albertina, 9 to 2. 
Count Czeruiu*s pictures, 10 to 2, 
Schr.nborn Gallery, 9 to 3. 

Tuesday. — Belvedere Picture Gal- 
lery, 10 to 4. Egyptian Museum and 

Unitized by Google 

1 62 Boute 86. — Vienm 

Ambras Collection, 10 to 4. Imperial 

Arsenal, 9 to 3. Treasury, 10 to 1. 
Museums of Art and Industry, 9 to 4 
(30 kr.). Oriental Museum, 10 to 4 
(30 kr.). Civic Arsenal, 9 to 2 

Wednesday. — Minerals, 10 to 1. 
Harrach's Pictures, 10 to 4. Schon- 
bom Picture Gallery, 9 to 3 ; Belve- 
dere, 10 to 4. 

Thobsdat, — Imperial Oabliiet of 
KatatAl Hiitoxy, t to 2; shut in 

Aug. Albertina, 9 to 2. Civic 
Arsenal, 9 to 3. Public examination 
of pupils at the Blind Asylum 
{Blinden ' InstittU), Josephstadt, 10 
to 12. Imperial Arsenal, 9 to 3. 
Belvedere, 10 to 4. Coant Czemin's 
pictures, 10 to 2. Treasury, 10 to 1. 

Friday. — Imperial Cabinet of Gems 
and Medals, 10 to 1. Picture Gallery 
of the Belyedere, 10 to 4. TrettMiry, 
lOtol. Egyptian Museum and Am- 
bras Collection, 10 to 4. Schiinbom 
Picture Gallery, 9 to 3. 

Saturday. — Minerals, 10 to 1. Aca- 
demy of Fine Arts, 9 to 2. Deaf and 
Dumb Institution, 10 to 12. IVeasory, 
10 to 1. Imperial Arsenal, 9 to 3. 
Belvedere, 10 to 4. Anatomical pre- 
parations in wax at the Josephinum 
(females 'not admitted), 1 1 to I. Poly- 
technic liistitnte, 9 to 12. Harradili 
Pictiires, 10 to 4. Jews' Synagogue. 

Crx)SE Time. — Burg-Theater from 
1st July to 15th Aug.; Opera-house 
during the month of June; Cabinet 
of Natural History in August ; Picture 
Gallerr from 11th to 24th April, and 
in Oddber; Ambttts and Egyptian 
Museums in winter, except by ticket, 
to be obtained on the premises. 

The principal XtamflUlkto In the 
aqoares and pnbUo ^laees of Vienna 


In the JotephiplaUt the colossal 

bronze equestrian statue of the £mp. 
Joseph II. (1790), erected in 180G, by 
his nephew the Emp. Francis, is by 
Zauner. On the granite pedestal is 
the inscription, ** Saluti publiciB yizit, 
aon dia» aed totoi.** 

i: Public Staiues; Sect. III. 

A colossal bronze statue of fha 
Emp. Francis I. (1835), erected by 
his son, the ex-Emp. Ferdinand, in 
1846, stands in the Franzentplatz in 
the Burg. The expression of the 
Tenerahle aoy^reign in the act of 
blessing his people, with the motto, 
" Amorem meum populis meis,** is 
fine ; but the drapery is clumsy, and 
the limbs are awkward. At the corners 
of the p«dAtal are flgares of Beligioii, 

Justice, Peace, and Fortitude, It'U 
by Marchesi of Milan. 

In the centre of the Ilohe Markt, 
supposed to have been the fomm of 
the Roman Vindohona, ia a Tottvv 
Honiment (1732) commemontfaig 
the brayery of Joseph I. at the dege 
of Landau. 

In the outer Bargplata are eqnea* 
trian statues of Arehdii]DS0haxlai(tfie 

Tanquisher of Napoleon at Araern), 
erected in 1860, and of Prince £ugene 
of Savoy, erected in 1865, both in 
bronze, from Fernkom's designs. 

A canrhge-road and pubUe ihoroirgh* 
fare beneath the centre of the Burg- 
palace leads to the suburbs, throngii 
the grand but somewhat heayy 

Bugthor, erected by Kohlle tn 1S22. 

It occupies the site of the bastions 
destroyed in 1809 by the French, who 
originated, under Napoleon, this and 
several other improvements and em- 
bellishments, one of which was the 
eonversion of the glacis into a pro- 
menade. In passing from the palace 
to this gate, on the 1., is the private 
garden of the Emperor; and on the 
rt., the 

VollaigartfliL It vas laid out and 

thrown open to the public by the 
Emperor Francis in 18124, and forms 
one of the most frequented places of 
summer resort in Vienna ; a portion 
is reserved fiMrthecaf6,where Stransa's 
band plays. In a building copied with 
slij^ht variations from tbe Temple of 
Theseus at Athens is placed Canova*s 
group (1817) of Theseus killing the 
Minotaur. Thiainepieoeof aealptoM 
▼at bespoken hj Napoieon to deeorale 

Digitized by Google 

Austiia. Soute 85. — Foun 

the arch of the Simplon at Milan; 

bnt, falling into the hands of the 
Austrians after the wnr, was bronj^ht 
liiiiiur iu 1622, aud placed m a build- 
ing €oii8traeted eipressly in 1630* 

Tu the neighbourhood of theBorg- 
thor the new Natural History Museum 
and the other grand buildings men- 
tioned above have been erected. 

In the So/garien (apply to the 

gardener for admission), on the onter 
15iir[rplatz, is an equestrian bronze 
statue of the Emperor Francis I., 
husband of Maria Theresa, by Moil. 

In the Koloimt King is a *Koii]i- 
BiMit to Beethoven by ZmAuad^, 
erected in 1880. The marble statue 
of Haydn, in front of the 3Iariahilf 
church, is by NcUUr (1887). 

The *fl6lilUir XeaiUBeiil near the 

Opera House, by Schilling, was un- 
veiled in 1876 ; and that of Schubert, 
in the Stadt Park, -was erected in 
1872 by Kundmunn. 

In the Schwarzeubergplatz, near the 
Imperial Hotel, is tbe equestrian 
Iff n fur, by H&hnel, 1867, of Prince 
Carl Schwarzenbeig, the leader of the 
Allies in 1813-14. 

A colossal ""statue of the Empress 
Xaria Theresa has been erected be- 
tween the two new Museums, sup- 
ported by figures of Justice, Religion, 
Wisdom, and Strength. The monu- 
ment, by Zurnbmch, is of gilt bronze 
on a granite pedestal, surrounded by 
fbnr equestrian statues of fiunous 
generals^ and four standing figures of 
statesmen. The Ibor reliels are also 
of gilt bronze. 

iains; Churches. 163 

naked figures, by Raphael Donner 
(1736), in lead, representing the princi- 
pal rivers of the arcli duchy of Austria 
— the Enns, Ips, Traun, aud March— 
pouring their waters into the Dsdinbe. 

In the Freyung there is a beautiful 
fountain, with 5 bronze figures by 
Schwanthaler. They represent Austria 
and her principal rivers— the Danube, 
Vistula, Elbe, and Po — of the Austrian 
dozniniona, forming an admirable 

The Aibrechts-Brunnen, on the site 
of the old Karntuer Thor, erected by 
the Bmp. Francis Joseph, iu 1869, is 
adorned with marble statues repre- 
senting the chief Austrian rivers. 

In the centre of the 0raben stands 
a ^raeeless ^column in honour of the 
Tnnily. liis apparently a duplicate 
of that in the market-plaee of Linz. 
and was erected by Fischer for the 
Emp. Leopold I. on the cessation of 
the plague in 1693. Tlie Grabeu 
(ditch) was the moat of the old i2Lh 
cent fortifications. 

In the centre of the oldest part of 
the town, the Hoher Markt, is a 
monument erected in 1732, from 
Fischer's designs, representing the 
Marriage of the Virgin, under a 
canopy supported by 4 Corinthian 
columns, with a fountain on either 

In the Hof is a bronze Ibxieft- 

Saule, by Herold, erected in 1668 by 
Leopold I., in honour of the Imma- 
culate Conception. The detached 
foni^t^iius ou each side were erected 


The fountain facing the N. corner 
of the Opera House is a colossal 
undertaking (1SG9) ui' doubtful auc- 
oess. The marble groups of Nepune 
and the Danube* together with other 
Austrian rivers, are by Meizner* 

In the Neumarkt is a fountain, 
around the l^tsiu of trhich are four 

The court of the Montenmvo Palao6 

(No. 1, Strancnimsse ' has ii fountain 

group of St. (Horge and the i>xagon, 
by Fernkorn. 


Open from early morning until 
noun, and sometimes from about * 


Digitized by Google 

164 BaiUe iS.-^Vtenna: St 8U^^*9 ChtiirA; Sect. HI. 

The *CHU£CH op ST. ST£Pii£N. 
Length 845 Eng. ft., Imidtli 330 Ik* 
The existing cruciform sandstone 

building was built between 1359 and 
1480 ; but the two small towers 
(Heidenthiinne) flanking the grand 
W. doorwav, and the part of the 
edifice oontigaous to them, are the 
remains of an earlier Romanesque 
edifice, built (1147) by Master Oc- 
taviau Falckner of Cracow. The 
roof is covered with coloured tiles, 
£>rming a colossal mosaic of the 
Austrian eagle (1831). The general 
effect of the W. front is fiat and poor, 
but on the outside of the building 
there is much rich tracery, and some 
curious carvings and monuments. 
Many judicious and costly restora- 
tions and repairs of the exterior have 
been made. The doorways, espe- 
cially the Giant Fortul (Kiesenthor), 
only opened on great occasions, are 
beautiful spedmens of Bomanesque 
ornament. From the pulpit of stone, 
on the outside of the church, erected 
against a buttress on the N.E. angle 
of the N. chancel aisle, St. John 
Capistran preached a crusade against 
the Turks in 1451. The effect of the 
interior is marred by the white colour 
of the walls of the choir above the 
dark finely carved wooden 15th-cen- 
tury stalls, and by the lower level of 
its vaulting, but the nave is Yerjr fine, 
and its height, the size of the pillars, 
the abundance of rich sculpture, the 
tints of painted glass, combine to pro- 
duce a very imposing effect. The 
pillars are, however, spoilt by incon- 
gruous and often trumpery altars 
mserted at their base. In the choir 
are some handsome tapestries. Be- 
tween the N. aisle and transept, 
forming the termination of a former 
organ-loft, is canred the *Btone figure 
of the architect, J5rg Oechsel, looking 
through a sm:iU window. The Pulpit 
is of elegant and elaborate carved 
stone, by Pilgram and his 

portrait appears under the stair. At 
the E. extremity of the S. aisle is 
the red *marble sarcophagus of the 
Emperor Frederick III. (1493), orna- 
mented with :i40 fitfures and 32 coats- 
of*an&Sy carved fij a sculptor of 

Strassburg, Nicholas Lerch (1467- 
1518). On a scroll twisted around the 
sceptre are the initials of Frederic's 
motto, A. E. I. O. U.— .illes J^rdreich 
Jst Oesterreich f7nterthan ; or, in 
Latin, ^ustriae Est Jmperare Orbi 
J/hiverso. The figures in relief re- 
present the 8 religious establishments 
which he founded. In front of the 
altar is a Brass, to the memory of 
three councillors executed by Leopold 
the Proud iu 1408, for their loyalty 
to the infiint Prince Albert Y. On 
the rt. is a finely coloured and carved 
altar-piece of the Virgin and Child 
between SS. Barbara and Catharine; 
above, the Coronation i on the wings, 
four legendary scenes. Near the W. 
end is 'the Xrens-XapaUe, in vrbich 
the hero Prince Eugene of Sayoy 
(1736) is buried. Here arc two 
fine stained glass Avindows. Tender 
the N. lower is the Barbara-Kapelle, 
restored in 1854, with a Gothic Yotive 
altar iu memory of the escape of 
Emperor Franz Josef from assassina- 
tion in 1^53. Under the S. tower is 
the chapel of St. Catharine, with a 
large polygonal font, bearing the 12 
Apostles m relief. 

The S. Tower (450 ft.), begun in 
1359, and carried to two-thirds of its 
present heiglit by George Hauser, 
was completed in 1423, by Anton 
Pilgram. It is a masterp'K< - of 
Gothic architecture, diminishing 
gradually from its base to its summit 
in regularly retreating arches and 

The magnificent spire was much 
injured by the earthquake of 1519. 
The upper part consists entirely of 
new work, and the whole has been 
well restored. 

It can onl^jT be ascended to half the 
height, and is entered from a small 
house. No. 1, Stephansplatz, built 
against the S. wall of the chureli <>u 
the outside. Tickets are obtained at 
No. 3, opposite. High up, in the 
N.W. angle of the tower, is showii 
the stone bench from which Count 
Starhemberg (1701)— the brave gover- 
nor of Viennn, during the last siege 
by the iurkft— uicd lo rccoiiiioiue 

o\jiU^L.o uy GoOgl 


BauieSB.—Fire'W4Ueh; Ohureiei. 

their camp. The largest bell was 
made (1711) of the 180 pieces of 
cannon taken from the Turks after 
their repulse from the walls. It weighs 
17 tons. The view is much inter- 
rupted, but extends not only over the 
and snburhs, bnt across the 
Danube to the Marchfeld, and over 
Napoleon's famous battle-fields of 
Lobau, Wagram, Aspem, and Essl- 

Halfway up the tower Is the station 
of the nre-Watch for the c!^. The 
dock strikes the hour only; the quar- 
ters are struck bv the watchmen, who 
are posted day and niglit aloft to give 
warning of fires, by ringing a l)ell and 
displaying a flag, and at night by 
holding out a light in the direction 
where the fire has broken out, the posi- 
tion of which is ascertained by means 
of a telescope moving over graduated 
dialSy the lines of which pointing to 
the different parts of the citjr are 
numbered and entered in a register. 

The N. tower, hfgun in 1450, by the 
architect Hans jiuehsbaum, was left 
unfinished at its present height, 212 ft. 

There was formerly a nanowchorch- 
yard round St. Stephen's, which will 
account for the numerous monuments, 
some of them possessing considor;^h]e 
interest, that literally cover the outside 
of the edifice, to the height of sereral 
yards above the paTements. This 
churchyard was tnrown open and 
paved hy order of Joseph II. ; the 
Crypt, now closed, served as a burial- 
place of the Imperial femily from the 
14th to the I7th centimes; their 
bodies are now deposited in a Yault of 
the church of tlie Capnchini^. 

At the corner of the Graln-n and 
Kamtnerstrasse, is the Stock -im- 
Sisen, said to be the trunk of a tree, 
the only one remaining of the Wiener- 
wald, a vast forest which in ancient 
days extended to this spot, now the 
heart of tlie city. It has been so com- 
pletely bound round by hoops of iron 
to preserre it, and so many nails have 
been driven into it by the wandering 
apprentices of Vienna, when setting 
out on their travels, that there is now 
no longer an^ wood visible — whence 
its n^n^e. 

The Church of St. Peter, in a Platz 
leading out of the Graben, was Ibnnded 
in the Uth cent., but rebuilt. With Its 
handsome dome, in 1702. 

The Capuchin Church, in the Neu- 
markt,is only remarkable for contain* 
iog the burial *¥aiilt of the Imperial 


It is shown by torchlight (daily, 
9 to 12 and 1 to 4, small fee expected) 
under the guidance of a Capuchin 
brother. There are 105 metal coffins. 
The oldest is that of the Enip. 
Matthias, 1019 ; the most splendid 
are those of Margaret of Spain, 
first wife of Leopold I., that of 
Joseph I., which is of pure silrer, and 
those of Maria Theresa, her hus- 
band Francis, and her son Jo^cpTi TT, 
In a corner, among the regal and 
imperial dead, is the simple coffin of 
a Gonntess Fuchs, the governess and 
instructress of Maria Theresa, who 
showed her gratitude in admitting 
her friend to the empty honours of 
sharing a tomb with emperors. Every 
Friday, for 13 years after the deatn 
of her husband, did Maria Theresa 
descend into this vault, to pray and 
weep hy the «:ide of his remains. Not 
far oft" ilie tomb of Marie T oinse, Km- 
press of the French, is that of her 
son, Napoleon, the Duke of B^h- 
stadt. A simple copper coffin, with a 
raised cross upon it, and the words 
" Napoleonis Gallia) Impcrntoris Fi- 
lius," &c., encloses his body. Here 
are also the coffins of the ill-starred 
Emperor MaximiBan of Mexico, and 
the yet more nnhappy Crown-Prince 

The Maltese Chmch in the Kamt- 
nerstrasse is fteonented by Hunga- 
rians. Close to It is the fHuirelt of 
St. Anna, used by a French con- 

St. Augostln^s (Augustiner-Kirche) 
near the Jo6eftplats,a Gothic bnUding, 

of plain exterior, was erected in 
1339. The towpr was rebuilt after its 
destruction by tire iu the riots of 1848. 
Here is the *monumeiit of the Arch' 
dfHihm$ Xa/ria OfvHMha (179S), by 

;d by Google 


Canova. It was erected iu 1805 by her 
husband, Duke Albert of Saxe-Teschen, 
and oondsti of a pynunid of greyish 
marble, aboat 30 ft. high, placed 
against the wall of the church. Two 
melancholy groups are slowly ascend- 
ing towards it. Virtue, bearing the 
asnes of the deceased, with twin little 

K* 'li^ carry i ng tofchee. Beldnd them, 
nevolence ascends the steps, sap- 
porting an old man. On the other side 
couches a melancholy lion, and beside 
him reclines a desponding genius. 
Over the doorof the yaolt isa medalHoB 
of tlie Arehdachess, held up by Happi- 
ness. In the Todten-Kapelle (built 
1841), on one side of the aisle, is the 
marble monument to the Emperor 
Leopold II. (1792) by Zauner, and 
that of the Hunons Austrian Qenerai 
Daun (1766), erected to his memory 
by the Empress Maria Theresa ; and 
of Van Stciefen, her physician, to 
whom Austria is indebted for a system 
of universal education. In the Loreto 
Ohapel, which -was fonnded (1627) b} 
the Empress Eleanor, are preserved 
the hearts of the members of the Im- 
perial family, in silver urns. That 
of Maria Theresa is distinguished by 
its siae» and contains the heart of her 
husband also. The altar in this chapel 
was formerly of silWy hut was re- 
placed by the present one of wood 
silvered over, by Josef II., in 1790. 

Bt. lOdhati'i contidns some ^ood 

paintings by Schnorr, and there is a 
tablet to the 1. of the altar to MetaMoAsio, 
who was buried here, though the situa- 
tion of his tomb is unknown. He was 
poet laureate to the Emperor, and died 
m 178i. Anotfier monument to him, 
by Lucardi, was erected in 1855, in 
the Minoriten-KirGhe (see below). 

The *Votiv-Kirche, outside the 
8chot(enthor, in the Gothic style, re- 
aemhlea Cologae Cathedral on a re- 
duced scale — 295 ft. long, 92 ft. high 
—with two open spires (34.5 ft.) at 
the W. end, and an octagon at the 
crossing of the transepts. It was 
erected by public snhsenptiont out of 
gratitu le for the escape of the Em- 
peror i^'rauz-Joseph from the knife of 

Sect. m. 

an assassin (18th Feb. 1853), and con- 
secrated on the day of the Emperor's 
silver weddin^e. The architect is 
Herr FersteL xhe Emperor laid the 
foundation stone (which was brought 
from the Mount of Olives) in 1856. 
The richly sculptured facade, and the 
transept windows, are striking features 
of the exterior. Hie loflhr stained 
glass windows are remarkable speci- 
mens of modern colouring. In the 1. 
transept aisle has been placed the re- 
stored tomb of Nicolas Count of Salm, 
the deliTcrer of Yienna in 1529, 
brought from Itoiti, near BHinn, to 
which it had been removed fiom the 
Dorotheen - Kirche in Vienna. The 
high altar stands beneath a canopy of 
Istrian stone, supported by four red 
granite columns. The reredos is a 
good piece of native work in g\\t 
bronze. The altar is of white Laasch 
marble, with shafts of Egyptian ala- 
baster, of which material also is the 
beautiful font. The first chapel rt. 
has a good painted wooden Gothic 
altar-piece. The hrasa candelabra 
and chandeliers for gas are successful 
modern works in metal. The organ, 
with upwards of 3000 stops, was built 
by Walker of Ludwigsburg. The 
floor, which has an area of 90,000 sq. 
feet, is inlaid with encaustic tilea. 
The total cost of the building ex- 
ceeded X'400,000, not includinp: a vast 
array of costly fittings, most of which 
were iroluntarily bestowed. 

The large and elegant building of 
red and white brick, with 8 towers 
flanking its A gateways, seen from 
the site of the Votive church, is a 

The Greek Church, 13 Fleischmarkt, 
was rebuilt in the Hyzantine style by 
Hansen in 1852', and the fa9ade adorned 
with paintings by Rahl. It is worthy 
of a visit, on account of the peculiar 
tone of chanting and the arrange- 
menta of the Inteiior, which have 
been preserved nnchanged from an 
early age. The altar is separated 
from the nave by a wooden screen, 
called the fUttrnwrrArii, on which are 
paintings of the Virgin, the Redeemer, 
and manj saints. In the a^Jaoenl 

Digitized by Google 


JBoiifo 85.— 'Ffeima/ Okurehei; 

^iisfaria. Moute 85. — Falacea euuL FvUbUc BuUding$, 


Pcfitgassc is the ehueh of 8t. Sarbara, 
l>donging to the United Onekt^ or 
nomaii Oithoiies of the Qreek riteu 


The church of Maria-Stiegen, with 
tlie exceptioa of the W. front, which 
elates from the 1 3th centj., was erected 
iMtween the yean 1395 and 141S. 
It was repaired in 1820. The narrow 
nave, without aisles, joins the wider 
choir in an oblique direction. Some 
of the stained glass is good. The 
lieptangular tower is 190 ft. high. 

The idwttwlrtwihe, near the Frey- 
ung, baa a handsome high altar, and 
tombs of Count Starhemberg (1701) 
and DnkeHeinrichJaeomirgottCll??). 

The Minoriten-Kirche, belonging to 
tbe Italians, built in the 14th eent^ 
oontaiai a good copy in mowie of 
Leonardo da Yinci's Last Snpper, 1^ 
Mt^aeliy executed for NapoIeoQ in 
1806-14, at a cost of J&20,000. 

The Xarlskirche, near the Rennweg, 
b flanked by two lolly eolnmns, around 

round with reliefs representing events 
in the life of San Carlo Borromeo. 
It was built by the Emp. Charles VI., 
in fulfilment of a vow made in the 
year 1713, at a time when the jplague 
waa raraging Vienna, firom designs of 
Fischer of Erlach, and completed in 
1737. N. of the Augarten is a hand- 
some Gothic Church (by Schmidt, 
1867-73^, with painted walls, frescoes, 
and Tanous other decorations. By 
the same architect waa erected the fine 
dmeh of St. Othaar, near the Custom 
house. The Protestant Church, a 
Romanesque building in the Maria- 
hilf quarter, was built by Fdrster and 
Santm in 1846-49. To the N.W* of 
it, outside the lines, is the Church of 
rflnfhans, and in the adjacent Neubau 
district, the Laiaristenkirche— both 
by Schmidt. N. of this is the Altlerch- 
enfeld Church, a fine brick building 
by JlftBOer in the Itelian medima 

j* The Synagogue, in the Leopold- 
stadty near the Carl-Theater, was 

completed in 1858 by Forster. It is 
superbly deeorated mthin. 

Palaces aud Pubuo Buijudimos. 

The Imperial Boyal Palaee (die 
k. k. Burg), an ancient hnilding, of 
various dates and irregular structure, 
is not imposing from its architecture, 
but considerable in extent. It consists 
of three courts : that in the centre is 
caUed Franaenmlata ; that on tiie L 
Sehweizerhof, from the old Swiss 
guards of the Palace, now replaced 
by Austrians; that on the the 

The Sehweizerhof is the oldest part, 
and dalee from the year ISIO. The 
handsome ]lor tal s towards the Franzens- 
platz was restored in 1854, and this 
part of the building contains the 
former apartments of the Emperor 
Fkans I., the Hofburgkapelle, the 
private library, and the Treasory, 
On the S. side of the Franzensplata 
is the Leopold inische Burg, con- 
taining St. MichaeVs cliapel, and the 
so-called Coutrolorgang, where the 
EmpercMT Josef II. nsed to reeelTe 
petitions flrom all comers. Here are 
the apartments of the Imperial family. 
They are shown during fixed hours 
daily when the court is out of town. 

Fronting S. from this is the Batter- 
saal,ereetedlbrthe Emperor FranelsL, 
by Montoyer, in 1806. On the oppo* 
site side of the Franzcnsplatz is the 
finest portion of the Burg, built by 
Fischer, for Charles VI., in 1728. At 
the entrance are colossal groups, by 
Mathielli, of tiie labonra of Hercules. 
The middle room on the second floor 
contains three encaustifi paintings^ by 

At C<yrpu8 Chrhti (Frohnleichnams- 
fest) the Bmperor and Bmpresa and 

their court in full costume, with 
guards, &c., follow the Archbishop of 
Vienna, bearing the host under a 
canopy, in procession through the 

Parade inth military mnsic daily 
at the Guard House, except 8iindi^» 

about noon. 
The foundations have been laid o^ 

Digitized by Google 

16& SmOe 85.— Ftenna : In^perial Uhrarff. Sect. m. 

• m 

Anperial^FilMeaiid Gfaideof, TimMu 

sumptuous New Palace, which is to 
cost 2\ millions sterling, the money 
being already reserved. 

Aajoining the palace, or ibrmlng 
part of it, are the Imperial Library, 
Winter Riding School, Jewel Office 
(Schatzkammer), (^abinets of Antiqui- 
ties and Gems, of Minerals, of Zoology 
aod Botany, BedoatenBaalyand the 

The *Imperial Library is a hand- 
some edifice, occupying one side of the 
Josephsplatz. The entrance ia m the 
eoraer, mi ^ 1. hand of fbe square. 

Open daily except Snndaj, 9 to 4, 

closed in August. 

This remarkable library owes its 
origin to the private collections of books 
Ibrmed by the Bmp. FrederidE III. 
(1440-93), increased, by sueoefldve 
acc^uisitlons of later Austrian sove- 
reims, to 400,000 volumes and 20,000 
2fSS. ; indnding the libraries of Count 

Fugrger of Augsburg, of Prince Eugene, 
whose collection was both select and 
extennYe,and of many others. It was 
thrown opea to the pohlic hy the Emp. 
Charles vl., whose marble statue oc- 
cupies the centre of the Grand Hall, 
a truly magnificent apartment, the 
ceilins painted by Gran. Among its 
enriosities may he mentiofied the cele* 
brated Tahnla Peutingeriana, a map of 
the Roman empire in the 4th century, 
copied on parchment in the 13th cen- 
tu^. It receives its name from a 
dtizen of Augsburg, who sold it to 
Prince Eugene. A part of H, con- 
taining Enjglaad, Spain, and a portion 
of Africa, is wanting ; but a fragment 
of this was recently found in the bind- 
ing of a book in the librarv at Treves. 
An unique MS. of the fifth decade of 
Livy, from which that part of bit 
history is printed ; it was brought 
from Scotland by St. Suitbert. Char- 
lemagne's psalm-book, MS„ in ^old 

Digitized by Google 


BoiUe 85.— JinpenoZ Jewel Office. 


letters. Title-deeds, &c., of a convent 
at Ravenna, written on papyrus: 5th 
centy. A roll of Mexican hierogly- 
pMcs, painted on deenikin, presented 
By Cortes to Charles V. Several 
MSS. from the library of Matthias 
Corvinus at Buda ; among them his 
prayer-book, with miniatures. Frag- 
ments of a MS. of Genesis; silver 
capitals on parchment. Greek Testa- 
ment of the 1 3th centy., collated by 
Erasmus for his translation : a fact 
attested by his own hand. A German 
Bible, written for the Emp. Wences- 
laus, adorned vich miniatures : 6 vo- 
lumes. A MS. Life of the Emps. Fre- 
derick I. and Maximilian, with wood- 
cuts by Hans Burgkmaier. Many MSS. 
of French Romance ; that of Gcranl dc 
Koussillon is decorated with exquisite 
illandnatioiis. MS. of Sir Tristram; 
14th centary: still more beantifaL 
Tasso's own MS. of the Jerusalem 
Delivered. The library possesses the 
finest collection of OriLiital MSS., re- 
lating to Turkish and other Eastern 
history, in Europe. It was ftnned hy I 
the Baron Ton Hammer (1856). 

Among the typographical curiosities 
and books printed prior to 1500 (In- 
cunabula), amounting to 12,000, are 
Apuleius ; Aulus Gellius ; Epistles of 
St Jerome, and Onsar'a UommeU" 
taries; unique copies, printed on 
vellum by Pannertz at Rome ^ 1 108 -9) ; 
the Psalms (1445); Duraudi Rationale, 
(1459); the Latin Bible, (1462): all 
on parehment; printed hj Fust and 
Smffer at Bla^rence, &c. 

In the eoUeotion of 6000 volumes of 
music, several pieces composed by the 
Kmps. Ferdinand III., Leopold I., and 
Charles YL, are preserved. 

Attached to the library is the 

Collection of Engravings, com- 
menced by Prince Eugene. It is one 
of the most exteivsive and precious in 
Europe, amounting to about 300,000 
prints, and indodes many most rare 
specimens and very fine impressions. 
There are 4 vols, of the earliest artists, 
from Fiuiguerra to M, Antonio, the 
latter very remarkable for their ore- 
senration ; 2 vols, of works of Andrea 
Hantegna, ai|d pther Qld 

masters ; 3 vols, of Raphael ; 8 of 
the Caracci ; 9 of Bartolozzi ; the old 
German masters, in 5 vols. ; Albert 
Diirer and Lucas of Leyden, 1 vol. 
eaeh«^ The coUeetion u also very 
rich in works of Rubens, Vandyck, 
Rembrandt (original etchings, 2 vols.}. 
A, Waterloo (a complete set), 

^Imperial Jewel Office (Schatxkam- 
merX in the Schweizerfaof, open in 
summer on Tues., Thurs., and Fri. ; 

in winter, Tues. and Fri., 10 to 1, bv 
Ticlets issued Mithout charge, which 
must be applied for between lo and 12 
the day before at the office in the 

Chmnd FliB af the WMtaanMr. 

Hofburg. There is generally a great 
crowd of visitors, both at the ticket 
office and in the rooms. Catalogue in 
Qerman, 50 kr. ; in Fl«neh or English, 
65 kr. 

The Entrance chamber contains the 
heralds' cloaks, wands, &c., the keys 
of the Imperial coffins in the Capuchin 
Ch., the presents from the Hungarian 
Landtag to the Emperor on his ooro* 
nation in 1867. 

Cabinets L to IV. contain clocks, 
watches, &c,, including tliose of the 
17th centy,, called from their shape 
and plaoe of mannfhetnre^ N*** 
berf egip^ A cioc\, bjr Bf 

Digitized by Google 


BmOe SB.— Vienna: Imperial Jewel Qffiee; Seel III. 


celebrated mathematiciaii and me- 
cbftnidaa of Pragae (1558-1632), is 

probably the first regulated by a 
pendulum. VIL to XII. Flasks, 
vases, tankards, &c., in rock ciystal and 
topaz, of the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th 
eenturies. No. 228 is an ♦altar (16th 
eentjr.^iritli baokgroand in Florentine 
momict and a single emmld in the 
top of the fountain. T^o. 303, a 
double *goblet of the ]f;th centy., is a 
masterpiece in crystal cutting. XIII. 
Jewellery and medallion portraits. 
No. 10 was a present from Pius IX. 
to Radctzky. XIV.faXXT. Vessels in 
silver, gold, and ])VL'cioiis stones, some 
of which were used at the coronation 
in 1867. There are some good ex- 
amples of the Nnremherg and Augs- 
burg goldsmiths' skill. No, 52, a 
Icnng cup, beloncred to the grand- 
father of Peter llie Great. No. 67 is 
the *salt-cellar made and described in 
his own life by BenomiUo CdHnL It 
was commenced in 1539 for the Car- 
dinal of Ferrai-a, but, with the dcsiprn 
somewhat modified, M^as completed for 
Francis L of France in 1 543, and was 
giTen with No. 171, an onyx tankard 
of French workmanship, by Charles 
IX. to the Archduke Ferdinand of 
Tyrol, in 1570. XXIL The private 
j ewels of the Austrian Imperial family, 
indnding the crown and globe of 
Undolf II., enriehed with many nn- 
eut precious gems, and the aoeptre of 
MatThlns (1 f^l 2), formeriy earned by 
the liomau JOiaperors elect ou their 
entrance into Frankfurt. The pre- 
doos stones contained in tbe orders of 
the GU>Iden Fleece, Maria Theresa, 
and other decorations here exhibited, 
are of enormous value, and include 
the "Frankfurt" diamond of 42 J 
carats, purchased, by the Emperor 
Francis I. in 1764, for 86,000 tMlis* 
d'ors. A star given in 1789 to 
Marshal von Loudon. A cross pre- 
sented to Radetzky, and ornaments 
which belonged to Queen j)kla.rie 
Antoinette, No* 68 is the Florent* 
ine *straw-coloured diamond, weigh- 
ing 133^ carats, which was \o<t l>v 
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burg- 
undy, at the battle of Morat in 147G, 
and aeeordingto tradition i»icked up 

by a peasant, who sold it to a citizen 
of Bern for X golden. Throngh the 
Fugger fkmily It came to Florence, 

aud tell to the T!mperor Francis, on his 
exchanging Lorraine for the Grand 
Duchy of Tuscany in 1736. XXTU. 
Baptbmal vessels of the 16th and 
17th oeotnries, nsed by the Imperial 
family. XXIV* State swords. No. 2 
is a Hungarian sabre used at the 
coronation of Charles VI. in 1712, 
XX V. and XX VIL Coronation robes. 
XXVL The crown, sceptre, and robes, 
worn by Napoleon at his coronation in 
Milan as King of Lombardy. It is 
remarkable that the stones in the 
crown are all false. The crown, 
however, with which the ceremony 
was performed was the inm erown^ 
which contains the santo chiodo, kept 
at Monza. The cradle of the King of 
Home (young Napoleon\ of silver- 
gilt, presented to him by the citizens 
ofParisinlSll. ZXF7iI.Hi8brical 
curiosities. No. 5, the honteope of 
Wallenstein, a circular plateenamelled, 
with a lion in the centre, and some 
cabalisUcal figures and the signs of 
the socUae aronnd it No. 12, a ring 
containing hair of Queen Marie 
Antoinette. XXIX. Regalia of the 
Koman Empire, used at the coronation 
of the German Emperors for many 
centuries, and formerly preserved at 
Nnremberg. The greater part of the 
Regalia was probably made in Sicily 
dnrirjJT the Nornian rule. The crown 
of pure gold with uncut stones, which 
has been used for some previous 
purpose, is not all of the same date, the 
later part being probably not older 
than Konrad III. (1152), of which 
period also are the orb and the sword 
of St. Mauritius. The sceptre is of 
the I4th centy. The book of the 
IiTan^gelists on which the Emperor 
elect took the oadi la said to have 
been found on the knees of the Em- 
peror Charlemagne, when his grave 
was opened at Aix-la-Chapelle by 
Otto It. The eziBting binding is of 
the 1 5th cent The auntie was made 
in Palermo for Roger TI., King of 
Sicily ll."'^. Along with the regalia 
are preserved the sacred relics, also 
prodnoed U the corawtton of the 

Digitized by Coogle 



Austria. Boute 85. — OMnet of Coins and Antiquities, 


German emperor, each as fhe holy 
spear and nails of the cro68 ; a tooth of 
John the 1 baptist ; a piece of the coat 
of St. John the Evangelist ; 3 links of 
the chains of Saints Peter, Paul, and 
Jcbn; the arm-bone of St. Anne; a 
piece of the true cross ; a portion of 
ib» taUeHdoth used at the Last Sap- 

The Imperial Stables, Uofstallge- 
b&ade, fkcing the palace ontade fhe 
Bargthor, contain the state car- 
riages : that used at the coronations 
at Milan, Prague, &c., is beautifully 
painted on the panels; it was made 
Ibr Bfaria Theresa, irhoise state sledge, 
in which sike used to drive upon the 
Danube, as well as her sedan-chair, 
are shown here. In the *stables are 
400 finely-bred horses, many Arabians, 
besides 16 white Spanish " Corona- 
tioas^" 17 hands high, with silky coats 
and long waying tails. Here is a 
curious collection of horse trappings, 
saddles, harness, and some old armour. 
Admission by tickets, given by the 
Master of the Horse lii the Franxens- 
platz, under the Clock. 

Between the Burg and the palace 
of the Archduke Albert runs a long 
corridor, called Augustlner - gang, 
communicating with the bastion and 
the Augustine Church ; initaresitop 
ated the two Ibllowing ooQections 

The ♦Cabinet of Coins and Antiqui- 
ties. Ooen Mon. and Thurs. 10 to 2. 
It Includes hnmxei, ttffaeottas, mo- 
aaics, ancient and modem gems^ coins, 

and medals. It contains several very 
celebrated cameos and intaglios, which 
have been described by the Abbe 
Eckhel. Among them the ^A^o- 
iheosis of Au^ustms an onyx, 8f m. 
in diameter, is perhaps the finest 
cameo in the world, remarkable alike 
for beautiful workmanship, historical 
interest (as the heads are portraits of 
the Emperor and his flunilv), and for 
its large sixe; only two larger are 
known to exist. It was found in 
Jerusalem during the Crusades, and 
cost the Emperor Kudolph 11. 12,000 
ducats. Alexander the Great and 
Boxalana, and ahead of Tiheriu8> W 

also yery flue; and a Bjrsantine 
cameo, benring on one side the Crea- 
tion, on the other the Crucifixion, is 
curious. Here is likewise a unique 
*tazza of Oriental agate, 28^ in. in 
diameter, which formed part of the 
dowry of Mary of Burgundy, wife of 
the Emp. Maximilian ; a collection of 
Baphomets, or talismans of the Tem- 
plars; a tablet of bronze, on which is 
engraved a senatus consultum (Komau 
Act of Parliament), proMbitin^ Bsc* 
chanalian ceremonies, dated m the 
year of Rome 567, or n.c. 18G (Livy, 
xxxix. 8-18); bronze arms, imple- 
ments, and ornaments, found in the 
graves of the Celtie miners at Hall- 
statt. Objects from thepile-dwcllings 
in the lake of Garda. 

In another cabinet is a collection of 
modern gems, cameos, &c. *Leda 
and the Swan, by JBenveniUo Cellini, in 
gold, jewelled and enamelled, is the 
most distinguished of these. There is 
also a female head, in which the 
artist has taken advantage of appro- 
priate colours in the stone to represent 
the yarioos tints of the cheeks and 
hair, and a necklace, composed of 49 
cameos, exquisitely carved, with por- 
traits of the sovereigns of Austria, 
from Rudolph of Hapsburg to Ferdi- 
nand III., &c. 

There is a good collection of Greek 
vases, 1200 in number, nearly half of 
which belonged to Count Lamberg. 
Amon^ them are some remarkable 
Hellenistic '^'reliefs of animals and 

The coins and medals amount to 
140,000. Among them are 25,000 
Greek, 31,000 Roman, 30,000 false 
medals, 36,000 modern medals and 
coins of various European states. 
Some of the modem medals are of 
very large sixe. A gold medal of 360 
ducats (Christian V. of Denmark, 
1G99); one of 315 ducats (Sigismund 
III. of Poland, 1632) ; a silver ducat 
of the Emperor CSharles TT., weighing 
6 lbs. ; ana an immense gold medal- 
lion of 2055 ducats, two-thirds gold, 
the rest silver, presented in 1G77 by 
John Wencesiaus de Bamberg (a 
Bohemian alchemist) to Zioopold i.» as 
a specimen of the gold whi& he pre- 

■ Digitized by Google 


Boute 85.— Tleww ; CUbmei of WiMrdU; Sect. III. 

tcnrlcd to have produced l)y his skill 
ill alchemy, and by the aid of the 
philosopher's stoue. Ou it is engraved 
the genealogy of tiie Anstrian family. 
Noi 81 la a Jewdled gold medal of 
Isabella d'Este (1539), by Gian 
Oristoforo Romanow 

Cabinet of Minerals. — Entrance 
also in the Aosoitiaier-gang. A t e ry 
fine ooUeedon, ftr sarpassing, in many 
departments, every other cabinet in 

Europe, and well arran^red. Amongst 
tlie objects to be particularised are the 
specimens of fossil wood from Tran- 
sylvania, particularly one which has 
the appearance of a bundle of white 
fihris. The stony matter (quartz) has 
occupied the pores of the wood, which 
itself has entirely disappeared, leaving 
an exact cast of the sap-vessels, not 
thicker than hain, and knotted in ap- 
pearance. A precious opal, the largest 
known, from Gzerwenitza, near Ka- 
schau, weighs 17 oz. Very choice 
specimens of chrysolite, from Green- 
land ; urayenite* nom Bra^ ; Styrian 
arragonite, and other rare minerals. 
Tourmaline, including a crystal having 
perfect terminations at both ends. 
Tin ore from Schlackeuwald, Bohemia. 
Cubic crystals of ma^etic iron-ore, 
from Gnlsen, in 8^^^ Tellnrinm 
and gold from Nagyb&n^ the richest 

foldminc in the Austrian states. A 
ne collection of diamond crystals, 
some splendid specimens of emerald, 
and the moat eztensiTe and complete 
anemblage existing of aSrolUetf or 
stones which have mllen from the sky 
in nl] parts of the globe. An enormous 
one iell in Hungary, June, 1866, 
weighing 660 ibs. Another, a mass 
71 lbs. in weight, fell in 1751, near 
Agram : the descent of it was actually 
seen. Another fell at Tabor in 1753. 
A portion of the great mass still pre- 
served at Elnbogen, near Carlsbad. 
There are several specimens of a 
shower which fell at Stannen, in 
Moravia in 1808, and was witnessed 
by hundreds of persons as they were 
going to church. Tlie fiill of others 
even more aucieut in satisfactorily 
attmted by legal docnmenls and tiie 
^mmony^ of witness^ taken linme- 

diately after the event, presers^ed in 
this cabinet. A geological coll< ction 
of considerable extent, and a series of 
fossil remains, iilnstrate in an inte- 
resting way the geology of Austria. 
A bonqnet of flowers, made of pre- 
cious cfonof?, for Maria Theresa, may 
he mentioned as another costly curi- 
osity. These last objects are in the 

Museum of Natural History. — This 
is a rfinicr' collection, well arranged, 
according to the Linneran system, and 
founded by the Emp. Francis 1., ul 
hispriYate expense, 

Tne colour of the lines round the 
tickets marks the countries from which 
the specimens come, viz. yellow, Asia ; 
blue, Africa; green, America j red, 
Australia and the South Sea. The 
European specimens are plain, except 
those of Austrian origin, marked with 
a black line. The valuable Brazilian 
Museum, also formed by the late Em- 
peror, who sent out men of science for 
the purpose of making collections in 
all branches of natural history, is now 
incorponiled with the Imperial Mu- 

Among the mammalia (which are 
ill-stuffed) may be remarked the 
Auerodis, or wild bun, once common 
in Europe, and still ezistiog in Polish 
and Lithuanian forests ; a horse, which 
died in the Emperor's stables, 4(1 
years old ; another horse, covered with 
woolly htlr like a poodle ; a wahus, 

The ornithological department Is 

Teiy complete. In come cases speci- 
mens are preserved of the same bird, 
in order to show the changes of 
plumage firom youth to age, the dif- 
ference between male and female 
feathers, and the transition which 
takes place from t!ir one into the 
other. Here are eagles from various 
parts of the Austrian dominions ; the 
white eagle (Fako aOm)f shot near 
the fields of Aspem and EssHng, 
where these birds are numerous; the 
Ifimmergeier, from the Alps; VuUur 
ftUmtts, from Hungary j hooded falcons, 
used in hawking in the time of the 
Emp. Joseph if., wit)i their hoo^ 

Digitized by Coogl 

Austria. Bouie 85.. — Atberiina ; Imperial Arsenal. 

and bells ; the homed owl, from the 

Wiener Wald; a monstrons crno'^e and 
a pigeon, each witli four legs ; an 
interesting series of nests and eggs. 
Hie other departments of natural 
history — amphibia, fishes, corals, 
mollusca, and shells — are equally rich. 
Amoiipr tlie fish, the tribe of salmon 
ana bturgeou from the Danube and 
other rivers of Europe is very com- 
plete ; the entozoa (intestinal ironns) 
are mkriTalled. The collection of 
comparative anatomy is also very 
^'ood. Tbe insects are not inferior; 
tiicy are shut up in cabiacts, but arc 
shown readily to students or amateurs 
of this branch of science. 

The well-filled Herbarium on the 
4th tloor of the same building as the 
rest of the collections. Men of science 
and students of natural history will 
find ready access to the collection, 
and most willing assistance, on apply- 
ing to the directors of the several 

The A11iertl]ia» open Mon. and 

Thurs., 9 to 2, formerly the Ardiduke 
Charles's splendid Palace, on the 
bastion, adjoining the Kmp.'s Palace, 
contains a library and one of the 
finest colleeUons in Europe of *Bn- 
graviiigs and Drawings, formed by 
the late Duke of Saxe-Teschen, and 
much augmented by the Archduke 
Charles, has heir and son-in-law. The 
engravings exceed 220,000, and are 
preserved in 900 portfolios. Among 
them is a unique and undoubted Fini- 
guerra of the Viiuin Mary on the 
Throne. Among the drawings by old 
masters (more than 15,OU0 in liumber), 
the most interesting is Raphael's own 
sketch of the Transfiguration. It was 
probably a study for the anatomy ; 
since the figures, which occupy the 
same situation as in the painting, are 
all drawn naked. A portrait of the 
Em p. Maximilian, taken from the 
life by A. Durer, with an autograph 
memorandum of the artist in the 
corner to tliat ellect j and the original 
sketch, by A, Diirer, of the Triumph 
of Maximilian, which he painted in 
fresco in the town-hall at Nuremberg, 
are also w<»th notice. There are in 

all 86 specimens^ including many 
studies of figtires for the Last Judg- 
ment, by Micliacl Angelo; 20 by And. 
del Sarto; 122 by &phael; 132 by 
Alb. Diirer. 

On the first floor of the New Ex- 
change is the Oriental Museum, open 
daily from lU to -I (3U kr.), Sun. 9 to 1. 
(10 kr.). It contains an interesting col- 
lection of Eastern objects, and a good 

The ^Imperial Arsenal (k. k. Ar- 
tillerie - Ai^enal), close to the SUd- 
bahn Kly. Slat., was erected in 1855. 
Tues., 'Aurs., and Sat., 9 to 3. It is 
the most striking as well as the most 
extensive modern building in Vienna, 
of bi ick, measuring "230 yds, in front 
by 7UU in depth— a massive range of 
buildings. At the comers are great 
casemated barracks, and 1>etween them 
storehouses, forming a quadrangle, 
wiihin which stands the residence for 
the commandant, and the church and 
hospital. Here are manufactories of 
every sort of weapons, fire-arms, 
swords, bayonets ; worksbopSf engine- 
house, laboratory, cannon • foundry, 
and boring works employing 20UU 
men. Tlie mo^t splendid ediOceis the 
*AinoTiry (Waffei^Museum) designed 
by Hansen, and containing one of the 
largest and finest collections of arms 
and ancient :irmour in Europe. 

The enormous chain of 8000 links, 
which the Turks threw across the 
Danube, near Bada, for the purpose of 
interrupting the navigation of the 
river in 1529, is festooned round the 
cannon in the court-yard. 

The Vetitiiale is adorned with .'>2 
marble statues of great Austrian gene^ 
rals, and the Staircase with frescoes 
by Kalil. In the vestibule are two 
remarkable pieces of ordnance — a 
breechloader of the 16th cent., and a 
leather cannon surrounded by an 
envelope of bnss, a trophy of the 
Swedish war. The centre of the llrst 
floor is occupied hy the *Bulimesh.alI© 
(Hall of Fame), with frescoes by Blaas 
and Uahl of striking military episodes. 
The walls are everywhere covered 
with scaglioUif in imitation of marble. 
The staircase to the gallery, round 


174 Bouie 85 — Vienna : Old ani Neto Sathham; Sect HI. 

the cupola, occupies one corner, the 
remaining three are devoted to the 
Aastriaa heroes Schwarzenberg, Te- 
ffetthoff (1871), and Radetzky (1858). 
Three glass cases contain the trophy 
presented to Adm. Tegetthoff by 
Trieste, the baton of Marshal Ra- 
detzky, and the cup given by the 
Austrian army to the poet Grillparzer. 
la llie large rooms opening out on 
either nde of the central hall are 
150,000 stand of arms, tastefully 
arranged and disposed in lignres with 
much ingenuity, so as to form decora- 
ticMiB for tiie interior, but at the same 
time to be ready for immediate use. 
There is a great store of ancient 
weapons of various dates, and, above 
all, a large collection of suits of 
armour actually worn by illustrious 
persons. The fbllowing objeets will 
be regarded with peculiar interest : — 
The buff-coat, of elk-skin, worn by 
Gustavus Adolplius at the battle of 
LUtzeu, penetrated by the bullet which 
cansc^ his death (1632); armour of 
the Emperor Maximilian I. ; sword of 
the Emperor Charles V. ; armour of 
Ludwig IT., King of Hungary, who, a 
mere boy, sank into a morass in the 
Battle of Hohacz (1526) j sabre and 
the top of the tent of the Grand Vizier, 
Kara Mustapha (1G83); gala suit of 
the Emperor Rudolf II., and of the 
Emperor Mathias; coat, sabre, &c., ot 
Stephan Fadinger (1626) ; black 
armonr of General Count Sporek; 
fla^ of Franz B&koczy ; baton, &c., of 
Prmce Eugene of Savoy (1736) ; 
Imlloon used by the French Marshal 
Jourdan to reconnoitre the Austrian 
army prefiondy to the battle of 
Fleurus ; the keys of the dty of 
Lyons ; the crescent which sur- 
mounted the spire of St. Stephen's 
from the siege of 1529 down to the 
relief of Vienna by John Sobieski. A 
great number of standards taken by 
the Austrians during the war: 100 are 
French, of the days of the Revolution ; 
manjy Polish and Prussian ; a flag 
carried by the Italian Caibouan, wiih 
the words, ** Independensa o morte ** ; 
and several French eagles ; also a tree 
of Liberty, with the red cap, nnd the 
colours of the 33rd regiment of French 

infantry, taken at Culm. In the 
Chapel is the ftatue ot the Virgin, 
rescued from the old ai'seuai. The 
view from the Flag Toneer is fine. 

The Old Eathhaus, S Wipplinger- 
strasse, contains a hall worth seeing, 
and in the courtyard a fountain with 
group in lead of Andromeda and 
Perseus, by Donner. Adjoining it 
are two chapels united by an arch- 
way, one of which dates from 1360, 
while the other has a fine Renaissance 
portal. Opposite are the offices of 
the Minister of the Interior. The 
*irew BstUuias is situated in the 
Hlngstrasse, opposite the ne^v Burg 
'I'hcatre, and near the new Parlia- 
ment Houses of Austria, forming with 
them one of the most remarkable 
groups of modem stmetures to be 
found in Europe. The Rathhaus is 
certainly one of the most magnificent 
Gothic edifices on the continent. It 
has oue principal tower (330 ft.^, and 
four subordinate ones. There is one 
large square court surrounded by a 
colonnade, and eight other subordi- 
nate courts. The edifice contains 5uu 
rooms, including two large festival 
baHs. The principal fa9ade, in solid 
masonry, has a fine terrace with out- 
look on the Park and Ring Strasse. 
The cost of the entire building has 
been 12,000,000 florins, or a million 
sterling. The great tower is sur- 
mounted by a figure, 9 ft. high, hold- 
ing a flagstaff of 16 ft., and a sword 
6 ft. 6 in. in length. The architeet 
is the Chevalier von Schmidt, by 
whom the work w as begun in 1873, 
and flnidied in ten years. 

The '^Collection of Arms and 

Armour, on the first floor, is open 
daily from 9 to 2. It was commenced 
in 1584, and completed in 1672} it 
contuned arms for 34,000 eivie 
guards, which were stolen and dls- 
tributf fl to the mob at the Vienna 
revolution, but have since been re- 
stored. There are suits of armour 
of Taiious periods. The armour of 
Louis il.. King of Hungary, killed at 
the battle of Mohacz ; of Charles V. j 
of Sobieskij worn at the battle before 


Digitized by Google 

Austria. SaiUe SB.^£eloedeire Paktee; Mmum. 


Vieuua. llere are also preserved an 
immense blood-red standard, taken 

from the Turks, in 1683, bv the Duke 
of Lorraine ; the head of the Vizir 
Kara Mustapha, with the red silken 
cord by which he was strangled on 
his return from his disastrous expe- 
dition to Yienna; and his shirt, or 
shroud (Todtenhemd), covered with 
Arabic inscriptions, derived princi- 
pally from the Koran. At the taking 
of Belgrade, his body was disinterred, 
hit separated from it, and trans- 
ftrred to Vienna. From the ceiling 
hangs the fine standard of Count 
Herberstein, with a representation of 
St. John Baptist kneeling before the 
Virgin and Child. The colours takeu 
by die Arehdnke Charles, at CSaldiero, 
in 1805. The bust and uniform of 
Marshal London, and Hofer's alpen- 
stock, are among the minor curiosities. 
Another part of the first floor is de- 
Toted to tne Xunioipal Library, open 
daily, exeqpt Son^ from 9 to 1. 

pleted in 1724 by Hildebrand for 
Priuce Eugene of Savoy, who resided 
in it during the latter years of his 
life, after wmch it fell into the hands 
of the Government, and was fitted for 
its present purpose in 1776. It con- 
sists of two buildings, the Upper and 
Lower Belvedere, situated at the foot 
and at the summit of a gentle eini- 
nenee, the intervening slope being 
occupied by a fine public garden. 

(N.B. To the Belvedere is a long 
walk of nearly 2 m. from St. Stephans- 
plati. It it a good plan to take the 
Itlidbalin ommbus, fare 12 kr., which 
set you down at the Upper Belvedere. 
The Arf^enal \s in the same direction, 
not much further. There is a good 
restottron^ in the Siidbahnhof.) 

The Lower BelTedere contains the 
AadnnM Gsllectlon of ancient armour, 
paintings, jewels, &c. ; so named from 
the castle of Ambras, in Tyrol where 
it was originally placed, and from 
which it was remored in 1796, and 
placed here in 1086. Open daily, 
except Monday, 10 to 4; Sundays and 
festivals 10 to I. Closed in winter. 
Catalogue, 35 kr. 

The Hall is occupied by a Collec- 
tion of aatiqae scnipturas (catalogue. 
10 kr.), removed from the Imperial 
Palace. The best things among them 

are — the Sarcophagus of the Ftujger 
Famihjj with bas-reliefs of the Battle 
of the Amazons \ and a brouze statue 
of Hermes, fonnd in Garinthia, near 
Maria-Saal, in the Zollfeld: both of 
the best period of Grecian art. Eu- 
terpe; the drapery is well executed. 
A torso of Cupid. Several Roman 
helmets of bronze, in fine preservation, 
which were dog up at Marbuig, in 
Styria. Among the terra-cottas a 
statue of Pallas, half the size of life, 
in the stiff early style of art^ found in 

The Xgyptian Xnsexmi is grounded 
mainly on the collection of Dr. Burg- 
hardt, purchased in 1823 (catalogue, 
10 kr.). It contains, besides papyri, 
mummies, tablets, &c., a curious 
figure of a sphinx with 3 heads, of 
white marble, probably of the time of 
the Ptolemies. The four colossal 
syenite colunins outside the door of 
the Ambras Collection were found 
near AlescMidxia, and brought over 
in 1869. 

The Ambras Museum was formed 
by Archduke Ferdinand (1529-95), 
son of the £mp. Ferdinand I., who, 
during his residence at the Schloss 
Ambras, obtained from lus Meads and 
contemporary European monarchs 
suits of armour, original portraits, 
and other curiosities belonging to 
them, or to the penons of renown 
attached to their courts and persons, 
including most of the celebrated men 
of the I4th, l ')th, and IfUh centuries. 
To many of them he wrote autograph 
letters ; which, together with tne 
replies, haye been carefhlly preserved. 
The Museum occtipies 7 apartments i 
3 of these are filled with ancient 
armour. The plan of the arrange- 
meut is as follows : — The 1st room 
contains almost whcAly suits of armoar 
bdonging to the members and con- 
nexions of the Imperial Family ; the 
2nd, those of distinguished Ger* 
princes and nobles ; the Srd, tl" 

Digiii<ica by Cjt.)0^lc 


Boute 85.— Ft^Ana: Ambras Mmeum; Seoi. Ill, 

Italian and Spanish piinees and noUea. 
The names and dates are all on the 

Suits. The most renmrkable, out of 
1 4S suits which belouged to princes 
and great men, appear to be— > 

I. — Helmet of brands I. of Prance ; 
armour of the Bmp* Maximilian^ for 
man and horse ; armour of the Arch- 
duke Ferdinand, founder of the col- 
lection; near the window is the 
armour of Uie gimntic body-guards- 
nan of Ae Arehdnke ; suits of Don 
John of Austria, and Philip II. of 
Spain; helmet and sabre of Zrinyi, 
so celebrated for his heroic defence of 
Szigeth against the Turks in 15tiG ] Ste- 
phan Bathory,King of Poland (1586.) 

II. — Arms of Christian Count Fng- 
ger (1615); on the avails to the 1., 
between the windows, Turkish spoils : 
the horse-tail standard and quiver 
which belonged to the Grand visir, 
Kara Mustapha,whoiras strangled at 
Belgrade in 1683, for raising the 
siege of Vienna; steel armour of 
Maurice, Elector of Saxony ; suit of 
the Stadt holder, Maurice Prince of 
Orange ; a steel suit Anted with gold, 
of Matthias lang, Archbishop of 
Salzburg; the armour of Scandcrbeg, 
(14G6); battle-axe of Montrzuma, 
Emp. of Mexico ; standard and wea- 
pons of Stephen Fadinger, leader 
of the rebellions peasantry (1626), 
brought from Linz ; steel suit of 
Albrecht the Bear, Elector of Branden- 
burg, plaited like a petticoat. 

The Gewehrkammer contains battle- 
axes, swords, gnni» &e.» of corious 

ITT. — Itnlinn and Spanish suits of 
armour. The most superb suit is that 
of Alexander Farnese, Duke of i^arma 
(1592), with g^lt relieft on a blacic 
ground, very remarkable for the 
beauty of its workmanship. The 
arms arran L'od in the niches belonged, 
for the most part, to celebrated Italian 
princes, Doria, Sforza, &c. 

iy.--QaUery of curious old paint- 
ings, chiefly portraits, poor iu execu- 
tion, but valuable contemporary 
portraits, and probably good resem- 
blances, the greater part having been 

taken at the request of the Ibnnder of 
the eollflottoD* 

The genealogical tree of Rodolplt 
of H^qi&nrg; a portrait taken from 
his monument at Speier, now de- 
stroyed; portraits of M milian I.; 
his wife, Mary of Burgundy ; Philip 
ir. of Spain ; Charles V.; Ins mother 
Joanna ; his sou Don John of Austria ; 
Francis I. ; Mary Queen of Scots ; 
Andrew Doria ; Philippina Welser, 
the beautiful wife of the founder of 
this collection; Charles V. when a 
child, with his two sisters, one of 
then 1 ) I r ] ding a doll. Three Imperial 
hriflos of sovereigns of the House of 
Hapsburg, whose dowries were king- 
doms including what are still some 
of the noblest provinces of the empire, 
whose marnage gave rise to uiese 

BeUa geraot alii, tn felix AostrU nnbe; 
21am qpm Mm aiUa, dafc tibi recoaVanu^ 

The portraits of Enropean princes, ISO 
in number, extend mm Rudolph of 

Hapsburg to Queen Anne of England. 
There are also 9ou small portraits of 
distinguished persoiia|^es. 

In tiie centre of the room are three 
large cahinets containing the priests' 

mass robes worn at the foundation of 
the order of tlw HnUlen Fleece l)y 
Philip the Good of Burgundy, covered 
with emhroidered figures of saints in 
the style of art of the period, and 
very well executed in the manner 
of the school of Van Kyck, deserve 
attentive examination ; they are more 
like pictures than specimens of cui- 


V. — Natural objects and works of 
art, minerals, animals, Sec. : the head 
and homs of a stag, enclosed in the 
trunk of a tree, aud completely over- 
grown by it, so that only the ex- 
tremities of the antlers project ; many 
Roman antiquities, dug up in Tyro], 
on the site of the ancient stations 
Yeididena (Wilten), and Mattrejium 
(Matrei) ; and an immense nail 2 ft. 
long, and weighing 43 llMk, ftom.the 

Tti the case marked 11 are some 
admirable cnrvinfcs in wood ; the best 
are the rape of the Sabines, and a 
battle-piece, by AUoe*- Colin, the artist 
whoseolptared the b«MiUeft of Mazi" 

Digitized by Google 

Austria* BoiUe S5« — Jm^pericU Fidure GcUkry. 

millaii's tomb at Inmbniek. These 

deserve minute examination. Here 
are kept the trappings belonging to 
liawkin^; in old times. A collection 
of musical instruments used in the 
middle ages, the veiy nAmefl of some 
of which are now forgott^ Iron stool 
on "which those strangers "were placed 
at Schloss Ambras who con Id not 
empty the welcome-cup atone draught. 
A set of toys made for the children of 
Vraneis I. of France and Eleanor of 

VI. — JewelJery, trinkets, cups cut 
out of precious stones, carviiiii;'S» plate 
of costly workmauship, and enamels. 
A shield of iron, whieh belonged to 
Oharles Y., U ornamented with a re- 
presentation in relief of a oomhat of 
wild beasts. 

VII. — Cabinet presented by Pope 
Alexander YII. (Cmigi), to the Emp. 
Leopold I, in 1663. Several pictures, 
including a portrait of Charles V., by 
(?) Titiaui another of Chaxles IX by 


The **Imperial Picture Gallifyis 

in the Upper Belvedere, The terrace 
in front commands one of the most 
pleasing views oi Vienna. The en- 
trance is at the back of the building. 
Open daily, except Monday^ 10 to 4 
Sunday, lOto L Abridged catalogue, 
40 kr. 

This gallery ranks fourth amoiig 
those iu Germany, being burpaased 
only by the ooUeetions at Dresden, 
Munich, and Berlin. It was opened 
to the public in 1728, and its nucleus 
consists of the collections formed by 
the Emperor Kudolph II. at Prague, 
and by Teniefs, m the Ar^^dnke 

Leopold Winiam, Governor of the 

Netherlan ls in l(i56. 

Tlie Marhh Hall at the top of the 
staircase is adorned with frescoes by 
Carlone, and with portraits, by Maron, 
of two bene&eton to the collection—* 
Maria Theresa and Joseph II. 

The pictures, about 1800 in number, 
are arranged accordinGi: to schools. 
On reaching the first tloor from the 
staircase, the Italian are in the rooms 
on the It, tihe Flenidi and Dnteh on 
the 1. A few of tiie most strikinff 
works are here ennmerated, 

Itauan anp Spanish Schools, 

Agostino Oaraeci : *St. Francis. 
Andrea del Sarto : Holy Family ; 

Replica at the Louvre. — Tobias with 
the Archaugei, and S. Laureuce.— 
Pieth.— <Sehool of) : Vii gi n and ehild* 

Andrea Solario : Herodias with the 
head of S. Johu Baptist (called Arn^ 

Amubale Oaraeei: The W<mian of 


Basaiti: Call of the sons of Zebe- 


Bassano (Fr.) : Boy playing the 
flute. — Tamar and Judah. 

Bellini (GioY.): Presentation in the 

BenoTTo OozzoU : Vir^^ and Child 

WO! sliipped by Saints. 

BombeiU : Francesco dei Medici, 
aged 18. 

Bonifazio : Virgin and Child, with 

SS. Mark and Ursula. 

Bronzino: Holy Family. 

Caiavaggio: Virgm and Child 
with & Anna. 


II I 1 

3 I a g / 






Ill II 

6'. Qerrn* 

Pisa of Bsltedeie Ositeiy^fbsi Floor. 

Digitized by GoogL 


Maute 85. — Vimna : Belvedere GoU&r^ ; Seoii HL 

Correg^gio : Japiter and Io.*-Ga;iy- 
inede and the Eagle. — S. Sebadtiaiu 

Cristofano Allori: Judith. 

DoBso Dossi : Alfonso IL, duke of 
Ferrara, in armour. 

Fra Bartolommeo : Presentatioi!.—- 
Yirgin a&d Child. 

PlMliBOl Virgin and Child, 
with SS. Dominic, Catharine of Siena, 
Peter Martyr, Magdalen, Barbara, 
and Catharine of Alexandria. 

MnelA ! Virgin and CSiildreD, ytVAk. 
%S. Francis and Catlnriiifi. 

Giorgione : *ThreoTi)atliematieiEns, 
in a landscape at sunrise. 

(Hulio Bomane : '''St. Margaret. 

Lorenio Lotto: ^Portrait of a man, 
about 30 years of age, " pale, aristo- 
oraticy refined, and fml of soul," (called 
Correggio). In his left hand he holds 
a golden bird's claw. — Virgin and 
Child, with SS. Catharine and Jaooies, 
and an angel. 

Luca Giordano : Fall of the Angels. 

Mantegna : *S. Sebastian. 

Moretto : *S. Giustina, one of the 
best works of the master : the expres> 
rion of the sunt is Aill of aweetneia 
and iunoeence. The kneeling figure 
is F.rrole, D. of Ferrara. 

Moroni : Portrait of a man in 
black (called /. S. Van Calcar\ — 
Portrait of a young Scnlptor (called 

MoriUo : The Boy John Baptist, 

with a T/amb. 

Palma Vecchio : Venetian Lady. — 
John the Baptist, grievously painted 
over, but gennine.— Tiro young Vene- 
tian ladies.— Boy of 14, holding a 
helmet.— Virg^in and Child in a land- 
scape, with SS. Catbnrine. Barbara, 
Pope Oelestiu, and John the iiaptist. 
— ♦Visitation. 

Paolo Veronese: Boy caresalng a 
do^. — ^The Woman of Samaria. — Por 
trait of Marcantouio Barbaro. — *'rhe 
Woman with an issue of blood. — An- 
nunciation.— The Woman taken In 

Parmigianino : ♦Portrait of a Flo- 
rentine general. — 8. Catharine with 
two angels. — Cupid sharpening his 

^rugino: Virgin and Child, with 
wo female Baints.— Vir^ ao4<}kiM, 

with Sa FMer, JeMine» Faal, and 

John Baptist. 

Baffael r *Vlrgin and Children, 
painted in Florence for his friend 
Taddeo Taddei (1505).— School of: 
Repose on the Flight ; S. John brings 

SehiaTOM : Ateatioii of the Shep- 
herd s. 

Sodoma : Holy Family, 

Tintoretto: Old man in meditation, 
with a boy/->mie Doge NIeeoId 
da Ponte. — ^*Adm. and Doge Sebaa- 
tiano Venieff^Pomait of a yoang 


Titian : AU^ry. — Diana and Cai- 
Ifsto.— *Bce6 nemo (1648)» ^ wMoh 
the artist baa faitrodneed portraits of 

the Emp. Charles V. in armour, of 
Sultan Solyman, of his friend Arctino 
as Pilate, and of himself. This iiuis- 
terpiece formed part of the coUection 
<tf Cniarlei I. of England, aold bj 
Oliver Cromwell. — The Entomb- 
ment. — Danae. — John Frederick the 
3ragijanimous, Elector of Saxony. — 
Giaccomo Strada, the Anti<^uary. — 
B. Olatharine . of Alexandria. — ^"'Por- 
traH of his ph^ician Parma. — The 
Woman taken in Adultrn,'^ unfini^i^- 
L'd — *Venuuan Lady. — Virgin and 
Child, with SS. Jerome, Stephen, and 
George. —>Vhrgin and Child, both 
looking down. Landscape on the 
left. One of his best. — Holy Family 
with Zacharias. S. John brings straw- 
berries aiid cherries. — Boy in a land- 
scape, playing the timbrel. 

mnmaao & HMm: ^rgln and 
Child with S8.t Weneetlana and Pal- 
matins, on a gold gronnd. 

Velasquez: Don Baltl asar Carlos, 
as a boy .—Philip IV. of Spain. — idiot, 
— The TnfluDta Margaret Theresa. — 
*His u\vu family. 

Vivarini (Luigi ) : Virgin and Child 
with two angels playixig the lute. 


Aart van der Near : Marshy Laud* 
scape. — Landscape by Moonlight. 
BaoUinyieiL : *View of Amsterdam. 
Banhnd BIcUgal: Hazimilian I« 

DiQiii^uu by G(.)0^1c 


Bouie SS.-^Pamiingt, DtUehf Flemish^ de*. Schools. 179 

and Mary of Burgundy, with their 
three cbildrwij and JUewia II, of Hua* 

wings ; on the lerene, Bebaatian aad 

a female Saint. 

i£y> I Ctorliaert van Haarlem: Pietk. — 

Miluwd taa OtUj i Altar-piece in I Jofian the Apostate burning the 
two parts. remains of 8. John Bapt 

Breenberg: Landicape with rains Ooyen: Landscape, 
and cattle. Grttnewald: Lewis IL of Hungary 

Borgkmaier : Winged altar-piece of 1 as a boy. 
the Crucifixion. I Hamilton : Stag and two dogs in a 

TaTem interior. | landscape. 
CSranach : Adam aad Byeir— Mar- 1 Heem : Fmlt aadOTtters on a rilyer 

liage of S. Catharine. 

Grayer: Virgin and Child with 
Saints } very large. ' 

BoBur: Oldnanand wtomaa; two| 
lii^ify-finished portraits. 
Doet : Sheep m a landscape. 

dish. — Lemons and a lobster. — 
*CbaIice with Host, surrounded by 
emblematical grapes and com. 
HMbbema ; GatUe in a meadow. 
Holbein : Young man holding a 
book and glove. — * Portrait of a 

Don : *Physician with his patient. — young lady. — *Jaue Seymour. — ♦Johu 
Old woman watering flowers at a I Chambers^ physician to Henry Vlll. 
window. I — Geiyek Tybis, sealing a letter. 

Yirffin and Child, holding a Hendakiwler; Fowls in a large 
pear. — ^•The Holy Trinity, encircled group. 

by a crowd of Patriarchs, Saints, Honthorst : Christ before Pilate ; 
Martyrs, and Angels, in the act of I torchlight eilects. 
adoration ; below a Landscape, and I Hoogstraeten : Old Jew looking out 
Dftm^s figure in one comer. There of window. 

is a a^esty aad impressive dignity in I Jordaens : ^'Twelfth Night, or the 
the countenance of the Deity, which festival of the Bean-King.— Jupiter 
no painter who ever attempted a sub- and Mercury, as guests of Philemon 
ject so far above allpainting has pro- j and Baucis. 
Wbly sutpMied, ranted ia 1511.1 XBnig: Sommer, with children 
Tlie picture is quite uhtonchedand in | reaping. 

Mabuse : Virgin and Child. 

wonderful preservation, owing to its 
having seldom changed hands. — Por- 
trait of a young man *, on the back the 
artist has painted an ugly shrew with a 

Marcos Gerard: Male and female 


Master of the Death of Vary : Vixgin 

bag of allosion to and Child, with 8S. George and Galfiap 

a mercenary marriage.— 'Portrait of a rine on the wings, 

merchant of Nuremberg, painted two Mending : ♦Pietk.— Several small 

years before the artist's death. Per- Madonnas.— Christ bearing the Cross, 

sous unacQuainted with the paintings and the Kesurrection. 

of Albreobt DOrer will be astonished Metf«: Lace-maker, 

at the superiority and magnificence of Mierevelt : Old man. 

Ids works preserved in this collection : Mieris : Physician feeling the pulse 

here alone can his great powers be | of a sick lady. — *Scene in a shop j old 

fully appreciated. — '^Martyrdom of 
COmatiana under King Sapor IL of 
Persia, with portraits of Diirer and 
Pirkheimer. — *Emp. Maximiiiaw I., 
holding a pomegranate. 

Ihisart : Tipsy peasants at a tavern. 

Eeokhout : Old Man. 

Bfudingent Hilly landscape with 

Oerard David: *S. Michael with 
Jerun^e and Anthony of Padua on the 

man in the background. 
Mignon: Flowers. 
MoBtaert: Male portrait. 
Netherlands School : Virgin and 
Child, with the forged monogram of 
Diirer (two examples). 

Oftade (Isaac Tan) : Peasant having 
a tooth extracted. 

Penes: Small Crui'ifixiou. 
Fourbus : Portrait of a Lady 3 
white cap. — Male portrait. 

K SDigiii^oG by Coo^lc 

180 Boute 86. — Vienna : 

QTumtin Matiyt ; Portrait of a gold- 
smith.— St. Jerome. 

Bembrandt : Male portrait. — The 
painter's mother. — ^Bich lady. — Boy 
of 17, singiug. — *IIis own portrait at 
45, and as an old man. 

Soger van der Wejrden: *Vir^n 
and Child, like a miniature, with 
figures of Adam and Eve on the 
thi'one. — Crucifixion, with wings. 
The grief of the Virgin is depicted 
witli perfect truth and pathos. The 
woman at the side is also exquisitely 
painted, in a soft manner. On the 
doors are St. Veronica and the Mag- 
dalen.— St» GiitKarine. 

Bottsidiainmer : Nativity. 

Bnbens : Pieta. — *Four children, 
one of whom brings a lamb. — *St. 
Ignatius Loyola casting out Evil 
Spirits, a most effective picture; a 
foreshortened figure of a numiac on t lie 
ground is quite extraordinary. — The 
Assumption of the Virgin. — St. Francis 
Xavier raising the dead and healing 
the sick among the Indians. ** These 
two pictures are scarcely surpassed, 
for impressive effect, by any works of 
Bubens." — W. St. Jerome. — Pepin, 
duke of Brabant, with his daughter 
St. Bega. — *Slaying of tiie Caledonian 
Boar. — *St. Ambrose denying the 
£mp. Theodosius admission into the 
Church at Milan on account of his 
Thessalian Massacre ; ** touched upon 
by Vandyke, and the better for every 
tonoh," says Sir Thomas Lawrenee.— 
His own P rirait — Sketch for the 
picture of St. Francis Xavier; and for 
that of St. Ignatius. — Titian's Mistress, 
a copy by liubens. — • The Danube, 
Ganges, Nil*, and Amazon, represent- 
ing the four quartera of the 0obe.<— 
♦The Virgin giving a chasuble to 
S. Ildefonso, in the presence of four 
female Saints. — ^IMary Magdalene. — 
Festival of Venus. — Helena Four- 
ment, his^ second ^fe, ^entering a 
bath, partially covered with a brown 
cloak. One of his most exquisite 
portraits, for the carefnl execution 
and brilliancy of colouring.' — Ferdi- 
nand of Hungary, in national costume. 
— Holy Family under an apple-tree. — 
Philip thp Good, Duke of Burgundy 

Byckaert; VUlage festival.— Piun- 

Bekedere QaUery ; Sect. IIL 
dering of a village. — ^Witeh struggling 

with a nionster. 

Knysdael : Woodland stream, with 
many hgures. — '^Landscape, with large 
oaks and beeches. 

Saftteroi; Landscape* 

Schalcken : Girl with a light. 

Schoreel: Portraits of a man and 

Seghers : Virgin and Children in a 
landscape. — Gtonand of flowers, sur- 
rounding a Holy Family by Vandydk, 
— Wreath of flowers, surrounding a 
Holy Family, grey in grey. 

Steen : *Merry party ; the painter 
plays the fiddle. — ^Peasant wedding. 

Sustermans: Old m o man. 

Teniers : Pnstic Wedding. — Young 
peasants playing in n village. — 
Peasants shooting. — *8hooting Festi- 
val at Brussels, Archduke Leopold 
William receiying a prize.— P^uants 
in a room; one of them reads the 
paper. — Pea sants Sni ok i n ? . — ♦ Village 
Feast, with numerous iigures of tip- 
pling and dancing peasants. — Picture 
Gallery of the Ardidnke Leopold 
William.--Saerifioe of Isaac^Dano* 
ing Peasants. 

Terbnrg: Young girl peeling an 
apple for a Child. 

Theodm of Pragiie: St Augustine. 
—St. AmbroBe. 

Unknown r St. Jerome, with 
Apostles, Saints, Church Fathers, and 
donors, on the wings. 

Yaa Aelst : Peasants tippling. 

Yaa CapcUe: Sea coast with ships 
at anchor. 

Van der Goes : Virgin and Child, 
with the donor and an angel. 

Van der Heyden : Old Castle. 

▼an der Velde: LsndKape witli 
ruins and castle. 

Vandyok : *Portrait of a young 
(jieneral. — *Virgin and Child, with 
SS. Rosalia^ Peter, Paul, and an 
angel.^ •Prmee Rupert of the Pfals, 
at twelve years old. — *Prince CnH 
Ludwi^, brother of the above, aged 
15. — Virmu an I Child appearing to 
Joseph Hermann. — Infanta Clara 
Isabella Eugenia. » ^MarquU Fran- 
cisco de Moncada.-^*Omciuion, the 
original of numerous repetitloiM*— 
Countess ^milie Ton P'^*"^ I— "Jolui 

Digitized by Google 

Austria. ^oute ^5, ^Prince L 

de Montfort. — Mocking of Christ. — 
Samson and Delilah. — ^Holy Family. 

Van Eyck: Portrait of Cardiiial 
della Croce. 

'Vliaftr ! *Galm Sea. 

Vbnvermant : Attack of Robbers in 
a murky landscape; unusually large. 
— Rest on the Chase. — Hilly road, 
with Robberb attacking. — ^Horses in a 
landscape, of whom roar are heiug 
driven to the water. 

Wyaaati : Wooded landaoape. 

Four roujiiii ou the i»econd floor are 
iUlod with modm works (separate 
catalogue, 25 kr.X and give a tolerable 
notion of the present state of art in 
Austria, and of the new school of 
piunting in Germany. 

BltM (Oarl Ton): Charlemagne 
chiding the idle schoolboy. 

Defregger : Zither^player. The 
last time of asking. 

Eagerth (E. von): Helen, wife of 
King Manfred, separated from her 

Eybl : Old peasant woman coming 
out of church. 

Gauermann : Two landscapes. 

Karger : The Railway Station. 

XnuR : The Soldier^s departure and 


Kurzbauer: Overtaken Fugitives. 
Beinhold: Cottages wUh two women 
and a child. 
Sehnorr ; Faust and Mephistopheles. 

On the Ground Floor^ on two sides 
of a grand hall, with statues of 
Charles VI. and Eugene of Savoy, 
and busts of Francis I. and Maria 
Theresa, are suites of rooms filled with 
Italian ma8ten« with Flemish and 
Diiteh ^ricturea, aad with works of 
modern artists. 

The Botaaiiml tedm, IL of the 
Belyedere, is well k«»nt« and worth 


inhabited summer Palace, in the 

Alaergrund, is most li^ernlly thrown 
open to the public every day, except 
Saturday, from 9 to 4; on Sun. and 

icchtenstein^s Gallery, 181 

holidays, 2 to 4 ; fee 50 kr.^ tut less 
in proportion ior a party. 

Aart Tan der Neer : Landscape by 

Albert Cuyp: Shepherd and Shep- 
her less. — ^Landscape» with castle and 
iisiicrnuui . Good, bnt not genuine. 

Amberger; Young man with a 
blaek cap. 

Andrea del Sarto : St. John. 

Anthony More: Male portrait. 

AsseljTi : IJay, with rocks and boats. 

Backhuysen: Stormy sea with a 
hilly shore. 

Saroccio : Rest on the Flight. 

■Benjamin Cuyp : Guard-room* 

Berchem : Lnndf^eape. 

Bemhaxd van Orley: Crowned 
Saint, with the donor* — S. Helen, witii 
the donor's wife. 

Both : Hilly landscape. 

Breeuberg: Landaeape, with rocks 
and a castle. 

Brouwer : Village Dentist. 

Bmyn (Bart, de) : 8. Mary Blagdfr* 

Calcar f.T. von) : Man with a heard. 

Chardin : Cook.— Mother and Child- 
ren, — Cook, peeling a lemon. 

daetss : 6. Lanrenee, with 
the donor. — SS. Maurice and Francis. 

Correggio (School of) : Cupid asleep 
in the lap of Venus, who is holding 
her finger to her lip. 

Cranach: S. Helena.— Venns and 
Oupid. — Sacrifice of Isaac. 

Bifk van Bergen : Hilly landscape. 

Bon : Boy blowing bubbles, another 
looking on. 

Brillenbnrg : Landscape. 

Droogiloot: Peasant amnsements in 
a village. 

Dusart : Peasant rejoicinfrs. 

Eeckhout ; Royal banquet. 

Francia (Francesco) : *Portrait of 
a duke of Urbtno. 

Prancia (Giaeeomo): Virgin and 

Child, with a vo'yQ. 

Frauciabig-io : Male portrait bust. 
Gainsborough: Man's portrait bust. 
Garofalo : 8. Ohristopher. 
Girolamo da OotlgBOla; Holy 


Guido Rem : Adoration of the Shep- 
herds J large. 

Digitized by Google 


Jakmie 85. — Vienna: Czemin GaUeryi Sect XLL 

HUi: Willem ▼an Huythuyscn of 

Hondekoeter : Domestic fowls. 

Hoogitraataa: Bcqr of 12» vith 
long hair. 

Jaoob yon Delft : Boy of 11» with 
black Tehret cap. 

Laonaido 4» Vkuii Yovaag lady, 

with fair hair. 

Memling : Virgin ^nd Child, with 
the donor and S. Anthony, — ♦Virgin 
and Ohild^ widi an apple. 

Mielich : Man in a black eap* 

Mierevalt : Porttait of a man with 
red beard. 

Molenaer : Landscape. — TwelfUi- 
night. — Landscape, with a bridge 
over a stream. 

Xoretto: ^Viigin and Child, with 
S. Anthony. 

Ostade ( A. van) : Peasants dancing. 

Palma Yecchio : Holy Family, wiu 
a bishop.— Holy Family, with 8. Oa- 

Pemgino: Yirg^ and Child; re- 
plica of that in the Pitti. Round* 

Pynacker : Hilly landscape. 

Bamhraatt: ^Portrait bust «f Ui 
wife.— ♦His own portraitr— Biana and 
Endymion. — Calm Sea. 

Komeyn: Sheep and ^oats — Shep- 
herds and herdsmen, resting on a hill. 

Boaa : Shepherd's family. 

Bubens : Old man witha latipamflt 
— Boy's head. — Tiberius and Agrip- 
pina. — Entombment. — The daughters 
of Cecrops and the Boy Erechthonioe. 
A series of sixpictures representing 
the Histoiy of Deeins; eott aO^OOOC 
** Most striking, bold, yigoroiu» and 
rapid ; though wanting delicacy, they 
yet have such freshness of tone as ap- 
pears to outshine all other masters." 
—IT. The Assumption of the Virgin. 
-»*Bnb«nsr two Sons, standing to* 
gether in a confiding and graceful 
attitude. It is difficult to know 
whether most to admire the life in 
the heads, the clearness and force in 
tha eolouring, or the carefhl ezecn- 
tion and admirable empasta" It is 
one of the best and most finished 
works of the master ; uneq^ualled as a 
reraescntation of youth. 

Sayadaal (J. Tan): Woo^ ]and> 

— Landscape, with cows and sheep 


Buysdael (fiokmm yaa): Chiuck 

and Canal. 

Saftleven: Landscape. 

gassofarrato : Virgin and OhikU 

Sehoraal : Male portrait in blade 

Seybold : His daughter's portrait. 

Steen : Girl with a letter. 

Tenters : Peasant at home, playing 
the guitar. 

ifita: Virgin and Chfld, with S& 
JohnBftpt. and Catharine. 

Unknown : Tiny portndt of a mmn 
and his wife (No. 734). 

Van dtr Heyden : View on a Canal. 

▼an dar Bear (Jan, of Haarieoi) : 

Tan dar Talda (Adrian): Ai^gna 
and lo. 

_ Vandyck : Man in black, with white 
collar. — Entombment. — Marie Louise 
Ton Tasna^^rgin and CSiild, hold* 
ing her with both hands. — Male 

portrait; left hand on sword-hilt— 
The so-called Portrait of Wallen- 
stein; admirable as a i^inting. On 
the pillar on_th e L of the pictme la 
inscribed JBT> 82, 1624.— Lady in 
black, holding a white book. — Arch- 
duch^s Clara Isabel Eugenia as an 
abbess. — Ecclesiastic of the Tassis 
family. — Male portrait ; left hand on 

Vliegar: Woody landscape. 
Weenix : Dead Hare and Birds. 
Wohlgemuth: Old man with grey 

wynanta: WStf landscape; two 

MitUeni: &Nicolaa. 

Mon. and Thurs., 10 to 2 ; catalogue, 
80 kr.), Josephstadt, Faradeplats, near 
the Criminal Oonrt, oonriats of more 

than 300 pictures. The majority are 
of the Dutch SchooL The choicest 
paintings are : 

Brompar; VIllaMSiimon, 

Carlo Maratta : jBUly I'lmllj* 

Cuyp : Cattle in a meadow. 
Don : Portrait of the painter.— 
^Pl^ing cards by candle-light. 

Bmr : Portndt of a nan wUh a 
Mack can. 

Digiii<ica by (JiOO 


Bouie 85. — Aoademn of Fine Aris. 


Early Florentine : Altar-piece in 24 
sections (1344), on gold ground, from 
a convent near Padna. 

Emdiagiii! Two voodland cata- 

Gnercino : Young Cyrus. 
Hobbema : "'Landscape iu autumn, 
with a river. 
Hondekoetcr: Godks and Heng, with 

their chicks. 

Lnini : Virgin and Child^ holding a 

HnriUos Cmcifixlon. 

Ostade : Man smoking. 

Potter: ^Morning in Spring 

(glazed 1, 

Eembrandt : Portrait of his mother. 

Buysdael : "'Landscape with cata- 

Byokaert: Musical party. — Pea- 
sants at a tavern. 

SafCleven ; Landscape. 

Snyders : Fox. liunted by dogs. 

Taiiiers: Bagpipe-player. 

Titian: Portrait of a Doge (EV. 

Van der Heist : Portraits. 

Van der Meer (of Delft): *The 
Painter's Studio, a gem. 

Van der Velde (W.) : Calm Sea. 

Vandyck : Portraits. 

Van Eyck : Presentation. 

Wouvermans : Xietom from the 

Wynaats: Landscape. 

gasse (open Mon., Wed., and Fri., 9 
to 3 ; fee, 30 kr. ; a MS. catalogue in 
each room). 

Aart Tail der Hear : Scene in 

Brouwer : Village Surgeon. 

Bmeghel : Village Fair. 

Oranaeh: Portraits. 

Don : Philosopher in his study. 

Early Gennaa Boliool: Adam and 


Flemish School: Adoration of the 

HoIbei]& ! '^Bfale portraits. 
Xetsu: Letter- writer. 
Ostadej Feasants at a Merry- 

Bemhrandt: ^Samson blinded by 
the Philiatinea— very honible. 

BTi]r8dael : Landscape. — Castle of 
Taaiani : Philosopher. 
Taa Ooyan: Iiandscapc^View of 


Wynants: Landscape. 

The Habbaoh OAXJLSBT, 3 Frey- 
nng, has also a very choice cabinet 
of paintings (open Men., Wed'y and 
Satur., 10 to 4), fee, 30 kr. 

Battoni: Susanna. 

Benthaid van Qrlay: ^Adoration 
of the Magi. 

Breughel: The Seven Works of 

Carenuo : Philip IV. of Spain. 
Claude Lorraine : Sunset. 
Cuyp: Cows. 
Diirer : Male portrait. 

Early Flemish: Crucifixion, with 
Saints on the wings, and in grisaille 
on the outside. 

Bverdingen ; Bocky landscape. 

rieniish School : Three Girls. 

Ohirlandajo: Nativity. 

Griffier : Greenwich and Windsor. 

Heda : Bread and Ham. 

Hobbema : Landscape. 

Laoa Giordano: Isaac blessing 

Lnini : S. Jerome. 

Mengs : Nativity. 

KnrUlo: Esau selling his birth- 
right — Sacrifice of Isaac. 

Peters : Sea-piece. 

Pietro da Cortona : Samson. 

Bubens : of a Child. — Heads 
of Moors. 

Mialekcn; *Beco^ition of Peter; 
a wonderful candle-light effect. 

Titian : S. St'!i:i<;tian. 

Van der Velde (W. ) : Malta. 

Vandyck ; Head of a Boy. 

Yaa Chnida : Male portrait 

Velasques: In&nte of Spain dressed 

ns a C:irdinal. 

Vemet: Juandscapes. 


k. Akademie der bildenden' Kiinste), 
(open Satur. and Son. 10 to 1 ; closed 
from 15 to 30 Sept. : Plaster Casts, 
9 to 1, except on Fri. and Sat.) is an 
Italian Renaissance building erected 
by JSoMsea in 1876» on ^e S. side of 

Digitized by Google 


Boute 86. — Vienna: Accden^; Pcmimgai 8eot. Ill 

the SchUlerplatz. Above the nuanre 

freestone ground floor and entresol 
rises a two-storied series of semicir- 
cular arches, decorated with pilasters, 
festoons, and wreaths, and alternately 
occupied by windows and etatnes. 
The nniformity of front is broken by 
projections at each flank, ornamented 
with wider windows nnd arches and 
double coiumus, and riiiing above the 

eentral roof, with dosed ndng wells 
adorned with pi astiedeeonlieos. Tie 

entablature of the central portico is 
supported by colunius and adorned by 
Statues, i his academy, founded under 
Joseph I., in 1705, and reor^^aaiied in 
1865, as a school of instmelioii in all 
departments of art, contsuns a good 
colb-ction of pictures, including the 
cabinet of Count Lamberg, presented 
by him in 1821. The rich cabinet of 
engraving and dfawinffs by old 
masters ineludes the works of Kodi. 
The number of students varies be- 
tween 1000 and 1200, who are in- 
structed Kratuitouiily in all the 
Iwanohes of art. At the entrance to 
the Xnseum of Casts are two good 
ancient works in white marble: 1. a 
torso of Hera, rt. a youth j both 


Berchem : Winter landscape. 
Bonifazio ; Finding of Moses. — 

COatde temlM ; Landscape. 

Ouyp : Portrait of a Woman. 
Evcrdingen : Waterfalls in Norway. 
Fraucia : Virgin and Child. 
MaiBolino : Virgin and Child. 
Xorillo: Two street boys playing 
with dice. 
Hetsoher : *Toung lady. 
Old OeraiaiL flehoaL : Death of the 


Ost&de : Comic recital. — Two pea- 

Paolo YeroneM : Ansimclation. 
Potter: Sheep. 
Pourbns : Portraits, 
Pyuacker ; Landscape. 
Benteiadt t Dnteh Old. 
^**ens: Th. Three Gnioet. 
vjidael; ^Landscape. 

Teniers : The Fire 
Titian: Cupid. 

Van der Heyden : Street areki- 
tecture, with bridge. 

Van der Yelde (A.) : Haarlem Gatde 

Yin der Yelde (W.): Dnteh port 

Vandyck : Man in armoor. 

Van Ooyen : Dordrecht. 
Veias^uez : Queen of i'hiiip I\ . 

Wommuu : TntTdltng party 

The * Austrian Museum of Art and 
Industry, 5 btubeuring (open Tues. 
and Wed., 9 to 4, 30 kr. ; Thurs., 
Fd and Bat, 9 to 4; and Son., 9 to 1, 
free; catalogue, 20 kr.), was com- 
pleted by Ferstel in the Renaissjinee 
style in 1871, and is a sort ot" South 
Kensington Museum. The collection 
embraces examples of the prinoipa] 
branches of industrial art. Fragments 
of antique sculpture found at Car- 
uuntum (Petronel), Aquileia, and in 
other parts of the Austrian empire, 
are depiodted heie. Au Art School is 
connected with the Museum, and 
Room IX. is devoted to Special Art 
Exhibitions, altered from year to 
year. There is a Library of 16,uuQ 
works connected with the Arts, and a 
oollection of 15»000 engraTings and 

The Musikvereinsgebaude, south 
of the Kiirntnerriug, on the Wieu, is 
a handsome RenaisMee edifiee by 
Hansen (18€7 70), with Statues on its 
fa9ade, and Orpheus in terra cotta 
above the entrance. The interior con- 
tains a spacious Concert- room and 
au extensive musical library. 

The Puhlie Institations of all kinds 
for the benefit of the people in Vienna 
are eiulo-svccl and supported on a very 
enlarged and liberal scale. Few con- 
tinental capitals can vie wiih it in the 
number and extent of its hospitalSt 
schools, &c Tlie prisooe also are w^ 

The Polyteohuio Institute (adm. 
before IS o'elbek every we^-day, 
on application), a hgadsoine structure 
liMing the KiSnit&erstraMe and the 

Digitizda by Gc5o^l 

Austiia. lioute 85. — Printing Office ; Asylum for Insane, 185 

Elisabeth Bridge, in the subarb of 
Wieden, was established by the Emp. 
Francis T. in 181fi, to atlord instruc- 
tion in llie arU> and practical sciences, 
as well as in trade, commerce, and 
manufactures, to 500 pupik. In front 
is placed a bronze tiatm^ erected in 
1863, of Eessel, an Austrian by birth, 
who inyented the screw-propeller in 
1827. IthasinteregtingooUeetloiis: — 
1. Of the best specimens of Austrian 
nrts and manufactures. 2. A la!)ora- 
tory and collection of philnsuphical 
instruments. 3. Models ui buildings 
and mflchhierT. ^ 4» A fibraxy, fte. iee. 
In the same building is the Techno- 
logische Museum, consisting' of speci- 
mens of the productions of various 
manufactures in the various stages 
which the different objects pass 
throQgfa; also of maehiaeiy, steam- 
engines, and vatiouB mechanical in- 
ventions. Adjoining this, and facing 
the fruit market, is the Renaissance 
Frottmtani tSciioolf buiii m 1861. 

The Imperial Printing Office (Hof- 

und Staats-Druckerei), ^>13 Singer- 
strasse (open Tues. and Fri., 9 to 12), 
is an extensive and well-managed 
estAbUshment, employing 800 men, not 
only in the ordinary proceeees of 
printing, but in those of stereotyping, 
type-casting, nature and colour-print- 
ing ; and all the most improved photo- 
graphic processes of the day. 

The Homftl School of St. Anne, 3 
Annagasse, was established by Maria 
Theresa as a pattern for all others in 
her dominions. Persons iuLerebted in 
the Babjeet of national education may 
here obtain an insight into the system 
followed In Austria and her dq^wmdent 

The Imperial Oymnasiiua, or public 
secondary school, where a dassical 
education is given similar to our colle- 
giate or grammar schools, is a hand- 
some quadrangular building, erected 
in 18G6. The Aula, or examination 
hall, is worth inspeeting. 

The University was founded in 
1237, but was totally reorganised 

in the reign of Maria Theresa 
(1752 1756), under the direction of 
her physician, Van Swieten. The old 
buildings near St. Sttipheu's are now 
used for the Aeademy of Sciences, 
and a new University building in the 
Renaissance style, b^- Fersfelf has been 
erecu il in the TTmversitiitsplatz:. It 
is ciUcudcd by about GOOO students, a 
larger nmnbca* than are found at any 
other University in Germany. The 
professor?, 350 in number, all receive 
fixed stipends from the state. The 
Theological. Surgical, and Veterinary 
ooUMs an deUvered gratuitously ; but 
the student has to pay a fte of 18 fl. 
for attendance on the lectures in 
Philosophy, and 30 fl. for those of 
Medicine and Jurisprudence. The 
University of Vienna is celebrated 
over the Continent as a School of 
' Medicine. 

There is another medical institution 
here, for the instruction of army 
surgeons, named aiier its founder, tlie 
Emp. Joseph II., the Yosephinum, in 
die Alsergrund suburb, 17 Wiihringer- 
gasse. It is richly furnished uith 
litirary and museums. The most re- 
markable collection is an extensive 
series of anatomical preparations in 
wax, exhibiting the diseases and eon* 
formations of the human frame, made 
by the Chevalier Fontana of Florence, 
occupying 7 or 8 rooms. It is shown 
(not to females) on Saturdays, from 
II to 1, and adinittance is panted at 
other times 1^ tidttC obtained of the 

At No, 59 in the same street is the 
Technical Industrial Museum, with 
electrical machines and other seientifie 

The General Hospital (Allgemeines 
Kraukenhaus), in tiic Alser Vorstadt, 
is an enormous building, fbonded by 
the Emp. Joseph II., containing 19 

quadrangles, 131 sick chambers, and 
is capable of holding 3000 patients. 
It receives annually 30,500. 

The Asylum for the lasaaa (Ir- 

rcnheil-Institut), a handsome struc- 
ture (1848-52), admirable in its 
arrangements, is capable of receiving 

186 Btmie BB.*^Vimma .* 

700 patients. The Lying-in-Hospital 
(Cfd>aran8talt) to which women are 
admitted in the most secret ^maimer, 
and, unseen by any individoaly will 
receive every medical assistance and 
every care, and, having recovered, may- 
quit the house unrecognized. The 
child is either taken by the mother, 
or left to be placed in tbe Foundling 
Hospital. Here it is not left at the 
door, as in France, but is taken into the 
office and registered, and the mother 
receives a ticket, by presenting which 
she may at anj time reclaim liar off> 
spring; which is otherwise, at a proper 
age, put to some useful trade or made 
a soldier. Nearly 17,000 children are 
supported in the Foundling Hospital 
at one time, at a cost of more than 
40,0001. per annum, and about 8000 
enter in a year. The mortality aanong 
the children is great. 

There is a public examination of the 
pupils of the Blind Asylum {Blinden- 
JnmttU)f Josephstadt, Kaiserstrssse, 
188, every Thursday from 10 to 12. 

The Deaf and Dumb are instructed 
and tended in an institution founded by 
Joseph II. in 1779 (Wieden, Favoriten- 
strasse); the poor gratniUmsIy. They 
are not abandoned when their educa- 
tion is finished, but are provided for 
in a suitable manner. Those who 
have talents are placed in public 
oifioes* and are generally entmited by 
the government with ubirs of state 
in which secrecy is required. The 
public examination, which takes place 
every Saturday from 10 to 12, is 
worth attending. 

The Hospital of the Charitable 
Brothers (Spital der barmherzigen 
Briider), 1(5. Taborsti*asse, is an institu- 
tion deberviug high commendation, 
both on aoconnt of the orders deanli- 
ness» and good management observed 
in it, and for the liberality of its plan, 
which throws it open to the sick of 
all nations and religions. 

The Invalidenliaiiiy the Chelsea 
Hospital of Vienna, outside of the 
Stubenthor, was established on its 
present footing by Joseph II. for 800 
old sdldians. In the great hall are 

two large pictures by P. Krafft of the 
battles of Leipzig and Aspern. The 
building is thrown open to the publie 
on the 18th of October, the anniversary 
of the battle of Leipzig. Strangers 
who are curious to see it are admitted 
at all times. 

Near the Invalidenhaus is the large 
New Custom-house (ZoUgMude), aiui 
in the same part of the town (Land- 
strasse, Rabengasse, 541), the Veteri- 
nary College {Thierarznei-Institut'), 
which for those who take an interest 
in such flstablishmenta is well worth 

Parks. — The Augarten in the Leo- 

Soldstadt, close to the N.W. Rly. 
taty was opened to the public bgr the 
Bmpeior Josef IL in 1775. 

— The Stadtpark, on the E. side of 
the Stadt, and intersected by the 
Donau-Canal, has been prettily laid 
out since 1862. There is a fine view 
from the terrace of the Kursalon, au 
elegant Renaissance building of 1867. 
Nearer the Ringstrasse is the monu- 
ment to Schubert (see above). 

— The Liechtenitain Oardeai, ad- 
joining the Picture Gallery, are 
thrown open to the public, and form 
an agreeable promenade. The Schwar- 
zenberg GaiaBii| near the Behredsiie^ 
are also a Ikvounte resort. 

— The Prater became the property 
of the Imperial family in 1570, 
and was opened to the public by 
the Emperor Josef II. in 1760. This 
Hyde Park of Vienna is situated at 
the N.E. extremity of the capital, 
beyond the Canal. Here there is an 
open circular space, from which 
branch out six avenues. Qose to the 
first allej is the Terminus of the 
Northern and Eastern Railroads, 
The second on the right (Hauptallee) 
is the most fieq^ueuted, and leads to 
the Panorama, the Circus» and the 
coffee-houses. This alley ends in a 
circle called the Rondeau; carriages 
usually turn at this point. The best 
time to meet the most fashionable 
society is 5.30 to 8 PJC. 

Digitized by Google 



The great days for visitinsf the 
Prater are ii^ter Mouda^, ike ist o£ 
May, and the Emperor^s tnithday 
(Aug. 18th). On May Day the whole 
city pours forth to the Praferfahrf, so 
that the carriages form an unbroken 
line from the Kohlmarkt in the city 
• to the Rondeau. It it ifaen that new 
equipages and fine liveries are seen for 
the first time. It is like the Ring in 
Hyde Park, with this difierence, that 
the homhle fiacr^ is admitted by the 
side of the princely fbcr-in-hand. 
Thm, amidst all the display of ooats 
of arras, with quarterings innamer- 
able, of crowns and coronets, scarlet 
and gold -laced liveries, Hungarian 
lacqueys in dolmans (the hussar 
dreasX helted Bohemian Jiigen, with 
swords at their sides and streaming 
feathers in their cocked hnts, there is 
far less aristocratie exclufiiveness 
than iu England. 

A tew steps bdiind the eoffee-hoases^ 
the Prater of |he groat world ends» 
and that of the common people beccins. 
On Sundays and holidays it has all 
the appearance pf a great fair. ^ far 
as tM eye can reach, under the trees 
and over the greensward, appears one 
great encampment of sutUers' booths 
and huts. 

The aspect of the Prater has been 
somewhat changed since the erection, 
on the 1. or side of the main 
drive, of the Greai JBOUbUion Suifd-' 
ing in 1873, but the principal portion 
of the ffalleries has been removed, 
leaving, however, the graud Botuada, 

oonatraetsd entirely of iron, firom the 
idea of Mr. Scott Russell, a magni- 
ficent triumph of modem engineering:. 
The span of this dome, or lantern, is 
more than double that of the greatest 
denies in the world, that of St Paul's 
being 115 ft. and of St. Peter's 
160 ft., and of this one 354 ft. in 
diameter. The view from the gallery 
at the top presents a fine panorama of 
Vienna and the old and new Dauubes. 
The ♦ l ^ o to n d a has been fitted up as 
a Permanent Exhibition of works 
relating to the Industrial Arts, and 
is well worth a visit in the evening. 
The Tarious halls are brilliantly illu- 
minaled with eleetiie Ught» and n 

band plays in the Gsrdtfi ilestau- 

Between the main building and the 

new DanulK' channel rises uie treble 

gallery fbi' Machinery, now nsed as 
permanent warehouses, iu connection 
with the wharves of the new river. 

The ExhiUtion baildin^ border 
upon another vast and important 
nndertalcing, viz. : the great works of 
the Eegulation of the Danube. These 
were undertaken in 1870 by the 
Grovenunent, the Province of Lower 
Austrii^ and the Muncipality of 
Vienna, after a succession of frightful 
inundations, which had brought about 
the destruction of life and property to 
an alarming extent. The manage- 
ment of the Dannhe has always been 
a sooree of difficulty, owing to its 
being compressed above Vienna, be- 
tween the Kahleni>erg and the iiisam- 
berg, and then spreading out aud 
oeenpying manyjmannels, which it 
irftenehaniipes. The inundations were 
caused by the gradual choking up 
with sand of the old bed, which liows 
some 3 m. to the £• of the city. To 
prevent this a new uniform artifidsK' 
Ded» .1000 feet in width, has been ex* 
cavated, and a branch from the river 
equal to the volume of the Thames at 
London Bridge has been brought a 
distance of 9 m. to Vienna itselu 

On the rt. bank of the Dannhe is 
the fine '*itSdfiidLe Badeanstalt* con- 
taining a large swimming bath, re- 
served for ladies between 9 and 1, 
besides a supply of private baths, 
capable of acoommodating 1200 
persons. From the restaurant attached 
to this establishment the above-men- 
tioned Canal may be well inspected. 
Here is the '^Kronprinz Budolf BrtLoke, 
bnilt in 1872-76, by Fischer, at a cost 
of nearly I50,q00/. 

Markets. — The large Markthalle 
in the Landstrasse, built by Gabriel 
in 1865, is worth a visit. In the Fish 
marlmt on the Franz Josefs Quay 
may be seen the Fogasch (Perea 
lwM>percci), caught in the Platten<iee ; 
HucheHf marked like a trout, but with* 
out scales | Schill j and Sterling, a 
sort of stnigeon. In the 

Digitized by 

BoiUeSB.—VteimA: TkeaM^ 

market ( W{ldpretmar1ct)\rill be found 
wiid-boar, and pheasants from Bo- 
hemiB, where fhflie birds are resred in 
myriads; chamois from Styria; deer 
and wild fowl from the borders of 
the Flatten and Neusiedler Lakes in 
Hungary ; and sometimes a beaver 
teom the isles of the Danube. The 
Avit market is held in the, Hof, 
and at Wieden, near the Elisabeth 

Theathg8. — There are 10 theatres 
in Viemm (including a sommer 
1 h c a t re). The performances begin at 
7 o'clock, and gienerally terminate a 
little after 10. 

The ^Vew Opm House on the 

Opemring, opened in 1869, was begun 
in 1861 from the designs of Van 
der Niill and Siccardsburg. The 
open loggia in front is adorned with 
ftescoes by Sehirind. It has three 
tiers of bozes, and is constructed to 
seat 3000 persons. The decorations 
of the interior in white and gold are 
very elegant, and it is lighted from 
above by a handsome chandelier and 
snn-lights. Stalls, first row, 5 fl. 

The *Hofbnrg*Theater in the Fran- 
zensring, appropriated to the perfor- 
mance of the regular drama, is a 
handsome bnildii^^^ i y Semper and 
Ilasenauer, capable of accommodating 
2000 spectators. On the fa9ade is a 
beautiful frieze of the Triumph of 
Bacchus and Ariadne, by Rudolf 
Weyr; about Ihe windows are busts 
of classical dimmatists, and on the 
gable a statue of Apollo. The in- 
terior is richly decorated with stucco 
ornament and psdnting. The price of 
a box in the first tier is 15 fl. ; of a 
Stall in the first or noUe parterre; 
corresponding -with the orchestra seats 
in an English theatre, and frequented 
by ladies as well as geutlemeu, 3 fl. ; 
admission to the parterre, 1 ti. Closed 
from 1st July to 15th Angnst. 

Eonacher's Music Hall, in the 
Seilerstatte, a handsome house, is open 
every evening for singing, acrobat 
performances, etc. 

Theater an der Wien, in the Wieden 
suburb, a large and handsome house, 
fbr melodramas and operettas. A 
box in the first tier costs 15 fi. ; a 

stall in the first parterre, 2 fl. 50 kr. ; 
ditto in second tier of boxes or second 
parterre, 1 fi. 50 kr. Admission to 
the parterre, 1 fl. 

The Karl-Theater in the Leopold- 

stndt, Praterstrasse, 511, rebuilt in 
1847, is the true national theatre of 
Austria. The performances are inter- 
mixed with songs, like French vande- 
Tilles ; but as th^ are fbll of satirical 
allusions to the manners nnd follies 
of Vienna, and are written in the 
Austrian dialect, it re<iu.ires some 
knowledge of the people and language 
to enter fully into the spirit of them. 
A box in the fii*st tier costs 15 fl. ; 
parterre, first gallery, 2 fl. 50 kr. j 
stall in parterre, 2 fi. 20 kr. 

Josslktadt-1lMater» in the Joaef- 
stadtstrasse, for plays and ikroes. 
Box, 8 fl. ; pit, 1 fl. 50 kr. 

FiirsVs Volkstheater, on the Jfrater. 
In summer only. 

Third Oaft, in the Prater, fbr 
acrobat .peffoimaneeSt contte songs» 


CoHcnT8.*^The Oonesrt Hall of 
the Hiudkfreuide, Ktinstlergasse, 

Karntnerring, a handsome edifice 
from Hansen's desigu, was opened in 
1871. Here are given the best con- 
certs (including those of the PMAor* 
rrumU SoMy}, eqieeislly during the 
carnival- season* 

The Kursaion, in the Stadtpark. 
Qrche§tral concerts are given twice a 
week! Much lireqnentedas a fitTonrtts 
oAfeisa^id*alte^loon lounge* 

The Volksgarten ( si e IxAi^w). Here 
Strauss^s band plays ; and the garden 
is thronged. Ckmcerts twice or three 
times a week, in the evening, adm. 
50 kr. An extrn concert — in -which 
the orchestra is doubled — takes |)laee 
every 3 weeks during the summer* 
A mKrUe^ stetne of the poet MH* 

Digitized by Googl( 

Sahons; OemeierieB. 1S9 

parzer, on a granite pedestal, erected 
in this gjarden at a co«t of 10,000^., 
was nareiled in 1889. 

Dancing Saloons (Tanzsale). — ^These 
places of amusement, though not 
ranked among fashionable places of 
entertaiuuieut, deserve attention, be- 
cause they exhiUt to a stranger the 
peculiarities of life in Vienna, among 
certain classes of its inhabitants. 
They nre more particularly frequented 
ou the Sunday eveiiiugs by persons of 
both sexesy eommonij by citiaens and 
tradesmen and their wives and fimiilies 

seeking amusement. 

A smali admission fee is paid at the 
doors. A band of music, of liri>t-rate 
performers, is prorided for the evening, 
and forms the principal attraction, 
since the largest company will almost 
invariably be found in those places 
where the orchestra of the most cele- 
brated of the players of the time at 
Vienna are engaged. Adj<nmn^ the 
ball-room is an extensive suite of 
apartments filled with supper-tables, 
where refreshments of all sorts may 
be procured. Dancing usually begins 
about 10 o'doek, and is eanrted on 
with the most indefatigable steadiness 
for the whole night, and far into the 
morning. The most splendid of these 
saioous are Schwender's Colosseum, in 
Bndolfthelm, oatode the Mariahilf 
lines. AdnrisBion 1 fl., Schwender's 
own omnibuses run frequently to and 
from the Stephansplatz, fare 15 kr. 
2. The Soph^Dnsaal, in the Land- 
strasse. 8. The Bianasaal, on the 
Donan -Ganaly in the Leopoldstadt. 
These two in winter only, when the 
swimming bath is boarded over. In 
carnival time, balls, concerts, and 
masked balls are given in the above 
saloons, and also in the Imperial 
Redouten-Scud in the Burg (attended 
by the higher classes), in Dommayerh 
Ocwino at Hietzing, and at Drehcr's 
on the Laudstrasse. 

Military music at noon on week 

days in the Burg. 

2Some of the large Beer-halls also 
deserve a passing visit : Drefter's Bier- 
hellar, near the new Opera-honssi is 

<mpabie of seating more than 1000 
people ; Liesinger BierJuiUe, in the 
bchottengasse ; Tahaksp/et/e, 9 Gold* 
schmiedgasse; Leidinger, 61 ISImt- 
nerstrasse. In the snburbs with 
gardens are Dreher's in the Land- 
strasse, 97 Hauptstrasse ; Zum Gdn^' 
ftiddchen, outside the Mariahilf lines. 

The best beer in Vienna is brewed 
l)y Dreher in the village of Klein 
Schwechat, 6 m. S.K It resembles 
onr Indian pale ale in quality, and 
lb vaittly superior to the smali beer 

of Bavaria and Southem Germany. 
Dreher's Brewery toms oot 1270 

barrels (36 gal.) of beer per diem 
during the .0 winter months ; during 
the other months of the year no beer 
is brewed. The German system of 
brewing (known as the **Unterseyk'0 
is entirely diflfereut from our own. 
Strangers are admitted and shown 
round (Bte. 95). 

Oalte^The first coffee -hooie at 
Vienna was established in 1683f by 
Kulczizki, a Pole, who, being the in- 

terpreter of a Levant trading com- 
pany, and perfectly conversant with 
the Turkish language, was employed 
by the Duke of Lorraine during the 
siege of Vienna in i SflS, as a spy, or 
rather as a messenger, in which ca- 
pacity he frequently traversed the 
Turkish lineup and managed to enter 
the town and convey important in- 
formation to Count Starhemberg, its 
heroic defender. When the siege was 
raised, a vast quantity of cofi'ee having 
becm found in the Turidsh camp, Kol- 
czizki solicited and obained permission 
from the Emperor Leopold I. to open 
a coffee-house, as a reward for his 
hazardous services. 

OmiBiniiBSi^That on the Maria* 

hilf line contuns a colossal grsnite 
obelisk to those who fell in 1848. 
That of Wiihring (reached by omnibus 
from the Freyuug) contained SchuherCt 
tomb (1889), and also that of 
haven (1827) ; the family name of the 
latter is simply inscribed in letters of 
gold on an obelisk ornamented with a 
Ivre, and surrounded by acacias, lu 

that of St. Man (reaehed by tramway) 

Digitized by Google 


Monte 85. — Vienna : History 

Seot ILL 

is the monument of Mozart (1791), by 
Gasser ; his body was interred with- 
out even a cross to mark the spot, 
and all traces of the grave itself are 
l«it. CfkuUfi (1780) mooiiaient is in 
tliat of Mat^eindorf; and in the 
neighbouring Protestant oemetery is 
a pretty chapel by Hansen, with 
fresco by Rahl. 

The Gtntral Cemaivry «t Kaiser 

Ebersdorf, reached by tramway from 
the Schwarzenbergplatz (20 kr.) is 
tlie only one now used lor burials, 
and to this spot the moiivmeBts of 
Sehabert^ BeeuioyeD^ and olilier wor- 
thies h»Ye beeik removed. 

History. — Vienna is generally be- 
lieved to occupy the site of the Roman 
station yindobona, yemarkable as the 

spot where the Empefor Marcus Aure- 
lius die l of the plnpiie, a.d. 180. 

The foundation both of the present 
archduchy and empire of Austria was 
lud in 983, when the Bmp. Otbo II. 
ereated Leopold of Babenberg Mar- 
grave of the Ostmarky which at that 
period did not extend further than 
Ivioik. Leopold took Moik from the 
Magyars, and previous to his death 
had extended his margiwote to the 
Kahlenberg. Towards the odddle of 
the 11th centy. his successors had 
driven the Magyars beyond the March 
and Leitha, which have ever since 
ftrrmed the hoondaiy betweoB Austria 
anl Hungary. Henry ILJasomirgott, 
the 8th Babenberg mfirjrmve (1 141-77), 
was raised to tlie dignity of duke of 
Upper and Lower Austria. He made 
Vienna his habitual place of remdence, 
greatly enlarged the town, built St. 
Stephen's (the old church), and in 
fact, may be regarded as the real 
founder of the Austrian capital, which 
before his tmic does not appear to have 
ever heen a place of mneh iraportaace. 
His son, Leopold y«> svrnamed the 
Virtoous (der rngencthnfteV inliorited 
the duchy of Styria. Duk«' J.i oiHild 
hud i^uiueda bad reputatiou lu Exi^ii:»ii 
history, as iihe soroid and treacherous 
*^nf Richart! r<ieur-de-Lion. 

1273 Rudolph of Hapsburg was 
Emperor of Qero^y in spite 

of the intrigues of Otibkar, Kiug^ at 

Bohemia, who was himself a candidate 
for the Imperial dignity. Ottokar, 
after a short and ineiiectual resistance* 
was obliged to cede the Ibnr dnefues 
as fielli that had esdieated to the 
empire, and to dohomngeto Rudolph , 
as emperor, for Moravia and Bohemia. 
Three years afterwards Ottokar oa- 
tefsd Anstrm inlh 40,000 welMiiel- 
plined troops, folly resolved to regain 
possession of the duchies or to perish 
on the field of l>attle. On the 26th 
Aug. 1278, Rudolph attacked and de- 
feated Ottokar on the MarchfeJd, after 
a sanguinary engagement, in whieh 
the latter perished. Ottokar, the oppo- 
nent, and Ladislaus, the ally of Rud- 
olph in this battle, were almost the 
last sovereimis of their respective 
dysaslies. Philip, Anhhishop of Sals- 
burg, the sole claimant for the investi- 
ture of the duchies of Carinthia and. 
Carniola, died in 1279. With the con- 
sent of the Diet held at Augsburg in 
1282, Rudolph eonferredtiiesedaehies, 
together with the doeldes of Anstna 
and Styria, on his two sons, Albert and 
Rudolph. In the next centy. Tyrol 
was acquired by marriage ; and in the 
beginning of the 17th centy. all the 
heredita^ slates of the House of Haps- 
burg developed on the Emp. Fml- 
nand TT. ; f^ince whieh they have 
mained united. 

In 1462 the citizens of Vienna re- 
volted, and Ibrthe spaceof two months 
besieged or rather blockaded the Burg 
in which the Emp. Frederic III. had 
taken refuge, in hopes of starving 
him into a compliance with their 
demands. He was, however, oppor- 
tunely relieved by George Podiehrad, 
King of Bohemia. 

In 1484, Vienna, after being in- 
vested for four months, surrendered to 
Matthias Corvinus, who made it his 
plaee of residence, and died here 
in 1490. Aiter his death the fimpcror 
Mnximillian I. regained possession of 
the < ity, and was receiNA il \\\\\\ acelu- 
niatiuas by the iuhabiiams overjoyed at 
getting rid of the Hungariaan. Snee 
this Vienna has been the habltnnl tesl* 
dence of the princes and en^wOiB ef 
the House of Uapsborg, 

Digiti^uu by ^<)\.i-^i<^ 

Boute 85. — Vienna: HUtory. 


Vienna was besieged by Sultan 
Soliman II., with a large army, from 
Sept. 26 to Oct. U, 1529, and ably de- 
fended by Count Nicholas Salm and a 
iponaoo of 14,000 men* Thadittnio- 
tion of a flotilla conveying the Turkish 
heavy artillery, by the garrison of 
Presburg, and the approach of winter, 
compelled the sultan to raise the 
siege. Vienna was again besieged by 
a TuMA army of 200,000 men under 
the command of the Grand Vizier, 
ICara Mustapha, in 1683, and most 
lieroically defended by Count Hiidiger 
Starhemberg with 30,000 men, only 
8000 of whom were regular troops. 
The siege lasted from July 14th to 
Sept. 12th, when the city was relieved 
and the Turks completely routed by 
the Duke of Lorraine an4 John 

The Church of Maria Trost, in the 
Mariahilf-Vorstadt, was built in 1721, 
on the spot where the Grand Vizier's 
tent was pitched during the siege in 
1688. The TOrkeiuokame, a rampart 
thrown up by the Turks, still remains 
near the village of Wahring, between 
Vienna and the Kahlenberg. 

In 1619 Count Thurn, at the head of 
the Protestant Bohemians, blockaded 
the eity. The Emp. Ferdinand II., 
who was within it at the time, main- 
tained a stout resistance, persisting in 
his intention to perish under the ruins 
of his palace, which was already bat- 
tered by the Bohemian cannon, rather 
tlmn aonender. The inhabitants of 
Vienna, a large portion of whom were 
at that time of the reformed faith, were 
planning to deliver up the city, to de- 
throne him.andtoediieatel^cliildran 
as Protestants ; and a deputation had 
actually forced its way into the palace 
to propose these conditions, when the 
sound of trumpets announced the ar- 
rival of succour. It was a corps of 
500 liorse, commanded by Dampieire, 
wlueh, entering the city by the only 
nte not watched \ >y tVi ■ oneniy, raised 
tne spirits of the people; tlir students 
of the university ticw to uiuis, fresh 
sttoeours aniTed, and Ferdinand was 
rd^ed when on the verge of lonag 
at once his capital and crown. 

In 1704 the exUrncU line of works 

for the protection of tiw oity and 
suburbs were erected. 

Vienna was twice occupied by the 
French under Napoleon — in 1805, after 
the batde of Ansteilita^ and in 1809, 
after that of Wagrsffi. The Congress 
of Vienna met here fton Nor. 8» 1814» 
to June 9, 1815. 

In 1848 the revolutionary movement, 
begun in Paris, extended to Vienna, 
and ^ Cliambers being attacked by 
the mob, consisting principally of 
students, Prince Mettemich resigned 
and tied to England. The arsenal 
was attacked and surrendered, when 
the Emperor left tlie city in the Imnda 
of the insurgents. In the mean time, 
Prince Windischgratz, marching from 
Prague with the Bohemian army, and 
joined by Jellachich with the CroaUi, 
the city was invested, boMbarded, and 
finally taken by assault. Bdag 
threatened by the Hungarians, the 
troops marched out, and after some 
hours engagement put them to flight. 
Their retam being obalraeled by the 
insurgents, the city WaS given up to 
plunder for three days. Blum, a red 
Republican deputy, was shot, and 
Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his 
nephew Franz Josef. In 1858 the 
i nUnud tMtlfieationB were ordered to 
be removed, and Vienna ceased to be 
a fortress. In 18GG the Prussians 
advanced within sight of the city. 
Since then the liberal measures intro« 
dnoed hme given a ethnalaa to the 
indnstry and eoaODeree of Vienna, and 
the increasing prosperity of the city 
is niuuifc'sted by the splendour with 
which improvements have been made 

in pttblie and prinrale bidldings and 

Digiii<ica by Cjt.)0^lc 


BmOe 86.— &*m5ae4 io Wela. 

Seci. UL 

BOUTB 86. 





SlnibMAi. . . 

. 70 


BrauDftli • . 

. 91 




Neumarkt • • 

. 108 




W«ls* . • . 

85, 87 

At Simbach, on the Orient Exp. 
route, is the Bayarian OiutoiiL-honse, 
where luggage is examined. Here the 
Inn is eroesed, and the train proceeds 

Braimau (3000), partly surrounded 
h9 its ancient wall and ditch. In the 
raruh Ch. is hnried Palm, the book- 
seller of NuremberfT. Tic was seized 
by a party of French gcnsdarmes, who 
crossed the frontier for the purpose, 
and, b<»ng tried by a eonrt-martial 
f 1 publidilng a pamphlet agunst 
Niip'ilcon, was shot here. A bronze 
*statiie in the Promenadenplatz was 
erected to his memory by KnoU in 

Sied (4500), a thriving town on the 

Oberach and Breitach. 

The rly, now ascends, affording 
extensive views on either side. Beyond 
Neumarkt, the line bears S.£. as far 
as Grieskirchen* and then descends. 
On the rt. is guned a fine view of the 

KOUTE 87. 


Mites. Stations. Route?. 
WeU. . . • 85,86 
5 Haiding 
9 Breitenaioh 
18 Ascbaeh 

N. — Aschach, on the Danube, is a 
picturesque Tillage with a ch&teau be«* 

longing to Count Harrach. During 

the Peasants' rebellion (see Linz, 85), 
it was the headquarters of the rebels, 
who endeavoured to close the passage 
of the Danube by a chain 600 fl. long, 
every link of which weighed 20 lbs,, 
in order to prevent the Bavarians from 
assisting Count Herberstein, who was 
shut up at Linz. 

BOUTE 88. 


Miles. Statioiiff. Routos. 
Linz . • • • 85, 89 
8 Traun 
20 TJnter-Bohr > 
6 Bad HaU { 
28 Xremsmtnster 
86 Xieheldoff 

This narrow-gauge branch rly. runs 
S., crossing the Traun on a hand- 
some bridge at the stat. of that name, 
and proceeding to Unfer-Rohry whence 
a line leads S.E. to Bad HaU. 
Here are springs strongly charged 
with io^ne. Ourhaus, park, &c. 
Dil. to (12 m. £.) iSiteyr. The tlj. 

Digitized by Google 

Sovie ^O.-^Weielesf io Si. Valaiim. 


continnes S. to Kremsmunster ^1085 
ft.)» where if? a celebrated IkuLdicline 
abbey, fuuudcd ia 777^ but rebuilt in 
the ISth centy. Its Litrarf contains 
5U,000 vols., and some very ancient 
and curious MSS. Its Observatory, 
8 stories high, contains, in the lower 
a|>artinents, collections of natural 
bistory. The fish-preserree, consist- 
ing of 5 taiiksr deoorated with a colon 
n^e and statues, deserre notice. Ex- 
cellent wine in the consent celian. 

ROUTE 89. 



Linz . . • 

4 Steyregg^ 
ISi LungitK 
17 Gaisbach-Wartberg 

95, 88 


ROUTE 90. 
vfwsaLt to BT. yrssmm, wr 

Miles. Statioos. 



160» 181 

♦BXTDWEIS . . • 1S9 

Wei 0 s ch in-Krtiman 

Gaisbach-Wartberg 89 


9t Talentin. . 85, 290 

S. — Budweis. on the river Moldau, 
has 24,ouu inhab., and some flourish- 
ing cloth mauufactories. The Doin 
was built in 1900 ; it has a detached 
tower. The JZamatit is a handsome 
htiildin^, and in the centre of its 
large square ii a Hue fouutaiu* The 

S% Oerm* 

district around Budweis, including 
the head-water of the Moldau, for the 
most ^art composes the vast domain 
of Pnnce Sehwaraeoberg. 8ehhi$ 
Frauenburg is one of his seats ; it is 
an ancient feudal fortress, by tho side 
of which lie has built a maguiticent 
modern Gothic castle commanding a 
fine Tiew. Attached to it is a Park 
containing SCO head of wild swine. 
This part of Bohemia abounds in fish- 
ponds (Fischteiche), well stocked with 
carp, tench, jack, and barbel, which 
supply the market of Vienna. 

A Tiwnway, the first work of the 
kind in Germany, completed in 18S8 
by a joint-stock company, at an ex- 
pense of 1,654,322 n., was carried 
frum iiudweis to Linz (80 m.;, luid 
served to connect the Moldau end 
Elbe with the Dannbe, being used 
chiefly for the transport of salt from 
the Salzkammergut in Upper Aostria. 
The riv. now takes its place. 

WelUschin-Krumau. € m. W. of the 
lme,on the Moldau, is Schloss Xnminii, 
anoUier castle of Prince Schwarzen- 
berg, remarkable for its vast extent, 
composed of buildings of various ages, 
inclosing six quadrangles j one of 
them is a THU^rd still nnaltered, 
sarronnded by gidleries for spectators. 
The cnstle is approached bv a draw- 
bridge, and includes in its labyrinth of 
halk and chambers a gallenr of family 
portraits, an arsenal fillea with da 
arms, barracks, a theatre and tidings 
school, and chapel ; a collection of 
archives, occupymg 10 rooms filled 
with muni uients, title-deeds, &c. ; and 
a deep subterranean dungeon (Ver- 
liess), hewn in the rock. It was 
originally the residence of the Rosen* 
berg family, wli'u-li became extinct in 
Itill J one of whom, in 1402, held the 
Emp. Wenceslaus a prisoner. The 
situation of the Oastle, on a high 
predpitonsroek, whose base is washed 
by a sweeping bend of the Moldau, 
is very strikinff. The gardens and 
terraces afford a pleasing view. 

Freistadt is an old walled town with 

2165 Inhab. 

Mauthausen. Here the Danube is 
crossed to St. Valentin. 


Digitized by Google 


Eawte 92. — Vienna to SL Pdlten. 


BO0TB 91. 


Miles. Stations. Routes. 

Bnraiiftii ... 80 

7 MauerkirolM 
18 Mattighofen 
24 Stemdorf ... 85 

BOUTE 92. 



Miles. <-'t:iti.-iTis. 
Vienna W, 

2 Peiizing ■ 

4 Rtttteldorf 

6 Hadertdorf 

8 Purkcrsdorf 
13 Preasbaum 
16 Eekawinkl 
25 Neolengbach 
M Pottenbmaa 
88 8t.P81t«ii . 88»93,98 

VV. — Frequent local trains run along 
ibis line, and afford the mem of 
vtntm^ numerous interetdng sites in 
the Tiemity of the ca^tal. 

In the church of Ponzing is a fine 
monoment of Frau von Rottmanu, by 
the Blorentine senlptor FineUft. 

A suspension bridge crosses the 

Wien to 

Hietzingt to which a tramway also 
runs, composed chiefly of villas and 
conntry houses, and on Snndsys uran* 

dated with the ruralising citizens 
of Vienna, In the churchyard is the 
tiioiiuuK'nt of Baroness Pillersdorf, by 
Oauova, and in front of the ch. is a 
hronse $Uane, by Meixner (1871) to 
the Emperor Maximilian o/Mexioo (d. 
1867). The Gmino Dommsyer is a 

honse ot entertainment, euuihinitt|p 
restaurant, cafe', billiard-tables, and a 
Tery splendid saloon for dining and 
music. Thursday and Sunday are the 
days when the house is most fre* 
quented. The NeuB eomhinea 
Garden, Theatre, Restaurant, and 
Ball-room, and is the best thing of the 
kind nenr Vienna. 

Adjoining Hietzing on the E., also 
reached by tramway or omnibns firam 
Vienna, is 

Schonbmnn, the summer palace of 
the Emperor, begun as a hunting-seat 
for the Emp. Matthias, by Fischer of 
Erlach, and finiriiedl^llluria Theresa 
in 1750. It contains a number of 
portraits of the ancestors of the Im- 
perial family, few of which are likely 
to arrest attention, except those of 
Maria Theresa, Joseph II., and Harie 
Antoinette. The building, however, 
possesses some historical interest, as 
having been inhabited by Napoleon iii » 
1809, when the treaty of Schonbrumi 
was signed, and by his son, the Duke 
of Beiehstedt, who died here at the 
age of 21, in 1832, in the same apart* 
ment in the 1. win^ overlookinf? the 
garden, and on the saine bed, it is said, 
which his father had occupied. 

The gardens behind the palace are 
lud ont in straight walks, long are- 
nues, trimmed and clipped like hedges, 
to a height of 50 or 60 feet, in the 
French st^'le, and ornamented with 
statues and fountains. On a fine 
Sunday afternoon they are thronged 
with citizens from Vienna. St apps, the 
enthusiastic Gorman student who at- 
tempted tlie life of Napoleon in these 
gardens, was shot here a few hours 
afterwards, and bailed on the spot. 
He disdained to beg his life, or it 
would probably have been spared. 
At the end of one of the alleys is the 
Beautiful Fountain, Schdne inmnm, 
which gives lis name to the palace, 
ornamented with the statueof a nymph. 
The Oloriettc, a mere colonnade of 
pillars, on the high bank immediately 
behind the palace, commands a fine 
view of Vienoa. (Small fee.) 

One of theavennes branching off on 
the rt., as you enter Oe garden from 

Digitized by Google 

Austria. Boute 94. — Vtema io Krem, 195 

Traismaner, an ancient village, stand- 
ing back at some little distance from 
the river, naar the moath tiie 


ffnllii. Tlie Gomagena of tbe Bo- 
mans and the Btation of one of their 

Danubian flotillas, mentioned in the 
Nibeluugen-Lied as Tulme. The 
J^rei-Kaniyska^Uef now converted 
into a warehonse, ia a Terj femarit- 
Me example of Homaneaqne archi* 
tectnrc. It was built in 1011, by the 
Emp. Henry II. ; it is circul^ir in 
shape, and is the most beautiful nionu- 
ment of that style in Austria. In the 
[rfam ai>eMid ihla ainaU town, Jolm 
Sobieski, at the head of 12,000 brave 
Poles, formed a junction with the Duke 
of T/orraine, and set out hence, with an 
army 70,000 strong, to rescue Vienna 
and tba Bbhi. Imold fimatlM Turks, 
in IMa. 

the palace, leads tO tiu flower-gard n. 
The Palm-home is very rich. The 
conservatories and forcing-houses (14 
in number) are extensive i and the 
collection of equinoctial plants, espe« 
oHdiy Bnudlian, la yery fine. Thm 
is also a rich and interesting collection 
of Alpine rhtnts. Facing the palm- 
hnnse and near it is the Emperor's 
Zoological CoUeelionf or Menagerie. 
The apeebnens of Austrian aMBials 
and birds are interesting. 

Beyond Penzing rises to the 1. Ober 
St. Veit, a summer retreat of the Abp. 
of Vienna. From Hiitteldorf a path 
leads in 2 hrs. to the *8ophien Alp 
(19^5 it> The deaoent maj be made 
in IJ hr. to Dombcuih. T»eyond 
Hader«dorf a mad up the Mauer- 
bach Thai may be followed to (3 ni.) 
Vorder HaimixicU, and thence to the 
(2 m.) Oartiradan monaatery of Vner- 
tedb, ^nded in 1320. 

From Vnrhemlorf may be ascended 
(2 hrs. N. W.) the Troppbergr 1 77<» ft.\ 
or the (1 hr. S.) Eudoifshbhe (1550 
ft.), lM>th of which command extensive 

Near Prea«&aum> to the S.W.,*are the 

sonrcps of the Wren. The rly. a^oonds 
through romantic scenery to £eka- 
Winkl (1155 it.), at the highest point 
«f tb« line. Aoove NtivSlMtgbmih is a 
ciiftteau of Prince lieehtenscein. 3 m . 
N. is the Bnehherg (1520 ft.), with 
a fine view. Beyond Pottenhrunn the 
scenery is tamer, and the trains run 
1^ frequently. 

EOUTE 93. 

Miles. Stations. lloiiU'S. 
St. Pollen . 85, 92, 98 
18 Aalsmmnar 
SO Atzenhnigif 
to ToUn . • . • »4 

Ni&^nw riy. At tot nins naaiiy 
N.) and apfvaaalias thv Daaaba al 



Mike, Stations. Routes. 

▼ienna Fr. Jos. . 159 

8 V^uwderf 

4 Kahlenhergerdorf 
6 Xkateraaiibmfg^Waid- 


9 Kritzendorf 

88 Tnlln .... 98 

28 Alisdorf-HLppersdoif 159 

48 Krema 

N.W.W.— Fnm the PtaiJoaeyb 
Stat. (A. e.) the rly. fwiff lo 

Nttssdorf, a small villafre of 20U0 . 
luhab., at tiie mouth ui the &ui9^^ 
arm af the Danmbe whlah flovs } 
thewaOaof VIoDuu BevaiaHw' 

o & 

Digitizca by Goo^lc 

196 Bouie d^.-^Kahlenbetg-^ElostermiMrg, Sect. IlL 

or badii^Mlflce of the steomm of 
the Uiiper Anmbe* 

5 min, -walk from the rly. stat. is 
the Stat, of the Toothed Rly. (Zahn- 
radbahn), which is m. long, and 
ascends in i hr. to the summit of the 
Kahlenherg (1 hr. on foot) Beturn 
tickets are issued at Vienna, but they 
do not inclnde the transit between the 
two statioiis, and a carriage is not 
easily obtained. 

Kahlenherg (1405 ft.)> on the Aipei 

of whlcli John Sohieski encamped 
with the army of brave Poles, wliora 
he led to succour Vienna from the 
Turks, affords oae <^ the fineet Tiews 
in the neighbourhood of the dt^« 

The building on the summit was 
originally a convent, founded by Fer- 
dinand II., suppressed by Joseph li,, 
afterwards a summer residence of the 
Princede Ligne, whodied and is haded 
here. Mozart composed a part of the 
Zauherflote in the Inn, which is con- 
verted into a modern hotel with all 
the usual appliances. Band on Sun. 
and Thurs. anernoon. The Leopolds- 
berg and Kahlenherg now behmg to 
Prince Liechtenstein. A footpath 
leads 'along the shoulder of the hill 
and among the vineyards down to 

The pedestrian may return to Vienna 
hjr the ridge of the Kobenzelberg, 
through the shady wood called Krapf- 
enwaldel to the villnge of Grinzing, 
a stat. on the Toothed Rly. 20 min. 
ahoye Grinzing is the *Vdla SeRemef 
and (10 min. further) the ♦Ifimmel 
(Heaven), a height laid out in beauti- 
ful gardens and pleasure-grounds, 
which commands one of the finest 
views near Vienniu 

A pleasant ftath leads N.W, from 
the Kahlenherg, descending at first 
through woods, to the (i hr.) 

Leopoldsberg (8S5 ft.), the last 
eminenee of the ehain of the IViener 
Wald (Mons Cetius), whieh, hranehing 
off from the Alps of Styria, nnd em- 
bracing ()iie side of the plain on which 
Vienna stands, stretches out like a 
cape or promontory, and deeeende 
abrapUy towaida the Itaabe. It 

commaads a veiy fine and most ex- 
tensive *view. A little helow 
Kahlenherg, the neic Cut or canal, to 
correct the inundations of the Danube, 
begins. Near Nu&sdorf it is split 
into ^rioos small streams by a num- 
ber of wooded islands, and is 
crossed by the wooden bridges, over 
which run the railways and roads from 
Vienna to Prague. Its win dings may 
be traced for a short distance: it is 
then partly ooneealed hy Ihedenseaass 
of ftdutge which cOTers the islsnds, and 
only appears here and there, wherever 
a bend in its coui^ exposes a reach to 
view. The battles of Aspem, Kssling, 
and Wagram, were fimght <m the 1. 
bank of the Danahe, opposite to these 
islands. The vast expanse of the 
river above Nussdorf, and the rapidity 
with which its current sweeps onward, 
are very striking. 

To the S. lies the eity of Yiemiat 
backed by the Styrian Alps ; to the 'EL, 
the distant range of the Lesser Car- 
pathians, while up the stream the 
town aud monastery of Klostemeuburg 
are seen to advantage, snrroonded by 
its famous vineyards. The Leopolds- 
berg receives its name from the Aus- 
trian Margrave who built a castle on 
its summit (see below), which has now 
disappeared. An easv path descends 
in zigzags to the (h nr.) rly. stat. at 
Kahknhstgarderf (aseeniy 1 hr.). 

Klostemeuburg (3800) is celebrated 
for its Augustine Monastery^ one of 
the richest and oldest in Austria ; the 
existing edifice was commenced upon 
a scale of great magnificence in 1730, 
by the Emp. Charles VI., who intended 
to occupy a part of it as his own 
residence, but it includes portions of 
an eariierdaie. The Kaisersaal under 
the cupola has a very remariutUe 

Before the church is a beantiful 
Gothic crms^ richly decorated in the 
hesttaste^calledtheEYerlastin^ Light, 
because a lamp was humed before it 

for many aj]:es : it was erected in 1.T81, 
in remembrance of a j^nuat plague. 
The convent was founded by L^opoldy 
slatth BebfDheiv margmw^ of Avetria 
(1096-IUI6)» eanenlaed bj ImioQCttl 

Digitized by Google 

Austria. Boute 94. — Kloatermuilmt^ — DonSbach. 197 

▼Iir. In I4es. He wm buied e* 

Mdl^ bat his body was removed from 
thence and placed here in IfiOG. 
Among the relics shown are the stump 
of a tree and the veil of Leopold's wife, 
Uie BfargraTine Agnes, which was car- 
ried away by the wind one day at she 
stood with her husband on the top of 
the Leopolds berg, meditating on the 
site of a monastery which she was bent 
on founding. The veil long defied all 
teaioli ; nntil, nine years afterwards, 
, it was discovered by Leopold hanging, 
uninjured by wind and weather, on an 
elder-tree, on the spot where Kloster- 
neuburg now stands, which was re- 
garded as b^ng thus miraenlously 
pointtd out for the erection of the 
mwiastery. In 1G16, Maximilian, 
Grand-master of the Teutonic Order 
and sou of the Emp. Maximilian II., 
placed the archducal coronet of Austria 
on the sltfine of St. Leopold and im- 
plored the saint to keep it in his holy 
custody. Since this the coronet has 
been kept in the convent. On the 
summit of one of the lowers is a copy 
of it»inoapper. 

The Cfhurch was rebuilt after a fire 
in 1318, but has been hopelessly 
modernised. The towers date from 
1584 and 1637. The doistezs, of 
1905, tmtakk a finely-sculptured 
wooden crucifix. In the Treasnxy, 
besides the above-mentioned crown 
and veil, are preserved various relics 
of S. Leopold, and a highly iuterestiuff 
*aItai^4Vont (anUpemmm) of nieuo 
plates, executed I^Nieholaaof Verdun 
for Prior Werner, between 1168 and 
1186, and remarkable iis being among 
the earliest specimens of the art of en- 
graying known. Maso Finigueira, 
who is usually considered as toe in- 
ventor of the art, flourished in 1450. 
The metal plates, 51 in number, are 
etched with Bible subjects. 

Contiguous to the cloisters lie the 
pol;|rgoiiid ehapel of Si. Agnes and the 
ancient chapterhouse, containing some 
good stainea glass of the 14th eenty. 

The convent Library is very con- 
siderable, eontaining 25,000 Tcto. and 
400 MSS., together witb » cabinet of 

hisloiy and anEoour. 

In the '^Stiftskeller belonging to 
the convent (No. 3, Albrechtsberger- 
gasse) is kept and sold the Pr'alateu- 
wein, the produce of vineyards be- 
longing to the monastery, which con- 
stitute its chief wealth and source of 
revenue. In consequence of the num- 
ber of its wine-houses, the place ac- 
quired some years m ih» niekname 

zum rinnenden Zapfen" (the running 
tap). Klostemeuburg is the station 
of the corps of pontonniers, wliose 
flotilla for the service of the Dauube 
is kept here. 

On the heights S. and 8.W. of 
Klostenieuburg are numerous points 
of view, reached by delightful paths, 
and indicated by finger-posts set up 
under the auspices of the local 
Tonriat Ctub^ Several days may be 
deyoled by the pedestrian to this 
charming district. 2 ni. S.S.W. of 
Klosterneubuvi: is the pleasant village 
of Weidling, ironi which a footpath 
leads N.N. W. in ^ hr. to Kierling. 

[Another interesting point is Dom- 
bach, about 3 m. W. of Vienna. 
Tramway (Pferdebahu) from the 
Schottenrmg ; fare 18 kr. : tlw mad 
passes the Talley of Hemals. The 
beautiful park of Dorobach contains 
the villa of Ptince Schwarzenberg, 
originally the property of the Austrian 
General Lucy. The park, 6 miles in 
circuit, oocnpies a nook or recess in 
the midst of the Wiener Wald hills, 
whose slopes are clad with beech- 
wood, traversed in all directions by 
shadv paths. In one of the groves 
are the tombs of Lacy (1801) and his 
friend General Brown (1794). 3 m. 
beyond Dombach is Hameau, or Hol- 
lander Ddrfel (1515 ft.)i commanding 
a splendid view. Hence the bojfhien 
Alp (Bte. 92) may be ascended in 

Opposite KritT.rn<1orf rises the vine- 
clad hill of the Bisam'ber|f (1180 ft.); 
and in the plain, at some distance from 
the lirer, lies K&mnimrg (187). 
About 4 m. beyond Kiostsm^ubo"' 

Digitized by Google 

198 BoiUe 95. — Vienna to Manner&dorf, Sect- III. 

is tbe picturesque nuned Castle of 
€h*eifeiiBtein, planted on the summit of 
a saiulstone rock. Near the door of 
the Duiijou-kccp is the miurk of a claw 
imfriDtad in die mk (wbeMe tiM 
names" Griftn-stoue). The walls of 
the tower are 5 ft. thick : in the floor 
is a trap-door, and beneath it a dismal 
vault, enclosing a cage of timber, in 
which prisoners were once confined. 
9trildnff *Tiew IN>m tbe tewer. 

At T%iOn tlie rly. tufmi N., and 
rro^^ses the Dambe, running after- 
wards N.W. to Absflorf, where it re- 
sumes its true duectiun. "^Schiofis 
ChnHnegg, abovt a mile W. ef Hs 
Stat., has a beantifol park, with ei* 
tenfire faot-honset and ttabka. 

Krems (5000), famous for mustard 
and gunpowder, is separated from 
Stein tbe sappreased eonTent of 

Vnd, On the promenade is a monu- 
ment to General Schmidt. On a hill 
to the N. of Krenis is a convent, the 
church of which has an ancient altar in 
the crypt. The Talley of the R^mtts 
is eiEeeedingly picturesque ; and the 
ruins of Kehberg, Scnftenberg, and 
Hartenstein add to tlH- romantic 
beauties of the neighbourhood. 

KOUTE 95. 


VIENNA Reuaweg 105 

105 ' 

G Klein Sohweehat 

14 Fischameud 

21 (rotzendorf , . 1»S 

26 Mannersdorf 

This local rly. quits Vienna at the 
<ipang Stat. (G. d.j, leavaa Schveohat 

on the rt., and skirts the Damthe as 

far as Fitchcamndj where it tnms due 
S. At G of zenrl or f It crosses the main 
line to Pcsth, and bears S.E. to Mut^ 

nmieif^ a vUiage e m.fira»thiay>W» 
huk iif the Neoaiedtor See. 

BOUTE 96. 


Miles* Stntions. Routes. 

YIEK^A—Sudbahn 101, 

102, 108 









12 Grammat-Neusiedl 



EbenfoTth . . 230 


aanatadt 101, 105>210 

t%e anbnrbs of llie elty are tra- 
versed S.W., aa flur aa Mdmmg, where 
the rly. curves aharply to the S.K., 

crosses the TJesingbach at Inzersdorf, 
and proceeds S. to Munf-hendnrfy 
passing the imperial chateau ol Laxcii- 
hfirig at aome dfatanee eai ttie T%m 
From Pottendorf a t\j, runs N.N.W., 
joining the direct line to Pesth at 
Chrammat-Nemiedl. At Ebenfurth 
the rlj. turns S.W. to Neustadt, 
following for 2 m« the 1. bank of the 

Digiti/ea by Goo^lc 


Soute 99. — Sch$ibmuM to Sdiraaubach. 


BOUTE 97. 


miMk Stadona. Boutes. 
Amstetten. • • M 

14 Waidhofen 
Z7 Kastenreith . . 290 
XMi-Bilfling • S90 

&&Ww»Vi€iiii» taSekOial. 

W&iiiiiofen ( 1 1 7u it.) is a pleasant 
little town in the TaUagr of the TMw. 

Pine view from the pUgrimage church 

on the (I hr.) Sonntagherrj f23in ft.). 
13 m.S.E. lies Gossling (Hte. lUU). 

Hence the rly. asceads the 8ee- 
berffer-Thal to the S., and at Ober- 
land (1690 ft) orotses the -watershed 
between the Ybbs and the Enna, de- 
scending to Kastenreith, at the con- 
fluence of the G:itlenzl)ach uith the 
Euufi, where it joiu^i tLe liue between 


llOUTE 9a 

lAUefl. HtatioDS. Koute& 
Leoberfidorf .101, 103 

17 Altcnmarkt 
20 Kaomberg 

86 SeheiMBU * . M 

40 Wilhelmtbnrg 

48 it. PeltMl * 86t 9^ 93 


N.W,-»The rlv. runs at flrtt due 
W.» paflnng on the 1« the ehiteau ol 

Enz^M, Tlie Iiigbfist point of the 

line (1885 ft.) is reacnetl beyond 
Kaumberg^ and the train descends to 
Hainfeld (1380 ft.), a manufacturing 
town at the confluence of the Ramsau 
and the Goiaen. Pleasant excnnion 
to (7 m.) Kleinzell in the Ilalbachthal^ 
whence the Eeisalpe (4 590 ft.), a fine 
point of view, nmy he ascended in 3 
hrs. Descent iu hrs. to St. Veil an 
d«r OSIifn. At MefffmM the rly, 
turns due N. Passing the pleasant 
Tillage of Wilhelmhurg, the 1. bank of 
the Traisen ia followed to St. Folten. 

BOUTB 99. 


MUcs. Stations. Routes. 
ScheOnittl • • 98 
4 Lilienfeld 
6 SduMteeh 

&— At Ttffienftia (lies ft.) is a 

^Gktercian Abbey, founded 0^ St. 

Leopold of Babenberg in 1202, of 
which Ladislaus Pyrker was once 
abbot. The library is worth notice, 
and there is a pleasant gftrden. From 
Sehnahacii « dil. runs to (8 m.) 
TiimitZf a busy little town, and (17 
m.) Annaberg (304.'> ft with a pil- 
grimage church ; dcsc cuding thtncc 
to (22 m.) Wieaerbruck, k hr. from 
which it the fine *waterftU of the 
La$ting. The torrent makes three 
leaps, having a total height of 415 ft., 
and the situation is romantic; but the 
volume of water is inconsiderable. 
The road then crosses the ridge of the 
Joiephsberg (3135 ft.) to (29 m.) 
Mitterhach on the Erlauf, and hears to (33 m.) XariaMU (Bte. 360). 

Digiii^cu by Ljt.jv.(L. it. 


[ Botih IQO.'-'JPdehlam to Kienberg-Qm^ Seot III. 

BOUTE 100. 


Miles. St&Uons. Boates. 

V5dUani « • • 89 

13 Furgstall 

17 Scheibbs 

19 Heubnick 

M Sienberg-Gaming 

8. — Passing the ch&teau of Purgptall 
Vfe reach Scheibbe (1050 ft.)» prettily 
situated among wooded bills, to which 
the Oetscher forms a background. 
KnifTuek stands at the mimth of the 
Jemitz. From Kienberg a road 
ascends the slender torrent of the 
Gamingbach to (2 m.) Gaming (1410 
ft.^, a very ancient town, with a 
mined CtftfanaiaB eonvent of 1S80. 
Hence the Oiotse Oetscher (6320 ft.) 
may be ascended by the Grubber <i 
(2740 ft.^i and Lacketihof in 5 hrs. 
Sign-posts all the way. A shorter 
path ;to Lackenhof leads across the 

Dil. from Gaming to (6 m.) Lonz 
(1950 ft.), on the Ypps. A short 
ckn witli four small lakes runs 
heiK'u iS. to the crags oi the Durren- 

rtein (6140 ft.). The diL proeeeds to 
(IS iii.)Od«liiig (174ft ft), a oentre 

for nnmeroTis short excursions of 
interest. Hence another dil. runs by 
(6 m.) Lassing and (1 1 m.) Pal&u to 
(82 m.) Uieflau (Rte. 290), 

BOUTE 101. 


MOts. Stations. Routes. 
YlEirirA S. 96» 102, 103 
8 Meidliitg ... 102 
• lilMilg . * .102} 
4 Kaltenleaftgeben f 
10 Mtfdling . . 102, 108 
14 Gnmpoldakircheii 
17 £a^en 

22 Leobersdorf. • . 98 

25 Felixdorf . * • 106 

26 Theresieufeid 

81 Wr. Heustadt lOS, 105 

41 HeenMreheii . • 210 

48 Temiti 

47 Gloggnitz 

56 *PAY£BB40ft 

&Si Klamm 

67 Breitenstein 

71 Bwii— ring • « 103 

§8 nmmmmLLB 80i 

Viewb on the rt as £ar as IVeustadt. 
Leaving Vienna by the SM'Bakmkof, 
the train peases oo the 1. (1 m.) the 
Wienerberg, on which stands the 
8jyinnerin am Kreuz, a Grothic cross 
ot open work in two tiers, erect c d by 
Crispin Pollitzcr in 1457, and orua- 
mented with statues of Crispinns and 
Crispianus, whence the ooaunon 
people called it f^pimi^-Kr^SOM^ and 
afterwards Spumerin-Kreuz. 

Id^ng. Breiu^rfy. W.toXaltsn- 
leatgeben, a pleasant Tillage and 
popular resort. Theatre and hydro- i 
patbic l^aths. 1 hr. S. rises the USU* 
emttinberg (2120 ft.). Fine riew. 

PUehthoUsdorl The parisk eh. of 

S. Augustine has a carious old de- 

tacbed watch-tower, set diagonally to 
the building. The ancient Martin*- 
capelle aod hoi^ital ch. of S, El^^ i 
^bA m worlli notice, 

Digitized by GoogI 

Austria. Boute 101. — Modling — Uciligenkrcuz, 


Modling (7G00), with a pleasant 
park ^\^v\ open-air Theatre. On a 
rock outside the town la the ch. of St. 
Othmar, rebuilt iu 1454, with curious 
'^crypt of the original eonstrnetioB 
(1252). Attached to it la aremaik- 
able Baptistery. 

W. of the town opens oat the 
^Brtlhl, a charming ravine, the pro- 
perty of Prince Lieehtenstrin, adorned 
with pleasure-grounds, and disfigured, 
here and there, with artificial rains. 
For 3 m. it is traversed by < lectric 
rly. Fare from Modling to Hiuter* 
briihl, 20 kr. At the entrance to 
the yiSUsy is the aquednot which sup- 

Slies the city with water from the 
chnoehcriT. Behind the ehnrch of 
Modling run foot-paths, leading up to 
(10 min.) a ruiued tower, Schwcarze 
Thurm. .Its castle if as the fhmily 
residence (Stammhaus) of the Baben> 
berg Margraves of Austria. Further 
on is (j hr.) Schloss Liechtenstein, a 
modern chateau. Close to it is the 
AUe SchUm, one of the most ancient 
baronial strongholds in Avstria, and 
the cradle of the family of Liechten- 
stein, destroyed by the Turks in one 
of their invasions of this country. On 
the summit of oue of the hills stands 
a Doric building, called the Hiuaren- 
tempel, erected in 181*3 by Prince John 
Liechtenstein to the memory of seven 
hussirs of his regiment, who fell at 
tlu- buttle of Aspern, and are buried 
iu the vault below. Fine view towards 
the Schneeberg, S.,and Sehonbninn, N. 
It is best reached by a path (sign-post) 
which turns 1. from the road, 2 m. W. 
of the Stat,, at the Zuwt Baben Inn, 

The '^Hochanninger (2215 ft.) may 
be ascended in 2 hrs. to the S. ttom 

Modling (posts marked with red), to 
the N. from Baden fred\ to the W. 
from (juinpoldskirchcn (red), to the E. 
frum Gudeu (yellow), and to the S.£. 
from Hinterbrtlhl (blue). Thediortest 
path leads from Gaden. 

To the ccclesiologist, by far the 
most interesting spot in the neighbour- 
hood of Vienna is the Cistercian Abbey 
of *Heiligenkr0Tu, 10 n. 8.W. of 
Modling. Dil. as far as (7 m.) O'liJ' u ; 
fOodn^OQWards* Dil. firom Heilig^ 

enkreuz through the ^Helenentiial 
to (9 m.) Baden^ which should in any 
case be chosen for the t otui-n route. 

The church of Heiiigeukreuz con- 
rists of a plain narrow Romanesque 
nave with square piers, no cdmnnB^ 
and no triforium, but four tiny clere- 
story windows on each side. Beyond 
the short transepts opens E. a ISth 
cent, square lofty hall as at Trier, sup- 
ported by six lar^ clustered piers, its 
walls almost entirely glazed with tall 
lancet windows. The early pointed 
Cloisters are extremelv beautifiil. To 
tiie E. is a large vaulted (Jhamber with 

massive ronnd piers and painted 

arches; and on the same side a 
Chapter ho'ise, having four octagonal 
piers and gilded lobed capitals. The 
cloister has numerous shafts of reddish 
marble, resend)lingTerona, and a rose 
over each bay. 

Heiligenkrenr, the oldest CUstercian 
abbey in Austria, was founded by St. 
Leopold in 1134, The Fur^tengnifi 
contains tombs of the old Babenberg 

winces, and among them timt H 
Frederick the Waruke, sadly mat!- 

lated by the Turks. 

In the Treasury is preserved the 
Kreuz-Partikelf or fragment of the 
Holy Cross, brought mm. PklcBtiiie 
n\9i) by Leopold V. of Anstria, flie 
foe of Richard Comr-de-Lion. 

A pietnre«qne road leads S.W. by 
(3 ni.) AIl'i/i'l to the i 9m.) Rly. Stat, at 

Altenmarkt ou the Triestingbach 

The carriage rond to Baden descends 
the Sattelbachthal lor nearly 3 ra. S.E. 
to the junction of that stream with the 
Schwechat, and foUows tlie wining 
^Hdineiithal E. to the (5 m.) Krainer- 
hiitte, beyond which the valley turns 
due S., skirting the base of the 
Kh'f''9pitz (1415 ft.). About a mile 
tui Liiei' the Urtelstein is pierced by a 
short tonnel, and the two pict«res<ine 
nuns of Scharfeneck and Rauheneok 
are passed to the rt. On the opposite 
bank, above (7 m.) WeiUmrg ( with a 
ch&teau) rise the extensive ruins ot 
*JfoniAeMte£n, to which a good piCh 
leads. Prom this point a tram'^'^' 
runs tp the rly. stal, of (9 m.) ^ 

Digiti/oa by Lji^jv.^l. it. 



FfOtt tiw KnimthSMit a path, 
Indicated by yellow marks, ascends 
due S. in I j hr. to the ^Eiseme Thor 
(see below), the hijjliest summit in the 
ueiglibourhood. Ileuce another path, 
marked witli red and Une* leada oyer 
▼ooded ekq^ in 2 his. to Baden. 

From Modling, the train proceeds 
S. to Gumpoldskirchen, celebrated for 
its wine, and 

Bi^ <695 HX a town of 7000 
lahaioii, on the flkmwechat. It was 
known to the Romans by the name of 
Aqtue Pajuwnic<T, and remains of a 
£omau bath have been discovered 
near the lonree of the principal spring. 

Daring the lilbof the Emp, Francis 
I. the Court constantly resorted 
hither in summer, and many wealthy 
Viennese have villas in the outskirts 
of the town. 

Tho ivaleni of Baden (80^ to 95<^ 
Fihr.) are most efficacious in certain 
diseases of the skin, and cases of 
anscmia, gout, and rheumatism. The 
springs are thirteen in number, and 
are abnoit exdnsively need for 
halhing. The Ursprnng, or principal 
spring, issues out of dolomitic lime- 
stone at the foot of the Calvarieuberg. 
A passage 40 yds. long leads to the 
source (tee 2 5 kr.). There are sixteen 
well-i^pointed bath-houses, one of 
whiohi the Garolinen«Bad» is set apart 
for ladies, who, however, generally 
prefer bathing in common with the 
gentlemen, which is here the custom. 
Both seKee are elothed in long gowns, 
•tad immersed up to their cmna in 
water. Eacli bath is emptied out, and 
the water changed, every Friday. The 
llerzogshad is large enough to accom- 
modate 150 persons ; and in the Park 
is a laige Swinuntag-liath (75<> Fahr. ; 
adm. 30 kr.). 

The principal ingredients of the 
water are sulphur and salt, and the 

Sredominant gas is sulphuretted hy- 
rogen, to the qneationable effiscti of 
which the presence of salt is eoop 
•idered an antidote. 

The Park forms a most agreeable 
•^menade, and is adorned with an 
^eoaUy handsome Onrliavs. There 
* oofirse^ a daily perfiinnaaee of 

Sect ILL 

mude, and a good open-air Theatre. 

The course of treatment lasts from 
three to six weeks, and the discipline 
imposed by the doctors is somewiiat 
precise ana tiresome. 

In the Park is a brooae noniimieBt 
to Frawi OriOpanor (d. I87S), the 
Austrian poet, who was a frequenter 
of the place. Mozart and Beethoven 
were also fond of visitfng Baden, and 
the latter mnsidan composed here the 
greater part of hls Ninth Symp]K>ny.t 

Baden is famous for good bread, 
especially for a sort of roll called 
Kipt'el. The town is first men- 
tioned in 1173, and in 1466 it was 
fbrtified. Soon afterwards it was de- 
stroyed by the Hungarians nnder Mat- 
thias Corvinus, and was devastated by 
the Turks in 1529 and 1683. The 
place also sutiered severely from three 
visitations of the plague in the seven- 
teenth eent. The Lisbon earthquake 
of 1755 was felt at Bsdaut the water 
then receiving a considerable increase 
of gas, which it has retained to the 
present dav. 

From tae Swimming-bath in the 
Bergstrasse, the Calvarienberg may 
be ascended in ^ hr. Fine *view of 
Baden with its adjacent points of 
interest, and the Leitha Mountains 
S.E. in tlie distance. 

The ♦Helenenthal, intersected in 

all directions by paths, and traversed 
by a good carriage-road (see above) is 
crossed at its entrance by the Vienna 

On the left is perceived the hand- 
some modern palace of the Archduke 
Albrecht, called Schloss Wellburg, and 
surrounded by beautiful gardens. 
Above it, withm the grounds, stands 
the mmod eastie of Baahsnaek; and 
farther off, another smaller castle, 
Scharfeneck. The opposite side of 
the valley is similarly guarded by an 
old ruin, called Bauhenstein, the 
owners of which were rohbef4[nights, 
who did not scruple to stop and rob, 
on the high-road, the carriage of the 
Empress of Maximilian I., a piece of 
audacity which led to the destruction 

• t 'Austrian Health Kettorts/ by w* /VOMf 

jMt. IiMldflB. ISSSk 

Digiti<ioa by Gt.)0^lc 

Moute 101 . — Baden — EeleiienthaL 






due S." 

(see bf"" 
neigh 1 

S. to 
its wii 



near t 
I. th 
of the 

The ^'tS 

are a 
stone i 
for la 

Both se 
and ini 
the wat 
is a lar^N 
adm. 30 ' 

water a< 
drogen, i;^ 
wliich t\ 
Sidt'i ed \ 


lf 00 

Digitized by GoogU 

down frnit ■■^•■^ 


r^S^t^ ^.^^-^^ r^.rt":5 •■ -j^ 

visitors lu * - ,.i«*»«iensrre^5 " a ^,,^k.|^„,,U •»«•'<>• . * I * 

Hereabout* at'ej^ ih, ».W " 
Austria. Adjaoen ^ , , ^.^ 

mined castv i ---^ / 

to the mserBe ^ ^ >; 
mny be asoeutti* »^ ' 

A milt i-. «^ , . ' 
park«i Bdltt^'^' . ./ • 

a txAavc^ V ^ ^* 
the ii'i' ^* >s- 
t. ^. 


Digitized by Google 


due S. i 
(see bef% 

S. to Gv-' 
its M'im,,^- 

luhab., ' 
known \/J_ r.^'_ _^_Z 
Aqum X Tf: T 

T. the 
hither i 
of the t 

are al 
Stone at|\ 
A passagn \ 
source C\\ 
for lad 
prefer I 
noth se> 
and imii 
the watt' 


is a largN 
adni. 30 y 

The f/ 
which t' 
sidered } 

The \ 


'f 00 

Digitized by Googk 

Aiiskia. MoiUa 101. — Vd$lau — Wiemr Nautadi, 


oilMr ttrongkoU. Tlie Sohw^ehat 

is here traversed by a species of dam 
(Rechen), by which 'the timber floated 
down from the forests near its sources 
is collected. 

The fly. prooeeds to¥liila« (800 ft), 
also oelebrated for its baths, whose 

waters did not, however, come into use 
until 1822. The abundant spring 
(75^ Fahr.) was formerly employed 
to tvtt a miU. Both its Toliime and 
temperatore were much increased by 
an earthquake on Feb. 27, 1768. The 
waters are beneficial in hysterical and 
neuralgic disorders, indigestion, want 
of appetite, and debility. They are 
speoially prescribed for delioate or 
nerrons children, and their reputation 
increases every year. The number of 
visitors in 1887 was upwards of 4000. 
The grape-cure is extensively adopted 
hfireyasatfiadeDyiaUiaaatuui} and 
both plaeea are often visitod as an 
after-cure by patients who have under- 
gone a course of treatment at Carls- 
bad or Marienbad* Viislau possesses 
abo an -cQBedlcBt Bvlaming-bath. 

In the park of Count Fries is a 
large pond fed by a spring (75° Fahr.). 
Hereabouts are the best vineyards in 
Austria. Adjacent on the S.W. is 
Gainfam, a pretty village, with a 
hydropathie aataWiiihinut 1| hr. W. 
If the *Msrkemtein (1840 ft), vith a 
ruined castle. Thence N. in an hour 
to the Eiseme Thor (2785 ft.), which 
may be ascended direct from Voslau 

Leobersdorf (870 ft.). On the rt. is 
seen the bare summit of the Schneehenj. 
A mile C of the stat. is the beautiful 
park of ScMnau, and a little further 
on tiia same aido ia Themim/eldf 
fimndcd by M. Theresa, who planted 
a colony of Tyrolese have to bring 
the soil into cultivation. 

£. of the rly., before reaching 
NtnaCaAt, is n boaalifU €MSkU Qran 

WIENER NEUBTADT (930 ft.). This 
walled town (24»000), from its pro- 
verbial loyalty to the AuitrianprinMBy 
meivtAtiM lypUM tw liJtfafBl/' 

In 1834 a eonflagration, rendered more 
tremendoos by a wind and a previouf 
drought vhich had dried up the 

springs and rendered the wooden roofs 
of the bouses as inflammable as tinder, 
reduced to ashes 570 houses, leavipg 
only 14 standing; 

The Military Academy, founded (in 
1752) by Maria Theresa, is for tiie 
preparatory instruction of officers of 
tile line, tlie pupils, 408 in number, 
are lodged and eduoated gratuitoudy ; 
i of them are appointed by the Pro- 
vincial Estates, the rest by the Em- 
peror. The academy is situated E. of 
the town, in the old CaUle of the 
Babenberg dukes, which contains a 
beautiful Gothic Chapel of St George, 
built in 1460, with painted -windows 
of 1479. The Kmp. Maximilian, for 
whom the splendid mausoleum at 
Innsbroek was designed, is buried 
under the altar, and at kis feet Us 
faithful Idend and counsellor IKet* 

In the SfenUoslfrldnlie, founded 
by the Emp. Fredeiiek ULin 1458, is 

the admirably carved marble monu* 
ment of his wife Eleonora of Portugd, 
by Nic. Lerch, and a finely carved 
altar of 1457. 

The Parish Church has a ISth-cent 

nave, with choir and transepts of 
1455. It contains a fine statue of St* 
Sebastian, and other sculptures. 

Outride the & wall of the tower the 
Hungarian conspirators Zriny and 
Frangipani were buried, after being 
executed as traitors, in 1671. The 
inscription over their gravels remark- 

The letters A. E. L O. XL, con- 
stantly occurring in the town, are 

variously interpreted as the initials of 
"Austria erit in orbe ultima,** or 
Austriseest imperare orbi uni verso.'* 
It was the flirYOirite motto of the Emp. 
Frederick UI. In the Bathhaus is 
preserved a silver tankard, which 
commemorates the reconciliation of 
that prince with Matt. Corviuus in 

Bqrond Neusladt the Schnceberg is 

Digitized byGoogle 

204 Smts 101, — Smmering BaikiH»y--8(mnem^^ Be/oLllL 

visible almost from head to foot on 
the rt.y while on the 1. rise the Leita 
moimtauis. At NmikMim (1200 ft.) 
the loenery beoomes Tetj interesting. 

The train crosses the Simingbach at 
Temitz^ whence a dil. runs to (lo m.) 
Buollbergt at the foot of the Schneeberg. 
A duuvraad, paflsing the *(S hrs.) 
*KaUe WasBer spiing leads 
to the (1 hr.) Baumgartner-Haus Csee 
below. Excursions from Payerhach). 
' The rly. ascends to Gloggnit* (1425 ft.), 
at the fbot of the Semmering. 

On a hill near is a stately Sehlost, 
until 1803 a Benedictine Abbey, now 
used for various offices. The ch. has 
some good pictures and a crypt. To 
the S. rises the Sonneniccndeteinf dis- 
tingnlflbed by its thi:ee peaks. 

The *Semmering' Hailway, one of 
the most remarkable engineering works 
in Europe was begun in 1848, and 
Opened on tbe 17th of J uly» 19M. It 
iras execated for the Government 1^ 
the engineer K. von Ghega, at a cost 
of nearly 60,000/. an Eng. mile. The 
severest gradient is 1 : 40. In the 
course of 35 m., 18 viaducts are passed, 
and 15 tunnels, the latter extending 
to an aggregate length of 4000 yds. 
The engines were made at Serning and 

Quitting Glogguitz, the lily, ascends 
the L hank of the river Sdivanau, 
passing several pretty villas and a 
large government p^iper-mill, and de- 
scribes a wide circuit to reach 

Vayerhach (1510 ft.; see below.) 
The train then erosses the valley on a 

curved viadtict of 13 arches, 5 large 
and 8 small, and sweepf; back aloug 
the shoulders of the hills, passing 3 
more viaducts and a tunnel, until it 
comes once more opposite to Glogg- 
nitz, though at a height of 700 ft. 
above it. The bemitmil view down 
upon that village and over the distant 
plain is not lost till you turn the 
shoulder of the moontam, and then 
other fine views saeeeed ; the moun* 
tnin Onstritz is seen ; and below, in 
the y^d\> of the mountain defile, appears 
SchoUweiuj through which runs the 
old road. Dil. to (4 m.) Gloggnitz. 

It was named from an early settle- 
ment of Scotch or Irish monks on the 
spot. Immediately above it stands 

Klamm (2-255 ft.), close to the pic- 
turesque rnius of the Castle, perched 
on the top of a precipitous rock. It 
is as old as the llth eeat^ and 
belongs to Prince Liechtenstein. The 
valley S. of this, called Adh'fzgrahen, 
is of a very romantic character. A 
series of magnificent engineering 
works now follow in TMid succession 
— ^the Klamm tunnd, the viadnets of 
Jagergraben and Gam perl graben, each 
of 2 rows of grand arches, one above 
tlie other. The precipices of the 
Weinzettelwand are pierced with a 
triple tunnel, connected hy vaulted 
galleries of masonry to pfotoet die 
line firora avalanches of snow or stone. 

Breitenstein (2:)40 ft.). The 
Chapel of Onr tmAp ereoted by aa 
illustrious lady for toe rly. labourerst 
stands in a romantic spot. This stat. 
is followed by a short tunnel, a double 
viaduct, 6 arches above, 3 below — and 
another over the Kalte Hinne, the 
grandest on the whole line» 6 arahes 
below and 10 above. Beveiral other 
bridges and tunnels precede the 
arrival at 

Semmering (2860 It) at the head 
of the pass. On a rock to the rt. k a 

monument to the engineer, Karl von 
Ghega. The summit of the inonntain 
is now pierced by a tunnel, 4ti00 ft. 
long, llie carnage road— also a fine 
work of its kind-^is earried upwards, 
partly hy zigzags, to a heigpht of 8986 
Eng. ft. above the sea, and passss 
directly over the tunnel. On the 
summit»level of the old road is a stone 
monument to oommemorste ita coa* 
struction in 1788, by Hie Emperor 
Charles YI. 

The Sonnenwendstein (4998 ft.) 
can he ascended in 2| hrs. from the 
Inn, with gnide. From it the whole 
of the Semmering rly. is visible, and 

an extensive view towards Styria. 

The rly. descends the S. slope of 
the Alps into Styri^ through ihc 

Digitized by Googl 



BoiUe lO2.-^F«0miii io LaasmJbwg. 


valley of the Froschnitss, crossing 
several bridges; but the works are 
inferior to those of the N. side of the 

Miirmisclilag (2200 ft.), an old 
town with iron-works, is prettily situ- 
ated on the MUrz, at the S. base of 
the Semmering. 

FfOiA Piayerbach the pedestrian will 
of couTse explore the *HolIenthal. 
The name of the valley is somewhat 
misleading, as the scenery, though 
finev is not spaelally veifd «r savage, 
and the rocks naver rise vertically on 
both sides at once. Dil. to (15 m.) 
Schicarzau, or (5 m.) Prein. Less 
than 2 m. from the stat is Beiohenau 
(1600 ft), a AvfOnrHe smnmer mBort 
of tfca Yimame. Here guides may be 
engaged at a published tariflf by pedes- 
trians wishing to economize their time, 
the paths in the neighbourhood being 
extremely numerous, and not ittfre- 
qaenfhr leading to a point where the 
tnHdt has been abandoned, or comes to 
an end at a bridgeless gnlf, or has 
given way. From (4m.) Htrschwang 
(1670 ft.), where there are extensive 
iron-wofkfl, a road diveiges L to 
Prein (see below). Above this point 
the rocks close in, at a spot called the 
Kohlhauer, which forms the entrance 
to the Holleuthal. Crossing and re- 
crossing the Schwarzau, we reach 
(6 m.) KaiMrhnum (1760 ft), close 
to wUcharethe springs which supply 
"Vienna with excellent drinking-water. 
2 m. further a sign-post indicates the 
way to the (13 min.) *Gros8e HiUlen- 
thal, an imperial preserve for chamois, 
which may frequently be seen on the 
rockv ledf^es above the basin. The 
main road proceeds to (15 ni.) 
Schwarzau, whence a dil. runs to (15 
m. N.W.) QuteiMn (300). 

The tMmeeberg (6810 ft.) may be 
ascended from Payerbach in 5 hrs. 
Guide 4 fl. ; or 5 fl., if the night be 
spent on the mountaiu. The pathway 
i» oiarkfld with coloured ngnt, and 
leads \/f IiAOiBKBODEN (4040 ft.) and 
Baumgartner Haus (4560 ft.), to the 
refuge-hui on the Kaiflerstein (6760 

ft.), and thence to the Al^^engi^^d 
(6810 ft.), the highest pomt. 

From Frein (2260 ft) the Baxalpe, 
a good Iwoting-ground for botanists, 
may be reached in 3,^ hrs. A road 
ascends as far as (3 m.) Preiner 
Gscheid (3510 ft.), whence a by-road 
leads rt. in i^ hrs. to the Karl-Lud- 
WI08HAV8 (5915 ft.)f on the plateau. 
From this point a pathway mounts to 
the summit of the Henknepe (6590 £t) 
in I hr. 

BOUTB 102. 


Miles. Statknt. 

2 Meidling 
8 Liesing 

10 ModliiNBr 
18 " 

96, 101» 103 

Laxenburg, an imperial chateau, was 
the favourite summer retreat of Maria 
Theresa, Joseph II., and the late Emp. 
Francis. The ♦pleasure-grounds are 
beautifully planted with shrubberies 
and fine trees, and interspersed with 
sheets of water, fed by the Schwechat 
and the Vienna and Neustadt Canal ; 
but ihej haTe, perhaps, more than 
enough of rustio bridges, Grecian 
temples, Chinese paTilions, and Swiss 

Guide (optional) 1 fl. In the 
Knights' Crypt (Rittergruft) is a copy 
of the tomb of Rudolph of Hapsburg» 
formedy at Spires {Uandbooh for N. 
GermanyX the Dairy Farm (Meierei), 
and the Franzensburgy erected in 1801, 
on an island in the lake (ferry 10 kr.). 
This toy-casde U built in the fashion 
of a feudal fortress of the middle ages. 
It contains a rich collection of antique 
Gothic furniture, rich carvings in 
wood and stone, painted glass, and 

Digitized by Google 


Soute 103.— T«n»a to Chrakt 

Sect. IIL 

cbstly oafalnets, dermd from old 

cnstles now ruined, or convents long 
since suppressed. The Gofh> Chapel 
was built by DuJ&e Leopold the Glor- 
iom^ alpoBt 1220, at KjOBtemeabur^, 
ahd reanoTcd bitiier in 1799. Here is 
preserved the monstrance which held 
the Holy Sacrament displnyefl to 
Maximilian T. when in his last mo- 
ments, iis> it was supposed, on the cliff 
of the MartiBswaad (Rte. 116). 

The sitting-room of the ladies of 
the court is hunir round with the 
mantles of the Knights of the Golden 
Fleece, worn at the installations of the 
Order ; another extremelyelegant room 
Is surrounded bj marble statues of the 
most celebrated emperors of Germany. 

The Coronation Saloon has Corona- 
tion pictures by Hochle and Bucher. 
In the Lothringer Scud are twenty 
royal portraits. In the dungeon is 
a puppet prisoner, who shakes his 

From the top of the Donjon Tower 
a hue view is obtained. S. o£ the 
Castle are. the SVimldr Plait or Tour- 
nament Ground, and the Grotto ; and 
farther W. is a colossal bust of the 
£mp. Francis, bj Mardmi, 

KOUTE 103. 


Vienna S, 96, loi, 102 
22 leobersdorf . 98, lOl 

82 W.' VemrtaAt . 96, loi, 


55 Payerbach 

83 *MTtT?ZZUS0HLAei0I,800 
88 Langenwai^ 

98 Vitterdoif 

98 Kindberg 
107 Kapfenbn^ 
110 Brook • • . , 995 

117 Pernegg . • . „ • 

119 Xiznits 

128 IMmleiten 

181 Feggan 

185 0ratw»iA . .. 

140 Gosting 

14a Orate * • loi^aoa 


On quitting Mfimschlag, the rly* 
descends the rt. bank of & loaei&t 

Miirz, -vrhich is very picturesque, and 
in places varied by eld oastles, 
churches, and villages. - 

Nesir LangoBwang staada Hie nihi 
of Hohenuxmg on the tU^ aad the 
chateau of Neu-Holienwang on the 1. 
Beyond Mitterdorf is the chateau of 
Fiichl, with four towers, and further 
on the rain of Lichtenegg. At Kind- 
berg (1820 ft) latbebesMiafiaSchkMa 
of Coast AKtems. 

Sapfenberg ;i580 ft.). Here iaaa 
ancient oastle on the t(^ of a eonieal 

rock, and near the road a modem 
ch&teau of Count Stubenberg. A mile 
W. lie the pine-cone baths of Steiner- 
hot The rly. crosses to the I. bank 

Brack an der 3Tur (2500) stands at 
the confluence of the ^liirz ^ith the 
Mui\ near the castle of Lautlskruu. In 

the large square is an old bonse of the 
14th or 15th centdYj, adorned with 
that rnre feature^ a Gothic l0|ggia» in 
good preservation. 

The rly. now runs along the 1« 
bank of the Mor, at the fbot of abrupt 
preei^ceSi and jgtast the vhite Schloss 
Pernegg, to 

Miznitz. High up in the rocks 
above this rinage is a eavm, in wbicb 
numerous fossil remains of extinct 
animals have been foand. 

nwhnlelten, a small market-town 
on the rt. bank of the riven the ctath 
of Pfanuberg, approached by a long 
avenue, is seen on the 1., and farther 
on is the rock-bniit castle of Raben- 
stein, belonging to Prince Uechten- 
stein,' on tliert. bank of tiie Mar. 

B^ond Frohnleiten the vaU^ of 
the Mar ssbms ti» be cteed hgr bi^ 

Digitized by Google 

AuBiaift. jBott<e 103.— PM0aii--dra<« : Caihedral. 207 

who kavu retired upou peiisiouS| reside 
here. Tbe of its sltiimMi is 

much and justly vaunted by its inhabi- 
tants, and its *Stadtpark, a Public 
Garden benutif illy laid out, and em- 
bellished witli fountains and statues, is 
exceptionally attractive. A mouument 
to Anastaslus Grun (d. 1876), by JTund- 
mann, was erected here in 1887. The 
finest of the fountains is the bronze 
♦Franz-Josefs-Brnnnen, on the N. side, 
by Jhtrenm, The prominent natural 
future of the tows Ut, however, the 
"^Schlossberg, a hill riting 400 ft. 
above the river, formerly occupied by 
the citadel, which was destroyed by 
the French in 1809, after a siege of 
7 days, so that a few walls and towers 
alone remaiD. Hie Mil is now ooii'- 
verted into a place of public reotea^ 
tion, by the construction of pleasant 
walks up to the top, from whence, 
and especially from the station of the 
FSrewatekf an agreeaMe panonmia U 
presented of the town and mimmnd- 
ing country. Here is a statue of 
G^eral Baron v. Welden (d. 1868). 

precipitous rocks, through which the 
firer has fbnsed a passage. One of 

these rocks, called the Badelwand, on 
the 1. bank, bas been blasted and cut 
do-n-n so as to form a perpendicular 
vraii of considerable elevation and 
leave a ledge sufficiently broad for the 
TaUmT. ^ ^ Mge a enrnlinear 
Tiaiaet or yaolted gallery has been 
constructed, supported on one side by 
the rock and on the other by massive 
atone piers with open arches. The 
lallwaj passes tkroagfa tlie vfadnct, 
and Hie post^toad orer it. 

Pe^gau. Here are mines of lead 
and silver ; the ores are smelted and 
separated on the spot. Ascent of the 
(8 hfs.) SMdOberg (4713 ft.), remailt- 
ahie for its crateriform hollows called 
Wetterlocher. Beyond this the rly. 
crosses to the rt. bank of the Mar, 
and some way further on passes 

Cwi wi hu About 2 m, N.W. lies 
the ancient Cistercian Abbey of Eein, 
founded in 1123. On a wooded hill 
to the rt., near Judendoij\ is seen the 
pilgrimage church of Strassengel, a 
Gothie boildiBg witii perlbrated toirer ; 
said to have been constructed bv the 
arcb i tect of the Steeple of St. Stephen's 
at Vienna (1355). 

The castle of Gosting, to the rt., bade 
deflanee to the Tnrksi who laid ^ge 
to it when they invaded this eoantry : 
it is a favourite place of resort with 
the people of Gratz. The view from 
it is very tine, and it is surrounded by 
woods affording shady walks. 

Here the deme ends, and the hills 
whldi hound the valley of the Mur, 
jfiyerglng from the river, give place 
to a beautiful and fertile plain, about 
5 m. broad, and 18 or 20 long, in the 
eentie of which Hse the town and 
casfle-hni of 

Gratz :ii7o ft.), the capital of 

Styria, the seat of a University, tiie 
residence of the Bishop of Scckau, 
and the place of Meeting of the Styr- 
ian Estates : it has a population of 

110,000, and is situated on the river 
Mur, crossed by tive bridges. A srri'at 
number of civil and miiiiary othcers, 

The Oathedial, a late Gothic build- 
ing (1449-^9), has a enitens old wall 
painting near the S. door, restored in 

1480, representing the visitation of 
Styria by plagues. At the entrance 
to the choir are two very tasteful 
'^'reliquaries in ebony and ivory, 
wrought for the Gonnga family of 
Mantua in the 1 6th cent. The reliefs 
are from Petrarch*s Trioiifi, Adjoin- 
ing the cathedral is the Mansoleum of 
ihe Emp. Ferdinand II. ^ Duke of 
Styria (a. 1687), a neglected ehapel in 
the Italian style ; a slab at the side of 
the rhnpcl mnrks his grave. In a- 
vault beneath it, which contains the 
monument of his mother, surmounted 
by her marMe effigy, lie the remaiiit 
of this relentless persecutor of the 
Protestants, who hunted them like 
wild beasts through the mountains of 
Styria, and burned more tban 10,000 
Protestant books withiu the town. 

Near this is the LSndliehes or Pro- 
vincial Theatre, and in front of it a 
gtatne of the Emp. Francis L in tl ~ 
robes of the Golden Fleece, by JV* 
chesi of Milan. 

Digiti/oa by Lji.jv.(l. it. 


Mauie lQd.—Qrak : JE^ccurnoni* Sect* HI. 

Th« SMUhBoim' k mi tiw Glaels. 
Both are 0ood Hud eUflMfly fllted« 

The Parish Church in the Herreu- 
gasse, a poor Gothic buildiug of 
1466» contains an Aasampdoii attri- 
Imted to 2Mor«tt0u 

The Leechkirche, a small 1 3th cent, 
building, has some ancient prlass. 

The Estates, or raiiiuuicat of 
Styria, nmt m the ItiiidiiolMe LioA* 
haus, Herrengaase. The edifioe was 
built in 1569, but it has the appear- 
ance of greater age. In it is preserved 
the ducal hat of Styria, worn by the 
Emperor of Austria when ha feoares 
the allegiaoee of the Styriam. One 
wing it an Af9mtdl, filled from top to 
bottom with many thousand suits of 
old rusty armour, "with wliich, in 
ancient times, the quota of troops 

maintaiaad by tba city was equipped. 

On tha Unt floor ii the Landhans 
is preserved a very beautiful cup, the 
*ljandschade)ibund Becliery by a Nur- 
emberg or Augsburg goldsmith of the 
16ih cent. Th» handsome courtyard 
has a bronie fountain and a memorial 
taUet to Kepler. On the rt. of the 
entrance is a quaint inscription of 
1588, threatening with punishment 
any person who should draw hb sword 
or dagger within the precincts. 

The *Johanneum was founded in 
1811 by the late patriotic and en- 
lightened Archduke John. Its object 
11 the encouragement of tiie arts, sci- 
encesy and manufactures of Styria, by 
the formation of collections of its 
various natural and artificial produc- 
tions, by a Library (93,000 volumes), 
and by gratuitous lectures delivered 
by promasort attached to the establish- 
ment. The Jfussum of Natural His- 
tory is already very rich. The speci- 
mens of minerah especially deserve 
notice for their beauty and excellent 
arrangement. Here may be teen in 
perfection the iron ores of Eisenerz 
which furnish the staj)lo article of 
Styria, from the time of the Romans, 
by whom the •* Noric swords" were 
^ghly prized, down to the present 

Eiaenm; UtA-mtm ftooa Bleifaog— 
the nolybdatai are unrivalled speci- 
mens ] gypsum and salt from the 
mines of Aussee; virgin gold from 
the Mur, near Kadkersbuij; ; lazulit« 
froBi the Flachbaeh-AJp | fSmSl bonas 
of bears from the cave of Mixnitz ; 
and fossils from the coal-formation of 
Sclionegg, near Eibeswald. The 
*Judcnburg Chariot, supposed to be 
Celtic, was found at Stretfeld near 
JiiAuAmt^ in 1851. The coUeodon 
of coins m valuable and exteoaiTe^ 
and in the medijcval section are some 
interesting altar-pieces and carvings. 
The Botanical Garden has a bust of 
the botanist Mok» (d. 1839). 

The Pictnre Gallery (50 kr. ; on 

Sun. and Thur. 10-12, free) contains 
600 paintings of little value, and a 
good collection of 1120 eugraving;s. 

ThePdytatimicum, or High-School , 
a handsome new buildintr in the Rech- 
bauer Strasse* is worthy of notice. 

Opposite the cadiedral is the Old 
TTnlTanity, with a library of 120,000 
vols., and a highly intevBiting Archie- 
ological Museum, open on Sun. and 
Thurs., 1 1 to 12. The New TTniveraity, 
comprising the Surgical and Chemical 
Schools^ ia on the other aide of the 
Stadt-Park, N.E. of the town. 

Gratz is the native place of the 
Emp. Ferdinand II., who was born in 
the Burg, and of tlie learned Orient- 
aliat, Von Hammer, Baron Purgstall, 
d. 1856. 

Excursions.— On the 1. bank of 
the Mur. — Through the park to the 
{'i hr.) Staiil)auer on the ^Eosenberg 
(1570 ft) ; thence to ihe(f hr.)Pfatt0 
(2135 ft.) ; descending to the secluded 
little church of (i hr.) Maria-CrrUn, 
and by Hilmteich to (1 hr.) Gratz. 
The paths in the neighbourhood are 
all prOTided with sign-posts, and there 
are restaurants at convenient intervals. 
Beyond Hilmteich, to which a tram- 
way runs from Gratz, is the Hilm- 
warte, a tower, commanding a delight- 
ful view. The finest general view is 
irii<n 4>^ ttom. the f i hr.l "Ttatiarhiri 

Digiti^oG by Goo^L 

Boute 104. — Gratz ta Trieste. 


(1645 ft), reached by a forest path- 

-way. Near the foot of the \nU is a 
charm ii^jLi; little lake» the Source of 
tb.e river Andritz. 

On the rt» lNnk.«— the Eggen- 
berger All^e to () hr.)Mlilo88 Eggen- 
berg^, a hydropathic establishment, 
near which is a secluded hermitage, 
in the woods. To the ruins of Cost- 
ing, and the Jtmgfemsprungy 1^ hrs. 
N.ofGraU. To the BsalikBgvl (S150 
ft.), driving S.W. to (5 m.) Briindl, 
whence a path lends to the svmnittin 
an hour. Fine *view. 

Omu. daiiv to (12 m.) Madegund 
<S340 ft), mrottirii the AmieiiUisl ; 
thence in 2^ hrs. to the '^Schdokel 
(4745 ft.\ Fine view of the Stvrian 
alps. The descent may be made in 
4 hra« to Gratz, by the source of the 

For loager exeunona, sea Rte. 302 
and 303. 

ROUTi: 10^. 
GRATZ TO Ttaaem, by xusbubo, 


Miles. Stations. Routes. 

4 Pnntigam 

8 Kalsdorf 

15 Wildon 

17 Lebring 

9S Zaibiiita 

27 Ehrenhauieft 

28 Spielfeld \ 
19 Eadk«csburg j 

ZQ Possnitz 

41 UMXBUM , . 287 

63 FSAOamV . . 920 

61 Pdltsohidt 

80 Store 

83 OiUi 

89 Markt Iiifer 

M Bteaxbad 

97 SftsamvCK, , 9U 

8> Qem, 















. • 221 







St. peter , 

. . 107 



. 242 




habbsbdia . 

. 106 




X&xssx • . 

106» 241 

On leaving Grata, the rly. mntf 

across the plain to Puntigam, On a 
hill to the rt. is the chateau of Frem- 
sUittcn, belonging to Count Saurau ; 
the mountains in the distance W. sepa- 
rate Oarinthia firom S^r^B. l^ond 
Kalsdorf, to the L is SMtu IFWm- 
meckf belon^ng to a IHennese* 

WUdon (1030 ft.) 

The nuned castle of Ober-WfldoD, 

on the Summit of a rock rising more 
than 600 ft. above the plain, is cele- 
brated for tlie astronomical observa- 
tions made in it by Tycho Brahe, who 
lived here for some time. The rly. 
crosses the Kainaeb, a small tribntaiy 

Lebring. Here the Lassnitz-Thal 
opens OA the rt. The Ldlndtier Peld, 
tbelai)^t plain in Stjria, having «B 
area of 102,000 Eng. acres, conlinMS 

as far as 

Leibnitz, on the site of the Roman 
Flavium Solveme, where many an- 
tiqcu^ are fbmid; near it, on the W., 
is the chftteaiiof the Bishop of Seckau. 
After passinc: a remarkable bridge 
over the Sulm, the rly. runs to 

Ehrenhauseu. Here is a handsome 
ehftCean of Cmmt Attems. 

Spielfeld has another Schloss be- 
longing to the same proprietor. 2 m. 
S. is Schloss Brunnsee, once be- 
longinff to the Duchcss of Berr 
[Rly. E. along the L hank of ' 


Digili^cu by 

210 B<mte lO^-^-Mt^hm^^-OiOi, Seet m. 


Mur to Badkersborg (675 ft.), a town 
of 2500 iuhab., with a late Gothic 
church. t> m. S.E. on the other side 
of the rivar we the Baths ef BaMn ] 

The rly. now quits the Mur, which 
flows on S.£. to join the Drave, and 
crosses a range of steep hills — the 
Windisch - Biicheln — separating the 
Mur from the Drave. The watershed 
it pieraed by the E^di Tunnel, 200 
yaids long. At Possnits it passes 
over a viaduct of f54 arches, 7^0 yds. 
lon^, and soon after enters a tunnel of 
similar length and descends to 

Marburg (880 ft,\ the second town 
in Styria; it has 18,000 Iuhab., and 
lies on the 1. bank of the Brave 
(German Drau, Latin Drama), under 
the Bacher^ebirge, at the end of 
a plain caued the Pettaner Feld. 
The inhabitants of the lover orders 
are chiefly Wends, a Slavonic tribe 
distinct from the Germans. The 
situation of the place is highly pic- 
tueeque, but tiiere it yery Uttle to 
•ee. In the Tappeiner-Flats, 20 min. 
ft'om the Stat., is a bronze bust of 
Adm. Teeetthoff (1827-71). Close 
by to the N. is the Stadt-Park, with 
statues of the Emp. Joseph and Arch- 
di^e John. Mamrg is the centre of 
the Styrian wine and fruit district, and 
the depot of the Sudbahn rly. system, 
whose works are on the rt. bank, in 
tile suburb of St, M. Magdalemi. 

From the Stid^parik a pleasant walk 
nay be taken to the hr.) Pyra- 
midenberg, or (20 min.) Calvarienberg, 
both of which afford a good view of 
the vineyards and orchards in the 
neighbourhood. The pilgrimage 
ehoreh of Bl. IMmhi (19A0 lt)» 9 hrs. 
4Fft*ty*i on a spar of the Posruck, 
commands a flue yicw. The Bacher 
(3400 ft.), crowned with a ruined 
chapel of St. Wolfgang, may be 
reached in 3| hn. 

The rly. eroiees the ]>rave on a 
treUia-bridge and trayerNS the plain 

Pragerhof. Thence through a hilly 
district, passing two tunnels, to 
Wtsohaeh, at the ISoot of the (S lirs.) 
'^otsch (3215 ft.), whkdi eoflunaiids 
extensive view. 

[Dil. S.E. to (27 m.) Krapina (214) 
passing (10 m.) Sauerbnmn. The 
town of Bohitsch lies 5 m. further E., 
on the ftontier of Gioatia. Abore it 
rises the (2^ hrs.) Donatiberg (MOO 
ft.), the Roman Mons ClandiuSf com- 
manding a magnificent view. Boh- 
itsch is a watering-place of con- 
siderable repute, from its mineral 
(acidaloos) springs and baths. 
Nearly two million bottles of the 
water are exported annually.] 

Beyond Storey where there are se- 
veral foundries, a sudden and striking 
▼iew Is guned of the broad and popu- 
lous Sannthdl, bouadad OA tiba W« hj 
the Solabaoh Alfs. 

Cilli (790 ft.), a very ancient town 
on the Sann, with 5500 Inbab., was 
founded by the Emp. ChmdsaSy and 

named Claudia Oelc||a. Many Bknnan 
remains have been found here, and 
are preserved in the Museum. A side 
chaptl attached to the nave of the 
(Windiseh) parish ehvreh doeerves 
notice for Us rich Gothio— an epi- 
scopal throne and ciborinm of carved 
stone. The German church has a 
flue fr^ment of mosuc floor in front 
of its high altar. 

Above the town rise the mine of 
the hill-fort Gber-Omi (1350 ft), the 
residence of the Counts of Cilli, an 
ancient and powerful baronial family, 
to whom all Carinthia once belonged. 
The Emp. Frederick lU. took refuge 
here in 1450. The irina^growers of 
Rann and other places on the Lower 
Save, near Hungary, bring hither 
their produce for sale. Having dis- 
posed of it, they form a sort of raft 
of the empty casks and retam home^ 
tmsting to the n^d^y of the current 
to carry them along. Cilli is fre- 
quented in the summer for the sake 
of its river baths in the Sann (85^ 
Fahr.) On tiie rt hank it a pretty 
Park. Fine points of view are the 
(J hr.) Josejiberg (985 ft.), the (J hr.) 
Laisberg, and the Golfmbarg, near 
the Stat. 

Near Cilli are the coal-fields of 
Buchberg and Mhamaig; ate ex- 
tensive depoMts of qpatfaio aad kma- 
tito ifoaore. 

Digiti-ica by Cookie 


Omn. to (11 m. N.W; the Baths of 
Heuhaus CUfio ft.^, fnijutjnted by 
ladies. OharmiBg walks lu llie ueigb- 
bonriiood. Fine view from Hie (f hr.) 
BManger^rg^ whence the heights of 
SL Jodoh C2880 ft.) may be ascended 
in 3 hrs. A pleasant Excursion may 
be made up the Sann Thai, along a 
good level road Ibr 15 miles, by the 
emaUrrrtrSann. Tiie-vallegrie almost 
completely surrounded by mountains 
rising abruptly above the plain, from 
lUUO to 1500 ft., while the snowy jpeaks 
of the Austrian alps are visible m the 
ftr dJiteiee; In tlie middle of the 
TBUegr Is the village of iaehsenfeld. 
The mode of conveyance is by the 
steirwarfeln , a rude kind of light cart 
'without spdugs, in which the pas- 
sengers iH upon Ms of straw covered 
with eaavae tolwcak tlie Jddng. The 
journey to Heilenstein, at the head of 
the valley, is accomplished in 3 hrs. 
From this village the excursion may 
be extended to Sohonstein, about 10 
miles ftirther up among the moimlsitts 
tbe toad winding through a pictoresque 
Talley, down which a brawling stream 
called the Paak flows along. Through 
this a return route to Cilly may be 
made by way of Wslhui, wliere is a 
grand oU castle. Bat tiie most striking 
edifices are the immerous churches 
with briirht copper-ckirl s^)ires, mostly 
perched on precipitous heights, which 
the devotees ascend by steep paths or 
steps eat in die elifi. 

side and a detached pinnacle of rock, 
called the JSulzbacJier Nadd (Wcnd- 
isch, Igla). Immediately beyond 
this point (1800 ft) the path descends 
to the stmm» near wliieh is an Snteiv 
mittent spimg. 

[The ♦Sannthal Alps (Snhhachcr 
or Steiner Alpen) may l)e conveniently 
explored from CLllL Dil. W. by (9 m.) 
ArondHMbwi and (19 m.) Prass- 
herff to (89 m.) Xaafsn (1385 ft,), 

whence a rnncrh cart road h'ads to 
(8 m.) Xeutscidorf (1735 ft ), at the 
confluence of the Leutsch and the 
&mn. Hence the Rcuiucha (6775 ft.) 
may be ascended in 4 hrs., or the 
OistrUza (7710 ft.) in 6 hrs. Here 
the Sannthal tnrnf; abruptly N.E. and 
become*: a i-omantic dcliU', skirting 
the ciitfs of tliti Kaduciia. The path 

moonts ^eiieraliy high ahove the 
itream, and other ti-acks should be 
avoided. After 50 m\n. a narrow 
tieft is passed between the mountain 

2 hrs. from Lentschdorf h Sidz- 
\mA (81«0 ft), whence the *Xor/cr- 
ihal, an oblong basin 5 m. in length, 
enclosed by dolomitic heights, may he 

reached in If hr9. About the same 
tlisiance higher np tlie valley is the 
Binka fail, an insiguihGant cascade 
nearly 400 il. high, in the midst of 
striking scenery. | to tlie rt. (path 
indicnttni by coloors) IS the fiOIBM «f 
the Sann (4230 ft.) 

i:>'rom Sulzbach a path leads N.E. 
hi 4 his. to SektmrnmOmeh (2000 ft.) 

whence u road runs to(9 m.) Ptevsli 
(287). N.W. a ridge may be crossed 
by the little church of Heiligengeist 
to (4 hrs.) Eisen Kappd (1830 ft.), 
13 m. S. of Kuhnsdorf Stat. (287) to 
which a dil. ram. 6 m. S.8.W. ef 
Kappel, in a beautiful wood, lies 
Bad Vellach (-2 7 en ft ), a much-fre- 
quented Cljalybiate spring. Thence 
a road descends S.S.W. by (13 m.) 
Kanher to (18 m.) Kndnharg (891). 
Stein (1230 ft.) may be tasofaed in 
8 hrs. from Snlzbach (guide advis- 
able) by a path which traverses the 
Logarthal (see above), and crosses 
the Steinersattel (6165 ft.) to DnchUz 
( 1 940 ft.) Dii. from Stain to (1ft m.) 
LaibtuJ^ (see below).] 

The rly. on leaving CiUi crosses 
and recrosses the Sann, winding 
through a nanow and roeky *deClle, 


Markt-Tuffer (7G0 ft.) Omn. to 
the Frans Josefs Bad, in a pretty 
situation on tbe 1. of the rly., a 
ftmnrite watering-place, with tlurse 
wann springs (96-lOS° IfUir.). 

Bbmerhad (690 ft.) is a small but 
fashionable place of autumnal r^ort ; 
it has a bath-house and valnable 
minsfal springs (97^ FShr.>. 

Steinbruck lies at the junction of 
the Sann and the Save. 3 hre. W., on 

V 3 



Boute 104. 

, — Laibach 

Sect. m. 

the ridge of the Kumhorg, is the pil- 
grimap-f chapel of S. Agneg (4000 fL); 
path indicated by colour. 

The rly. now ascends the L hmk of 
the diMr ^een nrer, winding among 
loTdy woods aad roeks, and the 
scenery continues most attractive. At 
Trifail is one of the most iTiiportant 
coal - mines in Austria, producing 
uMAf 300,000 teat a year, whkh an 
qmanied almost at the surface of the 
ground. The first village in Carniola 
is Sag or : and at Sava the hills suicide. 

Beyond LiUai the rly. crosses the 
Save, and thveaAi a riiort tnanel 
under the Ctefle of Po^anegg. The 
Julian Alps are taen ta the N.W. on 
the approach to 

Laibach (940 ft.)— Slav. Ljubljana^ 
Itel. £tiMmar-H»pilal of the dneby 
of CSaniiola, with 27,000 Inhab., 

clustered round its Schlossherg. This 
city stands on the nver Laibach, 
which is crossed by six bridges. . 

Laibedi is tHe (Brnnma of the 
Bomans, destroyed 452 a.d. by Attila, 
and in 550 re-established by the 
Slovenes (who then made their first 
appearance in Carniola) under tiie 
name ofLuha. In the 9tb. ceut^. the 
Franks changed the name to TjiilMwJh, 
and in 1275 Carniola eaae to the 
House of Hapsburg. There are re- 
mains of a lioman wall in the Cra- 
cow suburb. To protect the city and 
caitla liNMn i3k9 ineiirsioiis of vene^ 
iaas and Turks they were in the 16th 
centy. fortified, but the works were 
removed in the 18th and 19th oeats. 
Traces of them remain on the 

8cildo8$i)erg, which rises upwaids of 
200 fl. aboTe the riyer. The Sehloes 
wpon it is now a prison. View very 
extensive for so small an elevation. 
A .W. the Terglou (Slav. Triglav) and 
otiier Julian Alps ; N. the Karawan^ 
has, fbom tlie Hlttagskogl (Slav. 
Kepa) L, to the Menina Planina rt, 
with the peaks of the Steiner Alp in 
the centre of the line ; and S. and 
S.W. the Laiba^ Morassy with its 
wooded mooalidn bofder4and, dotted 
with -ullages along its line of junction 
with the level surface. Rising behind 
the girdle due is the ^»ei»ik 

(5529 ft.), the culminating and soli- 
tary ])eak of the Schneeherg plateau in 
the Karst ; and S.W. the Nanos 64249 
ft.), the highest point of the Bim- 
baumer Wald plateau. 

Hills, isolated and in groups, rise 
like islands out of the level surface. 
The largest group — that of the Gross 
Gallenherg (2107 ft.) aiid Vramioa 
(2094 ft.)^8eparates the N. plain into 
3 sections, called the Krainhurgert 
Stnner, and Laiharh levels. In tlic 
MorasSf to the are 9 islets of fim 

The Congress held at Laibach in 

1820-21 has given the place a Euro- 
pean celebrity ; but in the town itself 
there is scarcely anything worth not- 
ice : the churches and public build- 
ingi aM by no mma lemarkable. 
In the market-plaee is a pillar in- 
scribed, "In honour of the Virgin 
Vanquisher of the Moon** (Mondbe- 
zwingerin), in aUodon to a miracle 
said to hire been peHbrmed during 
one ni the Turkish invasions b^ her 
statue, which, when the inhabitants 
were dispirited, and without a general, 
placed itself at the head of tliem, 
inspired them with courage, and led 
them on lo Tietory orer the infidei 
followers of the Crescent.— Pnn^ 
Auersberg^s Palace contains the Landes 
Museum, filled with collections of 
native origin. In the sauare is a 
brome bast of Harsnal Connt 
Radetzky (d. 1868) by Femkonu 

It is a pleasant walk of 40 min. to 
the Chateau of BosenhacJi, along the 
top of the Avoodcd ridjre opposite the 
town. 20 mill, further is the liosen- 
hkiM, with a conspicuons ohurdu 
Dil. S.W. to (42 m.) GoUtekee in the 
Karst, with a chfiteau of Prince 
Auersperg. Close to it are several 
interesting caverns. 

On leaving Laibaeh the rly. takes 
a S.W. direction, crossing the GrO' • 
dachza by an iron bridge, and then 
traversing the morass upon a stone 
causeway 1^ m. long. The morass 
consists of about 6 ft. of turf floating 
upon from 12 to 50 It of flnid mu£ 
which itself moves upon solid sana 
and ds^. HnaJi is rofsk. A 

Digiii^uu by Gdo^Ic 


>out 140 


►tone, in 
^em. of 

••^e also 
ow the 

which, the Barbara shaft, visitors are 
drawn. In some of the "ends" the 
temperature rises to 860 Fahr. : the 

, Zirk- 
bo), a 

ed by 

remarkable' for' the singular ' .^^^^^^ 
menon of its disappearance at times 
for several weeks, or even njo^j^g 


Digitized by Google 


ike Tldgo 

primage _c 
patli indi 

The rly^ 
the dtar 
lovely vr 
scenery c 
Trifail i ^ 
coal - miiJ 
nearly 30 |i 
quarried ^ 
is Sagor r'-'S^ 

the appr 

Ital. Lt^] 
of Car 

city st^ 
which li}-^"^ 

and in 
name o 
and in 
cow su 

centy. ^ 
200 ft 
with ' 
the CIS 
S.W. /s 

-with villages alonff its line of junction 
with the level surface. Bisinj; hehiiid 



upon from l^UMH) it. oi uuxui*^ 

which itself moves upon solid sand 

the girdle due S. is the Sminik \ and dajr. ^elpw t)iat is rock. A 

Digitized by Google 

Austria. Bouie 10^— Franzdorf— Lake of Zirhrnkt^ 213 

Viadud of 25 double aiehci^ 635 ydt. 
long and 124 ft. bigh, is eroMed to 

Franzdorf. The rfj. now sweeps 
rouud LlxQ sides of tbe bills, affordiug 
magaiflcent views of tlie plain beloir 
dotted with villages. Aboat 5 m. 
further Oher-Lafhnch and Hrxeh are 
passed at a little distance on rf. Here 
the Laibach stream issues a faii-growa 
riTcr from Ijie ibot of the Baaonit*- 
berg. It ia beliered to be the tame 
river that rises at St. Peter, (dis- 
appears as tbe Foik iu the Adf Isbcrg 
Grotto, reappears at Piauina and 
becomes the unz, and, a^r a short 
course, disappears again S. of Lsltasli 
(1555 ft.). 

nil. to (22 m. N.W.^ Idria (1540 
fu; iu the depths of a basin on tbe 
liyer Idrisa, which Joins the Tsoaao 
W. below TolmeiB. The descent 
upon it by a zigzag road is striking. 
For the general view visit the Cal- 
varienberg or Schlosa Gew&rkenegg, 
where the nAdng offices are^ and 
where a ticket must be obtained 
f^kt.) It takes 3-4 hfs. to visit the 

he discovery of tbe metal was 
«ie accidentally in 14d7: in 1510 
1 mines were for a short time in tiie 
ads of the Tenetians, but were 
ken from them by the Emp. Maxi 
ilian I. In 1803 they suffered from 
fire which could only be extiuguish- 
A by drowning the wofldnss. In 
iB37 they were in linger from a 
flood of water. Tbe last misfortune 
• 'Was a fire in 1840. After those of 
Almadeu in Spain the? are the richest 
quicksilver mines in £iiro^. 

The entrance to the mines is near 
the Schloss, where suits of miners* 
clothes are provided for strangers. 
The descent is easy by 757 steps hewn 
in tbe rock, and free from danger. 
There are 9 horisontal galleries 
(Felder) in tiers, one below the other, 
whence levels radiate to the** ends'* 
Or workings (II(»tlniinfi;sschlap:en). 
There are 5 vertical biiafts, up one 
whiehy Ihe Bmham thaft, visHen are 
drawn. In some of the ends'* the 
tempefatnre rises to 86^ Fafar. : the 

greatest depOl atlsined is sibovC 140 

fathoms. 'Tlie ore occurs in a bladk, 
fossiliferows, slaty, Jura limestone, in 
the form both of oinnabar (snlpburet), 
sometimes containing 70 per cent, of 
metal, and of naiiise gi Was sr . 
The processes of washlagy bseaUng 

up, r^nd smelting^ the OTO ttO abo 
shown to strangers. 

The Furnaces are a mile below the 
towiif and chiefly need in wiBtsry when 
the deponts lirom the noslow 8idpfanr» 
eous vapours fsXl on the saowand get 
washed a way in «jpring. 

A lioastiity-huuse (Brennofen) con- 
sists of 13 compartments with the 
furnace in the centre, which is pro* 
vided witii stages of gridirons, on 
which the ore is laid. Heat being 
applictl, the vapotir laden with par- 
ticles of metal cau only make its 
escape through holes into Ae oom» 
partments on each side, and aS it 
cools, by passing into tbo remoter 
chambers, falls to the floor in small 
globules, which are afterwards separ* 
atod ftom the aoot and stored in 
reserfmrs. There are two hinds of 
roasting houses ; in the one sort both 
coarse and fine, in the other only fine 
ore can be roasted. The metal is 
either packed iu cast-iron bottles, or 
in bags of she^sfcin steeped in ahisik 
Oinnabar is also manufactured. 
About 2500 centners of quicksilver 
are manufactured yearly, besides i lOU 
centners of cinnabar. 

On the flSnd Jtme in eadi year the 
discovery of the richer vehis of metal 
in 1508 is celchrated by a procession; 
and in tlie aiicmoon by a feast on the 
ZenUia» Pleasant walk to the (| hr.) 
*Wmmue9. From Loitsch tbe 
*Jai'ornik (4075 ft.) msj bo sacended 
S.W. in 4 hrs. 

The rly. follows a S.E. oour6e» 
through a bare country, to 

Bakek, 4 m. E. is the Lake of Zirk- 
niti (Laeos Imgens of StraboX a 
sheet of water about 4 m. lonff, and 
between 2 and 3 wide, surrounded by 
numerous villages, chapels, castles, 
and containing 5 small islands. It is 
remashaMe flsr liw ahigaktf pheno- 
menon of its disappe aw mce at times 
for several weeks, or oven months^ 

Digifced by Google 


Souie lQL~AdeUbetg. 


dnriBg whMh fbe pwmte nake bay, 

or even sow aind reap a small crop of 
buckwheat in its deserted bed, in 
places where they have before thrown 
their nets for fish. Generally speaking, 
theiraiBntolBQiffinthe latter aod of 
Aug., aad vetmi, i£ the seam be wet, 
in 5 or 6 weeks, before even the 
coarse grass has been cut. It takes 
between 20 and 25 days to empty the 
lake. The return or the waters is 
■addes «ai mieqpeetedy and its basin 
is refilled sometimes in 24 hrs. The 
explanation of the phenomenon is, that 
though the lake has no outlet above 
around, yet the limestone which forms 
ita bed is perforated with a Taet niunber 
of eayea ud teiiref»inany of which 
are visible. They are natural funnel- 
shaped holes, some of them 50 ft. deep, 
known to the peasantry byparticular 
names, as The Kettl^'' '^neGaik,'' 
^The Sieve,'* ftc. These eoaunnni- 
cate with caverns and subterranean 
reservoirs, penetrating the interior of 
the surrounding mountains, especially 
that of Javoruig on the S., through 
wbUk Ihe waters are replenished or 
drawn off. The clefts and fissures 
throngh which the water drains from 
the interior of the mountain into 
these two main channels are visible 
hi Ihdr ddes ai^ roof. When the 
waters have reached the caves of 
Velka Karlanza and Malka Kar- 
lanza, they generally cease to rise, 
as these are sufficient, except in 
TtTf wet seasons, to discharge them, 
and to pfeeenre Ihe auflwe of the lake 
at a fixed level. The itreaaM dis- 
charged through them reappear in 
the valley of St. Canzian, and, after 
sinking once more, finally join the 
Una abore Planina. 

Owing to the scarcity of water in 
the surrounding districts, the borders 
of this lake become the resort of im- 
mense flocks of water-fowl at certain 
seasons, when they afliord mneh 
amusement to the sportsman. From 
Hakek it is a drive of 3 hrs. to Iggen- 
dorft and 2 hrs. further to Lesha 
DoUna (2630), whence an ascent of 
3 hrs. leads to the snmmit of the 

_ (5890 ItX <K»B^ 

ABBUBZEO (1800 ft.). Star. Pse- 

tSjnaj lies in an irregular open baMn, 
the Nanos (4249 ft.), N. of bdi^ 
the most prominent object 

The *6xolto «f Adeliherff is 

decidedly the most magnificent and 

extensive in Europe, if not in the 
whole world. It has been explored 
to a distance of 2^ m. from the en- 

The GifOtto is State property, placed 
under the care of an officer in the vil- 
lage, who appoints the guides and 
receives the fees. The entrance-fee 
for each person in 2} fl., for which a 
tiohet is taken at the hotel. Onuu to 
the Cavern, which is illuminated daily 
with electric light at 10 a.m. A tram- 
way car, with room for a very limited 
number of persons, rans for about 
half the length of the eaye ' (I II.) 
There are no eittta foes. Tempera- 
ture, 48° Fahr. 

The entrance is 1 m. from Adels- 
berg on the road to Ottok, through a 
natural cleft dosed by a trellis-aoor 
leading into a low gaUery. ^ty 
feet below, the Toik disappeait in 
another cavern. The way leads over 
a natural bridge^ under which the 
river, invisible, passes from 1. to rt. 
At 630 ft.ftx>m the entrance the visitor 
stands in a balcony in the Great Dom, 
which is 72 ft. high and 160 ft. 
broad ; 50 ft. below, the Poik rushes 
across the Dom floor from rt. to 1., 
and disappears, to reappear 5 m. off as 
the lAwr Una near planina. Steps 
descend to a causeway on the floor 
leading to a bridge over the Poik, and 
to steps on the other side, which are 
ascended to the entrance to the Emp, 
FtrdimatuPi QroUo, discoyefed m 
1818» when a labourer, working in the 
cave, accidentally broke through a 
screen of stalactite. The cavern, which 
appears to have been forgotten, was 
well-known in the Middle Ages. Steps 
cut in the rock lead down tne slopine 
sides of this chamber to the level of 
the river, which is crossed by a 
wooden bridge ; and the opposite wail 
is similarly scaled. Here the visitor 
enters the Frans Jkw^h and Elizabeth 
OfottOy which was trsfeiaed for the 

Digitized by Google 

Austria. Eoute 104. — GroUo of AdeUherg, 







first time on the visit of 6ie Emperor 

and Empress iu March, 1857. It con- 
sists of a range of chnmbcr?, varying 
in size, but by far tiie niobt iuterest- 
ing, from the variety, beautiful parity, 
and quantity ^of Aeir ftalactiteo. 
Sometimes nmting with the stalagmite 
below, they form a pillar worthy to 
sopport a cathedral ; at others a 
cluster of slender columns reminds one 
of the tncery of a Gofhic chapel, or 
of the interlacing branches of the 
banyan-tree. The fantastic shapes of 
somemas^^cs have given rise to various 
namc« applied by the guitK s. sucIi as the 
« Thrme," the " Pulpit," the ' Uuteher's 
Shop," the «* Two HearU,'* the «• Bdl," 
which resounds almost llle metal, and 
the *' Curtain*' (Vorhang), a very sin- 
gular mass, about an inch thick, spread- 
ing out to an extent of several square 

yards, and beautiflilfy' traaspaient. 

The stalactitical matter pervades 
almost every part of the cavern ; it 
paves the lloor, hangs in pendants 
from the roof, coats and plasters the 
irall, oements together IhUeii manes 
of rode, forms screens, partitions, and 
pillars. The only son-nd in the remfte 
chambers is produced by the fall of the 
drops of water charged with lime, 
which wOl be ftrand on ezamlnalioii 
to ^p eaeh pendant mass, forming an 
ascending spire, or stalagmite, on the 
«^pot where it descends. The Cal- 
vaneuberg is the farthest point, and 
is named from a crowd of stalagmites 
which are dnstered npon a Imjt ef 
fallen rocks more than 200 f^. high. 
Beyond the dropping loell h a pool 
fillinp^ a Dolina, ajid another tine 
Duliua called Tartaraa, On the 

Digitizoa by Guv.^^it. 


Bouie 104. — AdeUberg : Castle of Lueg. Sect III 

turn fWmi the OalTsiienberg by the 
old path, the entraneeto the Archduke 
JohrCs Grotto is passed 1., open oulj to 

extraordinary visitors. 

The jpatiiway formed througii the 
eaTem is bo arranged as to luring the 
visitor back bj a differait mij from 
that by which he entered. 

Whit Monday is a grand fete-day at 
Adelsberg. Cheap excarsiou -trains 
bring thousands of holiday seekers 
from Vienna, Trieste, and tlie Lom- 
bardo - Venetian cities, and several 
military bands assemble together in 
the great hall, which serves as the ball- 

About 3 m. feom. Adebberg is 
another cave, called the Hagdalenen- 

Grotte (Slav. Cema Jawa), " entered 
through a Dolina. It is one con- 
tinued descent at an angle of 40° ; and 
Is supported by a great number of 
massiye stalactitic columns. At the 
bottom runs a slow and sluggisli river, 
in which tlint Ririfnilar animal the 
Proteus Anguinua exists." In ap- 
pearance it is between a fish and a 
ilaavd; it is of a flesh-eolour, and its 
respiratory organs combine both inter- 
nal lungs and gills, so as to enable it 
to breathe above or below the water. 
The gills, placed oil eack side of the 
bead, as in a fish, are of a bright red 
oolour, resembling small branehes of 
coral. It has no eyes, but small 
points in the place of them. It has 
been rarely found at Sittich, about 3u 
m* ofE, near Ubach; and it is re- 
ported to exist in Sicily; but it is 
known in no other part of Europe. 
Specimens of the Proteus may gene- 
rally be seen at Adelsberg. l} m, 
further N. is the 

Poik OaTOm (Slav. Tiuha Jama), 
which is also entered through a 
Dolina. Paths with railings have 
been constructed by the Austrian 
Tonrist ditb. In the Grotto the Poik 
is seen dashing past oTer the rocks, and 
in the deep recesses of the cavem are 
four small lakes. 

The^ singalar flastle of Iveg (Pre- 
iana^ Is about 4 hrs*. walking from 
\delBberg, or 2 hrs'. driye. Carriage 

irith two horses, 5 fl. The road-car 
turns off from the post-road at Hrascht, 

and passes through Qoritsche^ Lnriflol, 
and Bn'ne. Tlie Castle is placed in the 
highest of three caverns, out of which 
iti chambers ate partly ezearated, and 
is accessible only by a fiight of steps 
cut in the rock, by ladders of wood, 
and by drawbridges over gulfs and 
chasms. The sock is honeycombed 
with holes and perforations ; caserns 
alternate with buildings, and at its 
base the river disappears in a yawning 
p-ulf; it is altofrother a mysterious 
spot. Erasmus Laeger was in the 
15th cent, tlie owner. Slaying Mar- 
shal Pappenheim in 1483, Iw took 
refuge here, and was laid siege to by 
the Captain- General of Trieste, and at 
last slain through the treachery of a 
servaut. The present Schloss was 
bnilt in 1570 by Coant Kobensl; and 
since 1846 has belonged to Prince 
Windlschgratz. The lower cave can* 
not be entered on account of the Poik ; 
that in the middle is approached by 
wooden bridges, and extends 18G0 ft. 
into the took. 

South of Adelsberg commences that 
desolate tract called the Karst (Carso). 
It is a labie-land of bare limestone 
rock, correspon^g in age with the 
chalk, separating Camiola frm. the 
coast-land of Littorale. It forms part 
of a wide region of compact, hard 
secondary limestone of a grey or white 
colour, known at Veidce as Istrian 
marUerWhich, commencing at this S.B. 
quarter of the Alps, stretches down the 
coast of Dalmatia and Albania into 
Greece. It abounds in caverns, clefts, 
holes, rock ba&ius or swallow holes, 
yalleys without outlet, small lakes or 
tarns, rivers that lose themselTcs^ and 
similar freaks of natujre. From these 
causes the soil is sterile and dry to 
excess, owing to the want of water and 
aheenoe of allnyial land* On the few 
n>ots where vines and olives and other 
miits can be made to crow, the pro- 
duce is not inferior in quiility to that 
of Italy. 

This also is the region which that 
tremendous wind the Bora (Boreaa) 
soonrges with all Us ftity. No rehidie 

Digitized by Google 


Boute 104.— SI. Feter—TrieBte. 


ma stand against It ; lieayy » Isden 
wi^gons v,-]i'n:h frequent Uiis road 
dare not stir while it lasts, for fear of 
being overturned. The sides of the 
railway are protected by barriers of 
boards, resting on stockades to shelter 
the tnuns in exposed plac^. The 
term Bora for the N.E* -wind is used 
all down the Adriatic, even in the 
kingdom of Naples. Jlnvn is Slavonic 
for a storm or tempest j and troin this 
may perhaps be aerired the Italian 

bamsca,'' and French '* bourasque." 

The vrant of water in the Karst 
caused great difficulties in carrying 
rly. traffic across it. The stations are 
prorided with seienllfteaily con- 
strncted cisterns, supplied by steam 
engines or by aqueducts, one of which 
is 20 miles long. Beyond 

St. Peter (1785 ft.) the rly. is 
carried in six shott tnnnds thrimgh 
the hills of the Karst, 

Divazza. At the Bufifet may bo 

obtained tickets for the ♦Crown Prince 
Rudolph's Grotto ^50 kr.), about a 
mile distant. Gnide^ eokr. The 
Stelaetites here are singularly pure. 

2 m. S.E. (carriage from the Ktnt. 
there and back, 3 fl.) are the *Groitoes 
of St. Canzian, well worth a visit. 
The Reka, flowing in the depths of a 
tortnons ravine, forces Its way through 
narrow clefts in the rock, iforming 
mysterious pools and lively c?i<^cades. 
Paths and bridges render the explora- 
tion quite safe and easy, but the visit 
requires nearly 3 hrs. Tickets (30 kr.) 
and a snide (20 kr. an boor) may be 
obtained at the Inn. 

From Sessana the rly. descends in a 
long sweep to 

msecoo, famous for its wine, and 
continues W. to 

Kabr§8ina. Here the line turns 
S.E., and a *niagnificent view of the 
Adriatic is enjoyed on the descent to 
Trieste. The rly. makes a wide 
sweep to reach 

Chignano, in a direct line not more 
than ni. from Prosecco, .ifter 
passing the late Emp, Maximirum's 
Villa of Miiainar, the rly. enters a 
tonnel 302 yds. long, and reaches 

X3Eeixm (TVv^Mfeof the fioauns), 
the chief town of the Austrian Litto^ 
rale, or coast-land of Illyria, and the 
most flourishing and important seaport 
of the Austrian dominions, is situated 
at the N.E. extremity of the Adriatic, 
at the bottom of a galf named after 
the town. It owes its prosperity to 
the Emp. Charles VI., who in 1719 
made it a free port,\ and to Maria 
Tiieresa, wiio fostered it with her 
patronage. Its population at that 
time was about 4000 ; it has gradually 
increased to 72,ooo, not iTichiding its 
suburbs and garrison. It may be said 
to engross t£e enUre trade of the 
Adriatie, It fbrms the great eatrepdt 
for ^ imports and exports of the S. 
provinces of Austria, and is daily 
advancing in trade, wealth and popu- 
lation. The value of imports is esti- 
mated at about 14 millions sterling, 
and that of exports at nearly the same 
amount. The harbour is formed by a 
Pier {Molo) of solid masonry, 60 ft. 
wide, stretching from the extremity 
of the town along a reef of half-sunken 
rocks about 700 yds. into the sea. At lis 
extremity is a fort and a lighAottse. 
The New Harbour, protected by an 
immense breakwater and three moles, 
with a separate petroleum dock, 
occupied sixteen years in construction, 
and cost nearly 1§ miUioDs sterling. 
Tkt Moh is a pleasant walk. 

The Aitstadt, or old town, occupies 
the slope of the hill, which Is sur- 
mounted by the castle. It forms 

about one-fourth of the whole, and is 
distinguished by its narrow streets, 
few of which are accessible to car- 
riages of any kind, and by its blaok 

The Duomo, or Cathedral of San 
Giusto, oil the hill near the castle, is 
remarkable for Its antiquity and con- 
struction. It consists of two churches 
—a small basilica on the N., probably 
of the 9th cent., and a chapel on tlie 
S., added about a cent, later to receive 
the relics of SS. Justus and Seryulus. 
The two buildings appear to have 
been joined together by a roof of 1 2G2. 

f TUs privllsee csises tn ISSSl 

Digitized by Google 


Boiiie 104:.— Trieate : New Town. Sect. III. 

incladnig tbe beit ahops and eaJUt, 

and communicating with the two 
squares. Plana Gzande and P. della 

The Bew Tow, coniBBting of bmd 
streets paved with large slabs of lime- 
stone, and handsome white houses, 
occupies the level space near tbe har- 
bour. Part of its streets and quays 
a?e founded on ground gained from 
the sea or flrom a saltpjnanlL A broad 
Canal runs up from the water through 
this quarter, which is named after the 
Empress, Theresienstadt ; and by 
means of it yessels of large burden 
oan be rniloaded afanost at the mer- 
chants* doors. A t i t s e X t r e m i ty standi 
the modem duuDoh of B. An^Qumj^ 
built in 1830. 

hk ihe absides at the end of the usles, 

on each side of the nave, are old 
mosaics, the finest of which, on the 
N., represents the Virgin and Child, 
with Michael, Gabriel, and the 12 
Apoaflee, di^ed into two ^ups by 
a pahn-tree. On the S. is Christ 
between Servulus and Justus, together 
with some damaged frescoes of the 
14th cent., representing the history 
of St. inttas. Hie churoh baa been 
built with ftngments of earlier build- 
iugs, as Homan inscriptions, and some 
carvings, may be seen built in the 
walls. The shafts of the columns are 
various in diameter and height, and 
thmr eapilate are of all sorts of pat- 
terns. Its general character, hovew, 
is much injured by additions and 
alterations made in the l4th cent. 
The W, front, marked by a wheel- 
window, is ianhed by a heavy tower 
with a defaced Corinthian column 
built into the angle, and other frag- 
ments of late Komau architecture, re- 
mains of a temple of Jupiter which 
steMMlon the site. In the S. aisle is the 
gra'iM jof Jhn Carha of ^pain (died 
here in 1855),marind by a brass-plate. 

In the terrace opposite the principal 
door is interred Fouche, Duke of 
(^ranto, police minister of Napoleon 1., 
who died here in 18S0. Jnii beknr tbe 
Qsthedral, in an old burying - grotmd, 
is the Mnseo Lapidario, containing a 
a number of antiquities from Tergeste 
and Aquileia. In a recess at the upper 
end is the tomb of Winkelmann, the 
antiqnaiy. He was murdered (1768) 
at an inn here by an Italian, whose 
cupidity he had excited by showing 
the gold medal he had received at 
Vienna as a reward for his learned 

The Piazzetta dl Biccardo, a small 
square or court, receives its name 
from Kichard Ceeur-de-Lion, who, 
a/eeording to an obscure and donbCfbl 
tradition, was confined here after land- 
ing at Aquileia, on his return from 
the Holy Land. TheArco di Eic- 
eardo is of Komau origin, and may 
have ibrmed part of an Aqueduct. 

Between the old and new town rons 
the OsMithepeiBeipalthflmghftre^ 

The Tu^gHUnrnf a splendid modem 
edifioe eveeted in 1842, comprises a 

bazaar, a fine concert and ball room, 
the mercliants' hall, now used as the 
Exchange, the offices of the Austrian 
Lloyd's, and the Casino Tedesoo, widi 
an excellent reading-room, where the 
English and French papers may be 
seen. The keeper of the hotel will 
introduce travellers. 

The old Exchange stands in the 

Piasa deila Borsa, in the centre of 
whioh IS a fbnntain and statne of the 

Emperor Leopold I. 

In the Piazza Lipsia is the Nautical 
Academy, containing, on the second 
floor, the Xvseo wiiM di ftacin 
Katmls^ open on Wed. and Sat 
from 10 to 1 ; Sun. 11 to 1. On the 
same floor in the back part of the 
building is the Mtiseam of Antiqui- 
ties, open daily from from 11 to 1 
(small fee}. Near it to the S.W. is 
the Palazzo Bevoltella, with pictures 
and sculptures, chiefly modem, be- 
queathed to the town by their col- 
lector. In the Piazza Giuseppina is 
abronae ^statue of the nnfoitanate 
Emp. Maximilian of Mezieo (1867)» 
ereOed in 1876* 

The Passeggio di S. Andrea, a 
charming road along the shere^ leads 
S.W. to (8 m.) Seryola, passing the 
doeka of the Austrian lioyd Cow^ 

Digitized by Google 

Austria. Mcut^ lO^^Obdna; Oredt Ohmeh. 


iriuoli are i»iiuwu daily from 9 to 1 1 
«iidSto4^ Penuttum at the offloe 

in Trieste. The Bosohetto, a pleasant 
wood on the heights E. of the town, 
may be reached by tramway. A 
winding carriage-road ascends hence 
to the Villa Bevoltella, a public park, 
oommanding deli^tfhl Tiews. 

The *Oboina ^1135 ft.), a survey- 
ing: station 4 in. N., affords a yet 
more extensive view. The Gothic 
castle and groands of *Wlminar (seat 
of the late Emp. of Mexico) are 
beautifully situated on a point of land 
jutting out into the sea, and well 
deserve a visit. They may be reached 
by boat (3 fl.)» carriage (2 fl.), or by 
train to Grignano. Half-way along 
the shore (3 m.) is Barcola (tramway 
or steamer), with two iari^e sea-bath- 
ing establishments. 

An AqjudBiu^ formed on the dde of 
Monte Croce, about 6 m. off, eomreys 

"vraterto the town, after it is pumped 
up from the sprjyog 400 it, by a steam - 

The market of Tdeale is well sup- 
plied with the wiOQt iish of the 

Adriatic; among them the tnnny 
fat certain seasons) is pre-eminent, 
also oysters from Servoia ; and a par- 
ticular species of shell-fish (Phola- 
daaua)» called Pattoli di mare, is 
oonddcred a ddieaogr. The wme 
Pro^^rm, grown on the Karst, has 
some repute ; Cyprus wine h im- 
ported, largely, and Hungarian and 
Syrian wines are good and cheap. 
Uomtglm of the best quality is manu- 
factured along this part of the coast of 
the Adriatic; Mm-cutchino di Zara is 
extracted exclusively from the cherry 
called Marasca, and the genuine 
onaEty is seareelj to be had, except at 
Zara. The real Albanian Capotes are 
to be purchased here. The bestcoet 
from 23 to 28 fl. each. 

The climate is very variable, subject 
to the moatabropt altenrntionayDrom 
Intenae heat to plereing cold, owing to 
the prevalence of two winds equally 
intolerable — the hot and oppressive 
Bdroceo (Greco - Levante), xrom the 
8.E., and the oold aad catling Bora 

(Greco), or N.E. The former is said 
to have the effect of driving the fish 
into the harboiiff. Trieste is very cos- 
mopolitan, and almost all nationalities 
are representefi here. Amkhil:' tlie 
townspeople may be found Geimaus, 
Amencaos, Italians, Greeks, Jews, 
Armenians, and English ; the saiiora 
and fishermen near the quays are 
chiefly Dalmatians. The original in- 
habitants are Italians ; the country 
people, who fVequeut the markets, 
ShiTiv of lUjnan origin. Ihe Italian 
b the preriulittg language, and ia 
used in the courts of justice. In the 
public offices G< rman is used ; by the 
peasantry a biavonio dialect. 

Tlie Gredm are yetf nnmerons 
here, and some of the wcttlthiest mei^ 
chants are of this nation. They have 
two churches, in which their service 
is performed with great splendour. 
The "'Qreek Ohuroh, surmounted by 
green cupolas, on the <^uay, is tlie 
handsomest xdigioat odifioe in the 
lower town. 

The English residents have a Chapel 
in tiie Via aiMele^ which ia attended 
b}r abont 140 persons, incldBaig cap- 
tains and engineers of the mercantile 
marine. Service at ll and 6. 

There is a pretty English Cemetery 
at S. Anna (opened in 1837^, in 
which nttmeaoaa graTOstonea tell hov 
fatal the climate of Ttioate baa been 
to EogUah constitationa. 

Digilk^^lfeiliigle ^ 



HOUTE 105* 



StatU'iis. Trotitcs. 

VIENNA ("Rennweg) 93 
8 Maria-Lanzend 

26 SallflBM. ... 800 

JW FeliTaorf . . 101 
'Wl£ll£Brll£USTA])T 96, 
101, 103, 210 

39 ErUi^ 

41 Pitten 

48 Seebexutoia 

49 EdUts 
66 A8PAH0 

Quitting Vioina by the Kennweg 
Stat. OQ the caual, the rly. passes the 
Cemetery, aad the pilgrimage charcli 
otMmria^LBmMmdorf, crosses Rte. 98, 
mod TUBS to Biedermanmdorf, from 
which Laxenbiirg is less than a mile 
distant. An itt(]nstnous district 
abouudiug in spmuixig factories and 
gaper muLs is traversed thence to 
ikutanaiL Abaat f hr. on foot IkxMn 
KUin^WoShendMf is Sehlcw IMi*^ 

CroRsinir the Scliwarza, the train 
reaches J:^rLach in the Pittenthal, with 
several fiu»tories and briek-kilns, and 
then Pitten, a very prosperous and 
busy little market town. The rly. 
then passes under the rock and castle 
of Seebenstein, an old fortress, once 
of importance a^inst the Turks, now 
the property of Prinoe Liechtenstein. 
It contains a carious assemblage of 
aruMont furniture, beds, hangings, fans, 
sin;:uiar spoons and caskets, and is 
surrounded by a beautiful Park. 1 he 
next Stat, aSBta, majr be made the 
oentie of vaxions agreeable excursions 
—to flic Thomadmrgf JTrvmioe?^, 

Airchsf lilaf;. etc. 
The cusde of FeittnUt ia the neigh- 

bourhood, is \vort]i a visit, and near 
Kirchberg is the stalactite caver a of 
■teBUUmshiOile. In the mazket-piM 
of As|itng is an ancient oh«reh^ abda 
Schloss of Coam Pevgea. 

ROUTE 106. 

G O E Ig l A , AND nBimL 







VdiM . . 
10 flMdlli 

8 ▼llteito 





J N. Italy. 

W.— The fly. V9m along the elifia 
overlooking the aea VBiUI it xeaches 

Nabresina, where there is often 
considerable delay. Near the stat., 
below the village oi tSau Pclai, lies 
the inbed Oaatalliwa of Jodums, 
well worths visit. The rly. continnei 
N.W., passing Duino, where is a 
modern chateau of Prince Hnbculohe, 
and an old ruin on a detached rock, 
originally a castle of the patriarchs of 
AquiLaia. Heva Dante waa the guest 
of Pa^Do della Torae^ |iatriarch of 
Aquileia, and composed pait of the 
* Divina Conimedia.* 

Near San (liovatmi, whose 18th- 
cent, ehofeh k bnUt on the site of a 
temple of Diana and DioBMde, the 
rly. leaver the sea. Here the sources 
of the Tininvo bui Mt o it of the foot of 
a bare rock from under the road iu a 

Digiii^uu by Ljij 

Digitized by Google 


D T X Y I K a t\ 


I of the Timavol>ufl5t out oi t^e lOot of 
pU»^'to,mtbetieigh-labareroGk ih>miaa^ tli0 road in a 


Digitized by Google 


TMt yolume» mA Ibnaat onee a river, 
which after a oome of a mile enters 

the Adriatic : 

foDtem 8ap«mn nmavi : 
Ubde per om neven, irHl» em nmrmm 


It m&re pioroptiun* et pelogo bremit arv& 
■ooama. YxBon. 

It is believed that these sources are 
the outlet of the irrer Beoea, whick 
buries itMlf m tiM Kant Gave at St. 
Canzian, ukl emerges here, afUr a 
subterranean course of 18 m. 

Half-way between Duino and Mon- 
lUeene, and abont fiO BUD* dnre ftom 
either, are the Baths {Bagni T&mali 
di Monfalcone), enclosed within a well- 
armnged establishment, and much 
frequented. The waters (100° Fahr.) 
contain principally chloniziee and 
sulphates, and mod baths are also 

Honfalcone is a town of 1 250 Inhab., 
on a hill overlooking the Adriatic, with 
a remarkable old Uiil-Fort. 

[12 m. W. lies AaxnUXA (900), 

reached in 2 hrs'. drive, crossing the 
lson20 by a ferry. It was founded by 
the Romans in B.C. 182 as a frontier 
fortress against Istria» The sea has 
retraated tiboot 4 il, aad the marshes 
which sarroimd it render its climate 
pestilential. Augustus often resided 
here, and its population at one time 
exceeded half a million. It was taken 
and ledneed ta aihes by Attila, jud. 
46S^ whose fiuEoeitj was excited by 
the stubborn resistance it made to 
his arms, and who caused it, in conse- 
quence, to be sacked, burned, and razed. 
The patriarah of Aqoileia was a prinee- 
prelale of the kingdom of Lonihaidy ; 
in 1132 he had sixteen suffragan 
bishoprics, but in 1238 the patriarchate 
was transferred to Udine. The great 
cruciform "'Duomo is preceded by a 
fine open porch with Lombard capitals 
of the 10th or 11th cent. W. of it is 
the CJiiesa dei Paganif with three 
bays, opening upon a roofless oct- 
agonai Baptistery with a small apse. 
Thm naia Jm ea^tala of the 11th 
centy bo* pointed arehes of 1365-81. 

The transepts appear to belong to the 
original building, and beneath the 


Chcnr is a 10th or 11th cent, crypt. 
The roof of the nave is disposed in 
cinquefoil grooves or tubes panelled in 
small squares. In the centre of the 
apse is a pwd pictnre bj MkHino da 
iydAsein its original carved and gilded 
frame. The patriarch's Throne is 
made up of old Byzantine fragments 
in white marble, inlaid with serpentine. 
The Chdr is aseended magniflecntly 
by flights of steps, rt. andLMaoenttu 
rostrum, which has balustrades of rich 
and splendid Renaissance work. In 
the N. aisle near the W. end is a 
curious round building with pyramidal 
roof. The beniH«n are hMMwed oot 
of Roman and ByzanUne capitals. A 
Gothic chapel in the S. aisle has several 
tombs of the Delia Torre family: 
liaimondo (1298) ; Pagano (1333), the 
friend <^ Dante; Bainaldo (1319), 
brother of patriarch Gastone, whose 
beautiful tomb adorns the cloister of 
S. Croce at Florence ; Ludovico 
(1365). The crypt, divided into four 
bays with aidee, eonlalns the shrine 
of St. Hennacoca* The ca m jKinile, a 
tall plain mass of masonry, dated 1548, 
stands a little N. of the church, and a 
good view of the surrounding Hat 
country, and of the Adriatic, includ- 
ing the Island of 6fraiia, is obtained 
from it. The Roman remains in this 
neighbourhood are abundant; exca- 
vations are constantly carried on, and 
the apothecary of the place has a large 

It is a short drive from Aquileia S. to 
Belvedere, whence a boat may be taken 
to GEADO, now much frequented for its 
sea-bathing. This place also was 
the seat St a patriarch, snl^eet not 
to Lombardy but to the Byzantine 
emperors, and transferred to Venice 
in 14.50. The *Cathedral, founded 
between 571 and 586, is preceded 
by a uarthex, beside which rises a 
campanile. The nare has twelve 
columns on each side* seven of which 
are of hianco e nero marble, and a 
beautiful mosaic tloor. There is a 
strange Oriental pulpit on lofty piers, 
surmonnted with a painted dome; the 
lower part, with its six irf|g«Iar 
columns, of the 8th or 9th cent. ; the 
canopy of the 15th. The patriarch's 

Boute 106. — Aquileia — Grado, 

Digitized by Google 


BatUe lOb. — Gorz — Udine. 

Seot IIL 

tlupone is green wifh Mft-dump, and 

tottering to one side*. On me N., 
near the chancel, is a plain octagonal 
Baptistery. In a yard behind is a 
singular detached building with three 
apees and a monic door» ued as a 
workshop. Agabfit tke N. wall of 
the Diiomo are three sarcophagi, pro- 
bably adapted from Pagan uses to 
Christian. In the Treasury are two 
good silver caskets. 

S. M. delle Grazie is a beautiful 

little Byzantiiio chnreh of six bays, 
with fragiiK nts of mosaic pavement, 
and capitals of various form. Over a 
aide doorof the deeeerated 8m Boeeo, 
close to the Inn, a sai c phagoa has 
been bnilt np as a lintel. J 

The rly. turns N. from Monfalcone, 

once a place of 

ance. Public gardens haTe been laid 

out upon the site of its ancient walls. 
There is a fine view from the Castle 
on a height, now turned into barracks, 
and traditionally said to be an artifieial 
mound raised by Attila, that he might 
see from it the coiiUagration of Aqui- 
leia. Udine presents in its buildings 
many features of resemblance to the 
mother city, to whose rale it was so 
long subjected. The Gethio FaJtaaa 
PobDlieo hns bp( n well restored, sinoe 
a fire in 187 0, and consists of two 
stages ; the lower entirely open, with 
pointed arches resting on columns: 
the npper having a large baleoiued 
window in the centre of its principal 
front. The original fresco of the 
Madonna by Vordeiwnf, damaged by 
up the Valley of Isonzo (^ntiusj, i hre, is now concealed under an excel- 

whose waters are diaUngniihed at times 
by the almost vBoXkj vhitenesa of 

GSn (€rortzia)f an archiepiscopal 
town of 20,000 Inhab., possessing 
mannfactories of sSlk, Ac, eharmingly 
situated on the Isonzo. In the upper 
or old town stands the CastJr of the 
Counts of Gorz. The Cathcilnd is a 
gaudy Renaissance building with lar^ 
galleries, and a late-Qothio ehoir. 
The Barrack in the great square, at 
the foot of the castle rock, -was origin- 
ally a Jesuits' College. 

Charles X., the ex-kiug of France, 
died here (1836), in the Castle of 
Gra&nbnig, and is bnried in the 
Ghapel of the Convent of CkutagnO' 
vizza, on a hcifrht nhove the town. 
Here also is the tomb of the Comte 
de Chambord (1883). 

{5 m* above Wn, waeUMng the 
narrow entrance into the Iscmaothal, 
is Monie Santo^ crowned by a cele- 
brated pilgrimage church erected in 
1544. View over the plain S. with the 
milky Isonzo stretching away to the 
sea, and over the plain W., with the 
Cadore mountains b^ond. Many 

VlkUifc is an ancient and ve&erable 
town of 23,150 Inhab.. with arcaded 
streets, formerly oapitSl of Friuil, and 

lent copy by Cfftediiia of Oortina. 

Here, as at Venice, are two coltimns, 
the Winged Lion of St. Mark, and a 
Campanile with two figures to strike 
the hours. The *Ihiomo, in the By- 
zantine style, mainly of brick, is 
modemieed, except we W» fiont and 
tower. The W. doorway is of the 
14th cent., w^ith a steep crocketed 
gable between pinnacles. The tower, 
52 ft. in diameter, is of good work in 
its lower staoe. The motm of S. 
Joseph with the Child Jesna and tlw 
boy John, much repainted, and the 
wings of the Organ, are by Martiim da 
fWfw' (151 9-21). Behind the high altar 
is the sculptured sarcophagus of Bem- 
ardo da 6. Ginesiov patfiaioh of Aqui- 
leia, murdered in 1350 by means of the 
sword which lies beside him. In the 
sacristy is a Virgin and Child with 
S. Lucia, by Dont. da ToLmezzo, In the 
Bldiop^a Palaee a eeilin^ ps^ted 
by Giovanni da Udim* His honse^ 
No. 17 in tlie Via Gemona, is adorned 
with stucco omaa^ts, probably cast 
by himself. 

The Balana BertoUxi, or Oivie 
Museum, contains a ^ConnialioD of the 

Virgin by Girolamo da Udine^ and two 
good pictures by Faima Giovane and 
Timio. There is ah»o a bu£»i of Fra 
Pamo Sarpi, and a small but inter«8l- 
tng eolleetion of artldea in amber* 

Digitized by Google 


Moute 106. — CmndcUe — Fordemne* 


ornameiitB in gold, jewels, Boman 
ooins from Aqaileia, and bronse im- 
plementa fonna in tiie lover plain of 

Tbe dmreh of the Xadonna delle 
Chaile has a Virgin and Child en- 
throned, with SS. Gervasio, Protasio, 
Sebastian, and Koch, by Luca ^fnn- 
uercfe, a native of Udine (1522 ) — a tine 
l^tnre, hung too high. In San 
iMMf^ is an aItar*pieoe hy Ffori- 
gerio of Oonegliano» representing St. 
George and the Dragon, the Virgin 
and Chihl, St. Sebastian, and otlier 
saiiits. The modernised church retains 
an early souare Mek belfry, areaded 
below, with simple pointed ivindonrs 
of two lights above. 

An^avcnno of planes anrt poplars 
leads to Campo Forinio, a small village 
only remarkable for the treaty between 
Napolecm L and the Emp. Praneis I. 
of Anstria, signed here in 1797 ; a 
treaty which may be considered as 
the death-warrant of tlic Kepublic of 
Venice. The mean house iu which the 
meeting of plenipotentiaries was held 
is pointed out. 

18 m. N.W. lies San Daniele, where 
Martino da Udine, !>etter known as 
PeUegrino da S. JJaniele, painted tlie 
Choir of S. AidQuio, partly m i^i^b and 
partly in 1521, the c£ief sabjects 
being the Omeifizion, Descent into 
Hadei^ etc 

[10 m. E. of Udine is CiVlDALE, 
the anoient Forfm JtUii, desoribed 
by Pliny already as deletum oppi- 
dum," bnt abounding in Roman re- 
mains, a number of which nrc pre- 
served in the Mnscnm. Afterwuids 
it was for centui'ies the seat of a line 
of Lombard dukes. From their era 
dates the oarions octagon BapUtfary of 
CnJfixf)iy.\ patriarch of A<[uileia, which, 
though ii'}i;ur. rf and in ])arts inter- 
polated, is a work of the 8th ceuty. 
A Latin inscription roos rouad the 
cornice of its S. sids^ It was removed 
in 1463, after an earthquake, to its 
present site, jtist within tbe Duomo 

representing the Virgin and Child 

surrounded by saints and aagds. In 
the choir is the marble throne nf the 
Patriarch of Aqnileia, The Arddves 
include some most valuable ancient 
MSS., and the Paz of St. Urms. 

Of the highest possible interest is a 
* Lombard Gospel-book, of which S. 
Mark is missing, having been stolen 
by a Venetian for the patriarchal 
church. On the margin are numerous 
signatures of princes and cHhec cele- 
brities, from the end of the 8th to the 
beginning of the 10th cenl 

In the KLonasterio Maggiore, now a 
nunnery— (for admission apply to <me 
of the priests at the Duomo) — is a 
chapel called the *Ttmpiet(o Lougo- 
hardo, opening out of the cloister. It 
is quite a gem, and unique of its kind. 
It has a tiuy choir formed of old 
Boman oolumns and materials taken 
from ancient temples, oarvod WOoden 
stalls of the 13th or 14th century, and 
quaint Lombard stone-work of the 
8th or 9th. I.ookiug back, the W. wall 
lias an arch with curioos mouldings — 
very puzzling to a northern antiquary^ 
but highly interesting. 

The small church of 8ta. Maria dei 
Battnti i^i.e. beaten, the church having 
belonged to an order of FtegeUant 
monks), has a Virgin and Child with 
the four Virgins of Aipnleia,St. John 
B., and the patron saint, DonatuF, 
bearing the city, sign^ aud dated 
im, by MairHno da Vdhe; al the 
sides, a fine Sebastian and Michael by 
CHovrnmi da Vd4n$, 

In the church of St. Martin, on the 
opposite side of the river Natisonc, 
the high-altar of St Pemmo is another 

Lombard monument. It is covered 
with reliefs on four sides. The bridge 
over the Natisone was built in 1446. j 
The rly., on leaving Udine, turns 
S.W. to Oasarsa, the choir of whose 
parish cfam^ is painted by Fordenowt 
(1520-29), with the histoiT" of the 
Cross, and fi^nres of saints, prophets, 
aud evangelists. At Pordenone, th" 

(1457;, a buildine of the lu iiaibsauce I 

Style. On the high altar a veiy 1 master's birthplace, he has left 8 
enrioas work of sHver-gilt (1180), I esnellent works in the Cathedra^ 

Digiti/oa by Gi.. 


Btmie 107.— 8k 

Petet io Fkme. Sect. IIL 

Town Hall, bcsicles a beautiful * Virgin 
and Child with Saints, at Torre, 2 m. 
distant. The church of S. Fiore di 
Sopra, 4 m. E. of CknMglimno, ooatalns 
a nne group of Baiiili by C/mo. The 
remainder of the journey to Venice is 
described in the Handbook to jSorther n 

ROUTE 107. 

MOM. Stations. Battm, 

ST. Peter . . . 104 
10 Dornegg-Feistritz | 
5 KiillexLberg } 

19 ii^piflM ) 
29 Katai^AlAMla 
ae RmM .... 818 

S.S.E. — ^Three tonnelB are passed 
t>efoFe reaching KUUanbarg (1980 ft), 

which commands a fine view. At 
Domegg is the source of the Feistritz, 
which almost immediately after issuing 
from the rock becomes sufficiently 
abundant to turn a miU. Near Sapiane 
(1400 ft,) is a tunnel nearly ^ m. long, 
after which the rly. descends to 
Matuglie (690 ft), the stat. for (.3 m.) 
AblMUda. Omn. 1 fi. 20 kr. j carriage 
viihone horse, fl> ; two hones* 41. 

This new but rising sea-side resort 
18 dtaated on the Austrian Riviera, a 
strip of coast-line about ten miles in 
length, which runs nearly N. and S. 
from Voloeca to below jLovrana, on 
the W. shore of the Gnlf of Frame. 
It derives its name from a Benedictine 
abbey said to have been founded at the 
end of the 13th cent., but of whicli no 
records exist earlier than 1449. lu 
the 16th cent, it was handed orer to 
the Augustinians of Laibach, who sold 
it to the Jesuits in 1773. The revenue 
of the monastery was small, and the 
buildings are unimportant. 

The place was first brought into 
prominent notice by an inhabitant of 
Fiume, who built the Villa Angiolina, 
close to the ruined abbey where the 
Bmpress Maria Anna spent some weeks 
in 18G0. Since that time King Milan 
and other royal personages have visited 
the spot, and it is now much fre- 
quented hf Anstrians and Hnngaiiani. 
Abbazia has two seasons, being a 
winter station for consumptive patients 
from the 15th of Oct. to the 15th of 
May, and a sea-bathing place from the 
15th of May till the I5th of Oct. The 
mean temneratore for the year is 
Fahr. in tne sun, and 59° in tlie shade. 
The situation at the head of the beauti- 
ful gulf of Fiume is most attractive, 
and the vegetation luxuriant and varied. 
Behind Abbaaia rises Monte Maggiora 
(4580 it), whidi oommandsa magnifi- 
cent view, and may be ascended in 
less than 5 hrs. There is a deficiency 
of running water, and the ganitary 
arrangements ha^e not yet readbeid 
perftraon; hot on these points im- 
provement may be expected, and the 
place will doubtless increase in popu- 
larity as it becomes better known. 
Flume is an hour distant by carriage 
road, or 1} hr. by sea. 

Leaving MatugliOt the rily. descends 
to the sea, and fine views are enjoyed 
of the bay of Quarnero, the low-lying 
island of Veglia, and Cherso further S. 

flOUTB loa 


IOIm. fltatfoiHu BibbIss. 
FA8SATJ . . , • 48 

6 Wemstein 
9 Scharding . . . 297 
33 Neumarkt ... 86 

S.E. — Cologne to Vienna. Sleeping- 
cars. — The line passes throuprh a long 
tunnel, crosses the X^u, au^ ascends 

Digitized by Google 

Austria, Boute 109. — Passau to Vienna, 


its rt. bank. Vmitdii, irith an old 

castle, rises on the opposite side 
of the river. Scliardiiig (.SGOO) is an 
ancient town, in a picturt^sque situa- 
tion, with chalybeate springs in the 
vicinity. Beyond this stat., the rly. 
Moends the Pramthal to Neumarkt. 

BOUTE 109. 


l8t Claas 

Fa'-e to 





7 . 05 

5.85 Lins . 

L> . 90 






Niederranna, Wesen-^ 
nfer • • • •/ 
Obermiihl, Vtnhaus . 
Aschach .... 
B r an s t a d t- Eff er ding 

dep. A.1 
Xauthansen . « 
Wallsee • « < 

Oreln .... 
f ersenbeugi Ybbs 
Marbftolt . • < 
Pochlarn . . 
"Weitenogg, Melk 
Aggsbach, Spitz 
Bomti * . 
Stein and 
Tulln . . 
Knsidorf . 
Tienna (Stephanie- 
brUcke) , arr. 






r. 7.30 

12.. 50 
1 .10 
3. 5 



SteaoMni didly in summer, spending 
the night at I^ns. The ^Tavern at 

t Up-stream Hn ftm $n w^ibM 
8* Qerm* 

the Passau landing-place is an interest-' 
ing bniMinr, adorned with modem 

Hm Duabe Is the chief mer of 

Germany, and is second to none in 

Europe, save the Volga ; yet the navi- 
gation of it has hitherto borne no 
proportion to its rank and size. The 
first steamer on the river was launched 
at Vienna in 1830. A portion of its 
banks discloses scenery as striking as 
any on the Rhine; particularly the 
defile at Weltenburg, above Ratisbon ; 
Passau, and the defile between it aiad 
Linz; the scene around tlie Stmdel 
and Wirbel, Molk, and DQrrenstein. 
These beauties arcjho'vrever, set further 
apart than those of the Rhine, and 
there is uo such continuous chain of 
grand views as is afforded by the defile 
between Blngen and Coblenz ; but the 
Danube is distinguished from the 
Rhine by its vast forests, feathering 
down to the water's edge from the 
summit of higli mountains, which con- 
fine the river on both rides y and, in 
addition to the picturesque ruins of 
ancient castles, it is diversified with 
numerous raonasti i it s, jnilaces in ex- 
tent and splendour, and mighty monu- 
ments of ecclesiastical wealth and 
power. Such are the convents of 
Moik, Gottweih, and Kiostcrnenburg. 
In historical associations the Danube 
does not yield to the Rhine. It formed 
for a long time the frontier line of the 
Roman dominions; its valley has been 
the hi^h-road of the barl)arous hordes 
of Attila ai>d of the armies of Charle- 
magne, Gustavus Adolphus, Solyman 
the Magnificent, Marlborough, and 
Napoleon ; its shores have edioed, at 
one time, with the hymns of the 
pilgrim of the Cross, and ot another 
with tiie enthusiastic shouts of the 
turbaned follower of the Prophet; 
and its waters have been dyed, in turn, 
with the blood of Romans, Huns, 
Germans, Swedes, Turlts^ French, and 

]Um.^The lowest on the scale of 

the antiquated craft of the Danube 
are the timber JlafU, resembling those 
of the lihinC) except that they are oi 

Digitized b; 

32ft m.-^Fn 

•mailer dimensions, raielj eziseeding 

f 50 ft. in length. They are not unfre- 
quently dangerous, sometimes runTiing 
against a bridge, and causing Stirious 

Bargbs.— Of these there are seTeral 

kinds, differing chiefly in size: nn- 
wieidy I'abrics of rough planks, flat- 
bottomed, without keel ; the centre is 
eoTered over idth a roo^ giving them 
ike appearance of Noah's ark u the 
pictures. Sails are never seen on the 
Upper Danube. The boats are steered 
by paddles formed of the stem of a fir- 
tree, with a board nailed to one end, 
mpeiided over the deok by thongs, 
vhile the broad end, immersed in 
the water, serves to keep them Avithiu 
the influence of the current. Some- 
times as many as 30 hui^es are attached 
to the towing-rope to draw them, with 
a wUd-lookiDg peasant driver to each 

A fine retrospect of Passau and the 
heights above it is gained on quitting 
the quay. The two noble vistas formed 
by the Inn and Danube, up which the 
view extends to a considerable dis- 
tance, divide the town it5;(. If Hito three 
clusters of l)ui1<linL''s. ( )ii tlie 1. ru-^t s 
the doubic-tuweied church of Maria- 

hilf^ and on the rt. tiie fen<]al towers 

and straggling battlments of the 
ft»rtress Obcrhaus sweep down the 
rock to the junotiou of the Danube 
and black llz. 

Below Passau the rt bank of the 
Danube is Austrian, the 1. Bavarian, 
as far as Engelhartszell. 

rt. The castle of Krempelstein, 
peering out of a fir forest on a rock, 
belonged to the Bishops of Passau, 
who levied tolls from it on all yessels. 

1. ObenuEell, or Hafnerzellt near 
wlnrh, at Oriesbach, Itlack-lcad 
(graphite) is found. Tliis mineral is 
intermixed witii clay to form crucibles, 
which are largely maoufiictuTed here 
and sent to all parts of the world, Hie 
china manufactories of Vienna and 
Munich are supplied witli porcelain 
clay from this neighbourhood. ''For 
nearly 80 m. below Passau the Danube 
runs between lofty hills of the most ro- 
"Antic appearance* They are dothed 

mtf Yi&ima^ Seet. III. 

to the top with dark Cimbrian pine, 
and ruined castles make their frequent 
appearance in the midst of these 
forests. The course of the river ii» 
most tortuouSy and very frequently the 
stem of the vessel is direcled to the 
opposite point of the compass from 
that towards which it had pointed a 
few minutes before." — L- >*!. 

rt. Yieciitensiein was tiie cattle ui 
the robber-coants of Wasserbnr]^* 

Further on« a reef of rodEB m the 
l)e<l of the river produces a rapid ; the 
Jochenstein, rising to the I., is on 
the old boundary line. The exact 
boundary between the two countries 
is marked by a Hue w avenue eat 
through the forest, and running up a 
hill on the 1. bank just below 

rt. Engelhartszell. This is the 
station of the Austrian cusiom- house, 
but luggage is exaadned at FUssan or 
lanz. The Cistercian convent attached 
to the church (Angelorum 
now converted into ii chateau. 

The valley of the Danube becomes 
rather wider immediatcl v below Elngel- 
hart8zeli| its bauka'are thickly wooded 
and picturesque, 

1. Banariedl,' a *white castle, still 
inhabited, at the entrance of a pretty 
vailc^y. Below it is the village of 
Viedeimma. Beyond the eld town 
of WeM'Hufer, 

1, Marsbach, another castle, coa- 
sistiug of a tower, witli a modei*n 
house near it, appears iu view. Here 
are the district courts of justice. The 
ruins of WaldkfreHin stand on a rode 
to the rt. 

1. The square tower of the ruinefl 
castle of Hayenbach rises oppusite 
a remarkable piomoutory, formed by 

a bend of the Damibe so ritciipt that 
its waters flow in exacdy oppoute di> 

rections on the two sides of it. The 
river scours round the base of this 
point of rock with gr^t rapidity. 

rt. Opposite is the Mill of jSdUagfn, 
tnm which a footpath mna to Asdia^ 
avoiding the windings of the river, 
nnd not one quarter of the distance by 
water. On tnrnine roni;il tliis corner 
the river, conu acted to nearly half 

iu prcTioue widlh, cMire a m'ajestie 
d^lkt not SOOyds. wide^ shut in bf 

Digifi/oa by Goo^l 

« A A TT -J ^ • 

wooded moantaiM abnott prto^itout, 

imd Ttryiug between 600 and 1000 ft. 
in height. The sinuosities of its 
course are so complicated tliat within 
the space of 12 or 15 in. it Huws 
towaras all foor points of the oenpais. 
The current, iucreased in foioe 1^ 
being pent up, boils and rages over 
the rock8» fonning rapids and whirl- 

L The only level apace m this i»» 
7me lar^e enough to aUoir room fiv a 

village 18 at the influx of the streams 
of the Great and Little Miihl or Michl, 
between which stands Ober Miihl. The 
Great Miihl is crossed at its mouth 
by « Mnhm, or grating of woed» 
to ooUeot the timber floated down it 
from the vast Bohemian forests situated 
around its head-quarters, and belong- 
ing to Prince Schwarzenberg. 

1. Tile Gaiila of Veoluiiia, a vaet 
•difioe, lulg^ np on tlie hiUaide, with 
an advanced tower lower down, called 
the Zollthurm, was the seat of the 
Counts of Schaumburg, robber-kuights 
of the 13th and 14th centuries, who 
exaoted heavy, dues from all tlie 
▼easels that passed their stroogbold, 
and in the event of resistance made 
no scruple to sink them. During the 
invasion of the Turks, in Id^Ut the 
eaatlo aerved aa an aaylaaa la «be 
women and chUdfen of the aomiuift- 
ing district. 

The defile ceases a little beyond 
Neuhaus, and the banks subside into a 
plain, disclosing to view a distant pro- 
apeet of the 'ftannateiB and Alpa of 

rt. Aschach (87), behind which rise 
the ruins of the Cadle of Schaumburg, 
cradle of the ancient family of that 

h LandAofft with a castle. Below 
this commences an archipelago of 
islands. The channel of the river 
between them is constantly changed 
by moving banks of sand and gravel, 
ao that the navigation hereahoata ia 
intricate in the extreme. 
• rt. Brandstadt, the stat. for Eflferd- 
ing, an old village on the post-road, 
about 1^ m. from the river, and men-, 
donedin tl^KibelangenJLded(;81atad- 
ywinn^ the Natiat^plaoa^of Clinn!* 

Uldeiiharwi^ ta thelEwns. Uwa* 

here thai Fa^^nheim defeated itbM 
rebellious peasants, 3000 <tf when weve 
slain. (lUe. 85.) 

1. Ottensheim, a village nearly op- 
poaite, prettily dtnated on a p»^ 

rt. The Cistercian Convent of 
Wilhering (1146). sebnUt ainoe a fire 
in 1733. 

The Danube now appears to ent 
Hooiigh a ehaia oi monntaina ^ich 

descend to the water's edge in nearly 
vertical cliffs. The approach to Linz 
is announced, even before the town 
itself appears in view, by the round 
lowera er the ^Mrtifieatlon, and by two 
stout loopholed walls of masonry de- 
scending the steep bank on both sides, 
and serving to de&nd this approach 
to the town. 

Beyond the ehfttean «f BudmmUf 
the church on the stUBinit of the 
Fostlingberg is conspicuous. 

Soon after the bridge appears in 
sight, the Calvarienberg and Jiiger- 
mayr overlooking the river on the rt. 
To the L, oppos^ lins (Rte. 86X ia 
the suburb of Urfahr. 

Below Linz the banks of the river 
become flat, and for some distance 
scarcely any jdace of note or interest 
is paised, Fine view of the town, 
lookiag back. The Danube is divided 
by wiliow-clad islands and beds of 
bare gravel into numerous channels. 
The steamer passes under a rly. bridge 

L Steyeregg,. nearly oppoitfte Hu 

mouth of the Traun, lies concealed 
behind a wooded island ; its castle, 
partly in ruins» is visible from the 

ffiaelan, at the mouth of the Traun, 
is tlie port for the salt*Te8aela .firam. 

Gmlindeu, Ilallstatt, &c. 3 m. up the 
stream, on the rt. bank, ia MMerg 

rt. The MowuUry of 8t> Ftoriam 
and the squara ehAteaa <tf 2V%ibiirg|^ 

with its corner turrets, may be dis- 
cerned above the trees in the dis- 
tance. On an island in the middle 
of the stream is planted the Castle of 
BpMkiCg^ mmc §k iaogaHam rapid 



Boute 109. — Pasaau to Vienna. Sect. lit. 

knights, profited its sttiiatSMi to 

attack all vessels just as the crews 
were occupied with the dangers of 
the uavigation. 

rt. The high tower of t1i« town of 
WaaM 18 Ttsible for a oonsiderable dis- 
tance ^86). The fall of the Danube 
from tfiis to the frontier of Hungary 
run iiiits to 348 ft^ or 10 ft. in a 
Germ. m. 

1. ManHdyuHonf « tillage and salt 
d^t, lies opposite the nmtli of the 

river Enns, which pours its green 
waters iuto the Danube, and tiows 
ouwards for a considerable distance 
witbout fatermingling wiHi tkemnddy 
flood of the main river. The town 
was burned by the Emp. Barbarossa, 
because its inhabitants exacted toll 
(M(iuth) from the pilgrims who passed 
down the Dauube on their way to join 
tho tkiid Orwado. 

The extensive qnairies furnished 
material for the new church at T.inz, 
wad the Maria Theresa monument at 
Vienna. Thev also yield a Tast 
aaoimt of graaito fbr pa/voBMiita. 

Another rly. bridge now tpaas the 
river (90). Beyond it, on the rt., is 
the dissolved nunnery of ErJaldoairr. 

rt. The Castle of Nieder-Wailsee, 
with its tall square tower, attached to 
a modern ebftteaa and maseiYO ronnd 
keept alands on « rooiEt rennd which 

the current roars and rushes with 
great impetuosity. It once belonged 
to Field-Mar^ai Dauii (the autagouist 
of Frederick the Great), now to the 
Doke of Saze-Gohiirg. 

I. on an emineaee^ 4 m. inland^ riaet 
MlosB Klam. 

The river again approaches the 
mouiitaias iiear Ardaagery aud eDtere 
a Tory picturesque deftlo. Behind 
the village, on the rt., rises the KoR" 
VI. if-hcnj ( ] 540 ft.\ with the pUgriiuge 
church of S. Ottilio. 

1. Grain, surmouuted by the castle of 
Qfeintmrg, belonging to the Doke of 
Saxe-Coburg, with the eold^water cure 
establishment of Kreusen (1670 ft.) 
4 m. to the N.W. (Omn. in an hour, 
3U kr.). jieiow Grein the river bursts 
through the grani^ chain of hills, 
'nd a rapid called GreiaerSehwall is 

oMd. jriom.thia themoffapidly 

contracts, and the mountains on each 
side trnulnally become higher, until, in 
the immediate vicinity of the Strudel 
and Wirbel, the grandest objects in 
the oompontion of a landscape are 
concentimted— foreets ftatheriog down 
to the water's edge ; 3 or 4 pictu- 
resque castle?? iu view at once ; river, 
at one moment dark and deep, at 
another white and foaming over rocks : 
so that thie epot yieldi to no other 
scene in the whole course of the 
Danube, exeepi the defile of Kaaua 

About li m. beliiw Grein the pent- 
up river is met by a rockj iuaad, 
tailed Werth, on which is the ruined 
castle of Werfenstein. The highest 
point of the island, a bold precipitous 
rock, is crowned by the old watch- 
tower of the castle and a large stone 
craei&c. Opposite, on the 
* 1., is the village of Stmden, -willi 
the mine of a cattle of the aame 

The steamer now enters the cele- 
brated *0tradel, wh^ inni along 

Werth island, a once dangeroM rapid 
500 feet in length, with a fall of about 
3 ft. I n the last century scared y a year 
passed without barges beinL-; lost in it, 
but between 1778 and Ibbb, at iuter* 
vale ef nmiBnaUj low water, engineers 
have sneoeeded In blasting the rocks 
that caused any impediment to the 
navigation. The Strudd has thus 
been deprived of its terrors and of its 
romance, and is now iMMsed without 
the slig^teit diflenlty or danger. 

About f m. below the Strudel, a 
bold rock, the Hausstein, crowned also 
by an old watch-tower, rises out of 
the middle of the river. Between 
tills rock and the Stmdel there was 
Ibrmerly a dangerous whirlpool, called 
the Wirbel, caused by the rapid 
currents of the river meeting below^ 
Werth island and being defected by 
the Hausstein. It is now quite an 
ordinary rapid, and is searoely noticed 
in passing. 

Not fewer than five castles lined 
this dangerous part of the river, within 
a few hundred yards of each other, 

and were eoce oeenpled by iMtt* 
lorights «nd .teih-waier wvcoktn,' 

Digiti/oa by Guv.( 

BQUi4 m^Tbe CkuUe of Aggti^n. 229 

the ehmh •lMidt<14(K>lk.)eQfiiiiiaiidt 

a magnificent *view of the Styriaa 
and Salzburg Alps, with the Schnec- 
berg, Oetscher, f riel» and DaehstiiOy 
Ascent in 1 hr. 

rt. Outlet of the river Erlaf, which 
floats down mach timher tnm <he 
forests of BCariaaeU and the Styfian 

1. Opposite Poohlarn (85) is the vil- 
lage of jMi-PMIom, with an aneient 

1. Weiteneckf a picturesque castle 
restored, distinguished by its two bat- 
tlemented towers, planteid on a bare 
granite rook, oat ox ▼idoh it seem ta 
grow, washed 1^ the Dannbe. 

I. Luberaoky a cb&teau of the Em- 

rt. The palace-like Omaat of XcOk 

(Rte. 85.) Its appearance from the 
river is stately in the extreme. 

Below this the valley of the Danube 
again contracts, and the river is 
boondad bj Jofly and precipitous hiUs. 
This distnol Is eaUed the Waahaa, and 
is the scene of numerous romantic 
legends, &uggested by the wiidsceneiy* 

I. Smmsrsdorl^ opposite the influx of 
the Pidackf has a eanroh and convent. 

rt. The Servite Convent and ruined 
Castle of Schbnbilhl, on the top of a 
rock ; then appear, rt. and 1„ the vil- 
lages of Great and SinaU Aggsbach* 

attracted by a position so adyantageons 
their trade. Several of these were 

destroyed by Rudolph of Hapsburg, 
but robber-knights continued to have 
strongholds on the Danube, as well as 
in most parts of Germany, until the 
reign of the EUnperor Maximilian L, 
when they were finally extirpated. 
At the end of the defile, on the 1., is 
St. Nicolai, at the mouth of a rocky 
gorge. The ravine continues for a 
considerable distance, and the xirer 
flows throvgh it with a deep and 
ateady currant. Further on, similarly 
placed, stands the round tower of 


rt. The summit of a hill is crowned 
by the rains of IMnstiia, formerly 
the stronghold of a roU>er-knight. At 
Its foot are the granite-quarries from 
which Vienna is supplied with paving- 
stones. Beyond this the Jsperlmdi, an 
excellent trout stream, ^Us in upon 
the L At lengA the hiUa teasdc, and 
a more open country sppmn m view 
near the ohiteau of 

1. Persenbeug, a favourite summer 
retreat of the Isle Emp. FVan^. 

rt. Ybbs, the Roman Pons Isidis, 
surrounded with old walls and high 
towers. Here is a fine Refuge for the 
destitute poor of Vienna (Armenpflege) 
and a large Lunatic Asylum. JLower 
down the river Ybbs joins the Danube, 
and the rly. falls to the rt. (85). The 
towers of the Church of Maria" 
Taferl here appear in the distance on 

rt. Sausenstein (Roaring Rock), 
with ruins of Goftesthal, a Cistercian 
Abbey, burned by the French in 

1. Karbaoh, a considerable town. 
Above it, on the top of the hill, the 
Pilgrimage Church of Maria-Taferl 
(Mary of the little T&ble), built in 
1661. It receives its name flftnn a 
jniraclc' working image of the Virgin, 
and is frequented every year, in the 
month of Sept, by about 100,000 

Th^ sum^^t of the biU on which 

rt The Castla si Aggstein, perched 

on a high conical rock above the 
village of Klein-Aggsbach, is one of 
the most picturesque feudal ruins on 
the Danube. It is reached by a steep 
winding path through 3 gates, do» 
fended by ditches. The upper and 
older castle is of very great antiquity, 
dating from the days of the Baben- 
berg dukes of Austria (1 1th and 12tk 
centnries); the h>wer fortreis bears 
the date 1426. Tradition relates that 
this fiistness belonged to a knightly 
marauder named Schreckenwald, who 
was in the habit of precipitatiup" 
prisoners tl^rough trap^dopr* 

Digiti^oG by Cookie 

Smte lQ9j^PaMm to Yimm, 

btd of roMO.*' 

1. Bolow ScliwaUenhach the Teufela- 
mauer (^Devil's Wall;, a natural dyke, 
projects abovd liie oUier rocks on both 
•Meiof fh«fiirer. 

1. The extensive nnrt<! of the Castle 
of Spitz, on a viae-ciad hiil. Hence a 
good path ascends to the Jauerling 
{9\4$ ft.) 

1. St. Michael On the ridge of the 
chancel roof are seven hares, com- 
menioratlng a snow-drift which once 
buried the churchy and ftUoved hares 
l» vttii ov«r the top of H. 

1. Weissenkirchen. Pleasant walk 
to the rains of (2 hrs.) JIartenstein, on 
the edge of a ravine, thence to (2 hrs.) 
ObermMing, (6 m.) Senfteriberg, and 
{[5 in*} Sf0m8* 

rt. The town andcfaiteaaof Boiiats. 

Just beyond it, 

Itduced to a mass of shattered masonry, 
except the srjnfire do7ijon-keep, and 
several ion^ lines of battlemented walls, 
.Stretching down from the top of the 
iSSi to tM imter% €dce. Tt afands on 
the highest ridge of a hill, fissured 
with clefts, l^ristling" with pointed 
pinnacles of granite, and so destitute 
of ve^tation that it is difficult to dis* 
tinguish the ruins fhmiihe rock which 
Rapports them, nntil the dar^ fir- 
woods, rising up behind, give relief to 
the bnlMing. This grand but desolate 
spot receives peculiar interest from its 
connexion with Richard-Ca;ur-de-Lion, 
irlio b belimd to lutre been impriBOned 
here for 15 months, ip 1192-1193, by 
Leopold of Austria. Tho '^tnry is not 
founded on tradition alone, since it is 
recorded by the chroniclers that he was 
delhrered orer to iSm eostody of Had- 
marof Kuenring,at Tyrnstein (tbeeld 
form of spelling Dtirrensteiu), and 
was guarded V)y him with tlie utmost 
strictness. Whether this was also 
llie icene, <yf ihe MSkM, Bloadel's 
«aeee»ftil nfaMtrelif camiot be do* 

lennSiied} Imt it Is mert likely tM 
tte laddent of the troubadour's serte* 
nade occurred at Trifels, the prison 
to which Riehard was afterwaros re- 
moved. {N. German fj, Rte. 104.) The 
castle was reduced to ruins by the 
Swedes, who first ftrtified it, sod 
afterwards, in 1645, blew it up. At 
the foot of the roCk stands the ^^niall 
village of Diirrenstein, still surrounded 
by partly i nined walls, and entered by 
antique gateways. Tbe PoHth €kmm 
contains an • laboratdynsarved Tabe^* 
nacle. The Austrians and Russians, 
under Kutusow, were defeated here 
by the French, under Mortier, in 
1805, after a severe conflict, in which 
tlie AosCriaii general (Sohmldt) was 
kilU d. Tfce mms of the VmuiHy of 

St. Clara are \^ery picturesque. 

The reni;iiii [cr of the voyage to 
Vienna is somewhat tiresome. 

rt. Msutem (the Ivtiman MvfinnnC) 
is connected t)y a wooden bridge f 
dating from 1446, tbe only one between 
Linz flmd Vienna, with 

1. Stein, a town of 2000 Inhab., con- 
sisting of one long gtreet. The Church 
of Uui Mifwrite^ now tamed into a 
SaU Magaahef and maflili injured, is 
a fine Oothie building. The Bath* 
haus nnt! st'V(ii*al houses of the town, 
especially that nutnbered 191, are de- 
corated with frescoes by a native artist 
called Krcmser Schmidt, from having 
been bora Aear Kitems. His works m 
commoa in the churches of Austria, 
and deserve attention. About a mile 
otf, on the same side of the river, is 

Krems (94>. 

rt. The Benedictine Abbey of Gott- 
weih, another monnnipnt of ancestral 
piety, occupies with its vast quadrangle 
the entire summit of a hill 700 ft high, 
abont 4 m, flmn the Danube, 4 m. oy 
road from Mauleni. It was founded 
in 1<j72, but the present building dates 
from 1719. Beneath the modem church 
is one of the 14th centy. Its library 
of 40,000 Tolnmes and ooUeetion of 
archives are second only to those of 
Mdlk in extent and yalne, Xiie 


Digitized by GoogI 


Bmiie 109. — BUatAeit^ — VUmOm 


staircase is most splendid, and seyeral 
ipmmeDlB an deeontad wifh iMther 
liaa^iigi and lapflttrjr. 

The river now sprenrls out over 
the flat land. It is divided by many 
islands, and all beauty disappears from 
iti bUllEf. 

rt. The Oastle •f ttreifeasUin 
slightly relieves the vnifimiiity of the 

1. Nearly opposite, at a considerable 
^staaoe iiuand, is the easfle of ^rtmh 
m&tetm ft m of on liM dbr^ 

I. Bisamberg, a kill producing one 
of the. best of the wines of Austria, 
rites nearly opposite the iMNUMrtsry of 

rt. KloetemeiLburg, at the base of the 
Kahlenberg, the last of the eluiiB of 
the Wienerwald hills. 

rt. Nnssdorf i? a village at the 
entrance of a branch chuinel of the 
DajMibe (i>oiiati-OEiM{)» whidi Hows 
through Viene and di^fides tibe Lm^ 
poldstadt from the AlT<^tn(!t /'or city 
proper). The main stream runs at a 
distance of about 2 m. from the city. 

All the BUoaaiboatt stop at Nussdorf,r 
and paflsengirs are c<mveyed in smaUer 
steamers up this braachohaiMlt Id tiie 
Frapi Joseph Qnai. 


rt Yienna, see Kte. 198. 

« ♦ 

Digitized by Google 

C 2^2 ) 

Sect. lY. 












121. Vienna to Cracow, bj 

Vnmiii and Oderberg . 
IS8. Weifiskirchen to Wsetin . 
ISS. Kojetein to Kalwaiya, bj 

Bielitz . ' 

124. Ziegenhals to OlmiiU, by 

J&gefDdorf • • • • • 
1S5. BShauMh-TriibBii to O]- 

miitz 238 

126. Hoh(M!Ktadt to Zoptau . . 239 

127. BrunJi to Vienna, by Luu- 

denburg ...... 

128. PrenatoBrfinn . . . 

129. Brunn to Ungariseh-Brod, 

by Ansterlitz .... 

130. Sternberg to Wichstadtl- 

Lichtenaa . . • . , 

131. LondeBburg to Zellenidorf 241 

132. Granica to Trzebiuia . . 242 

133. Liebau to DcutsolLbrod, by 

Koniggratz 212 

134. Ciiotzeii to Brauiiau, . . 212 

135. Ptoschmtx to Chlamets . 243 

136. Seidenberg to Joiepbstadt. 248 

137. Vienna to Tetsehen, by 

Deutschbrod 244 

138. Czaslau to Zawratetz-Tre- 

mosnitz 246 

189. Bodenbach to Tieiuia, by 
Pragne and CShotsen . . 

140. Pecek to Gross-Becw . . 

141. Porican to Jitschin . , , 

142. Briiun to Okriscbko . • • 

143. Pragoe to Tnrnaa • . . 

144. Bodenbach to Warnsdorf . 

145. Bohmisch-Leipa to Boden- 


146. Georgsvv aide-Ebersbach to 

Kopldino 260 

147. Aussig to Komotan, by 

Tcplitz atid Lux . . . 260 

148. Kuui^^ts to Woatromer . 2^ 1 


149. Bodenbooh to Komotan, by 















Sger to Prague, by Ourla- 

bad and Komotaa. , , 
Komotau to Weipert . . 
Wejhybka to Welwaru . " . 
KUngenthal to Falkenta . 
Prague to Moldau, by Brfix 
Rakonitz to ProtiTin. . . 
Eisenstein to Dux, by Pilsen 
Ziegenhals to Niedcrlinde- 


Farth to Prague, by Tilian 

and Karlstein .... 
£^er to Vienna, by K&rien- 

bad, Bndweis, and Gmiind 
Gmiind to Prague, by 


Weaely to Iglau .... 
Prague to Mittehvalde, by 

Nimbiirgaud Kouiggratz 
Cracow to Le]nbe]:g . . . 
l<emberg to Roman . . . 
Dembica to Hozwadow . • 
Jaroslau to Sokal .... 
Hliboka to Berhometh • • 
Lemberg to Datyu . . . 
Lemberg to WoJoczysk. . 
Tarnow to Abos, by Eper* 


Ptsemyd to LegoDye-Mih- 


Sillein to Husiatyu . . . 
Sncba to Skawina. . . . 
Oswiecim to Podgorze . . 
Debi*eczin to KirSlyhaza • 
Na^-Karoly to Zilah . , 
Nyiregyhaza to Uiighvar . 
Szerencs to Marmaros- 

Szigeth, by ELirdlyhan • 
Oderberg to Kaaehan, by 

Rnttka m 













Digitized by Google 



. BOUT£ 121. 


Miles. _ Statiop a. Bootes. 

YXBJKMA (SorthAEii 8la^ 

tion) . . . « 127 
4 Tloridsdorf, . . 127 

12 Wagram 

20 GiLlfSEElfDORF 1^ 

14 Karflliegg / • 195 
. 32 Btoknitli 
41 Hohenan 

53 LUKDEVBTSm « 127» 131 

66 Odding 

78 Biieni-Fisek . . 129 

67 lJiigarifleii-lbadiMli\ 

3 Kunowitl , . / 129 

94 Napa^edl 
106 Huiiein . . 1 . . 123 

4 Kremsierj 

116 nssjLtr . < . « 128 

• 124 lelpnik 

133 Weisgkiroh. . . 123 

139 Pohl 

146 Zaucktl 1 
6 Ventlti^MftJ 
158 6TAin)iKa \ 

12 Stramberg j 
164 SchOnbrunn| 

18 Troppau / . 124 
168 Malurisch-Ostrau ) 
11 AMek-Xistek 

21 Friedlaad , .) 123 
173 ODERBEaO. . ,179 
204 Dzieditz . ^ n.o. 81c 

13 BieliU y . 123 
60 Ufhwih) . 178 

218 Oswiecim, 174, vjO, 85a 
234 Trzebinia . . . 132 
268 jKrakau, 163 n.o. 85a 

N.E. — Exp. in 9 J hrs. Sleeping 
cars between Vienna and Warsaw. 
■ Leaving Vivim {% d)* th6 t^J* 

Floridstef, where the Austrians 
established a fortified UMbhpont 
against the Prassiansia 1866. Thmoe 

N.E. fo Wagram, the scene of a fierce 
battle between the French and Aus- 
trians on July :i and 6, ISU9, when the 
latter were duiTen to Zinalni. 

DtLmkruth. Hence there is a view 
to the E. of the lesser Carpathians. 
On the fertile plain of the Marchfeld, 
which is now entered^ Ottokar of 
Bohemia del^Mtfed tiie Hungarians in 
1260, and was himself yanqoiriied in 
1278, by Rudolph of Hapsburg. The 
val!? }' of the Thaya is reached at 
Hohenao, near its confluence with the 
river Blarch, the boundary between 
Austria and Hun^uy. 

The isolated Raittenberg (955 ft.) 
rises on the 1. above Feldsberg (181). 
The Thaya is crossed to 
. Iniidenburg. £Omn. to(8iu.N.W,) 
Eisgrub, a modem GotUo eastle be> 
longing to Prinee Ltechtenatein, witk 
vast hothouses and a park containing 
maTiy thnusaud head of deer and wild 
boar. The estate includes two market- 
tOwaa»aeTenl villages, lakes, pleasure 
ITonnda, temples, towers, and a iHold* 
mg which marks the frontier between 
Austria and Moravia.} 

Ooding. A busy town with an old 
castle, upon the March, which be- 
comes navigable here. 

Bisenz. Here is a lar^e SeUoaa of 
Baron Reichenbach. 

TJng'arisch-Hradisch, on an island 
formed by the March, formerlv a 
Ibrtressy was bedeged Matulaa 
Corvinve of Hungary in 1469«78» 
without success. In the Rathhaus 
are preserved 4 swords, presented by 
Ladislaus King of Bohemia to tlie 
burghers, on account of their bravci^ 
on that occasion. 1 h7« W« Bita* 
jflch i» tb« Ciatereiaii woimUTj of 

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.Anile 12i^BuUem^''^Oraeom, 

From PoU a dil. runs S.E. to ( 12 ra.) 
WaladMi-Meseritz (122). The Oder 
is erosMd to Zane^Uy and its left bank 


C m. S.F. is Nentitschein (10,500), 
a beautifully situated town, with 
several ruined castles on its sur- 
rounding heights, which afford admir- 
able Tiews. Msishal Loudoo died 
here in 1790. 

Standing. Bra^ich riy. S.E. to 
(12 m.) Stramberg, with a ruined 
castle. 8 m. W. of it lies Neutit- 

SehUbnuiib The THllfly of the 

Oder becomes narrower here, and the 
scenery is higlily pictures^e* The 
Oder is crossed to 

XalizisdL-Ostraii* [Branch Bly. S. 
to Friedland, in % qmL and mming 

Oderberg is the frontier station of 
Austria, where luggage is examined. 
The train now runs due E., almost 
along the line of the Pnissian ftontier, 
and crosses the JVeichsel ^Vistula). 
At Dzieditz the N.E. direction is re- 
sumed, and the Vistula re-crossed 
just beTond Oswiecim^ From Xrse- 
hisia, uie rly. strikes due E. a^dir to 

Wellehrad, formerly the residence of 
the kings and bishops of Moravia. 
Here are the mins of the andent 
church of St Cyril, in vhieh the 

saint is said to have performed service. 
»'> m. W. of Hradisch are the sul- 
phureous springs of Buchlowit^, with 
the well-preserved rock-fortress of 
Bnchlan. Rly £. to KunowUx, The 
March is crossed at Napagedi, and 
the riTsir flows RW., awfty nom the 

finllein. [3 m. W. lies Kiemsier, 
one of the ft«tdeflto«naef Moraria ; 

the summer residence of the Prinoe- 
Archb. of Olmiitr, ^y])o possesses a 
hue palace lin e, containing a pictui-e- 
gallery, miueralogica) and scientihc 
eabinetB, and a libmrj of 30,000 
▼olumes. The yuk is pretty, and 
the pleasure-gardens are laid out in 
French style, with colossal statues. 
The Grothic Collegiate church, the 
Piaristenkirche,imd the Rathhaus, also 
deserve aotiQe. It was to Krensier 
that the Empeior of Anstria with- 
drew and summoned the parlinnif nt 
during tlie revolutionary disturbances 
at V^ieuna in 1848 J 

Irenm is one or the oldest eities of 
Moravia. The castle of Burg was 
long inhabited by Matthias Corvinus. 
In the Gothic Ibthhaus some eurions 
old armour is preserved. 

The railroad crosses the Beczwa, 
and asoends its rt. hank to 

Le^^ik (5500), a mannfacturing 
town, picturesque externally, with old 
watch-towers amund it, but dirty 
within, it has one of the finest 
cemeteries in the Aoitrian dominloBei 
with a remarkable e<lho. On the 1. 
bank of the Bccz'^rn ?tnnds the ruined 
castle otHel fen stein. Here the valley 
becomes extremely picturesque, and 
nomeioas viaducts and embankments 
ocenr OA the assent to 

Weisskirolisn (5000), chief town of 
one of the circles of Moravia. Here 
is the Castle of Budiidimc, and near 
it is the ruiii of Stcertoech, and the 
mountain slip (Bergfiill) of .^OfMSf. 

The high ground now attained 
separates Moravia from Austrian 
Silesia, and forms the \v;it( rshf^l be- 
tween the Oder and the Danube. 

CRACOW (;KrdkaUt Germ.). 

The ancient capital of Poland, and 
subsequently the capital of a sniall 
state or republic, whose indepen deuce 
was established by the Ckmgresi of 
Vienna, and vainly placed under the 
protection of its neighbours, Russia, 
Austria and Prn^^sia. The town and its 
territory was incorporated in 1846 with 
the Austrian dominions, and since 
1862 has been fortified so as to 
command the gap of the Upper Oder, 
by an enceinte and a ci rcle of detaclied 
forts. The strongest of these are 
Fort Kosciosko, the Old Castle, and 
Mount Baranowho. Cracow is seated 
on the 1. bank of the Vistula, and 
contains 70,0()O Tnbab., of which 25,000 ' 
are Jews. Besides beinfr a royal resi- 
dence, it was the seat of one of the 
most reputed universities in EfenmM^ 
the great national seminary of ue 
Poles. The town once more fO^ 
vivijjg in industry and prospei'ity, after 
a long season of degnhdation and 

Digitized by GoogU 


iraJtxr d» Mouull sc. 

flb/oM page 234. 

Digitized by Google 


fioHemia. !Boute 121. — Oftusow: Cathedral, 235 

ptyvtrafy. At a distance it shows itself 
\rith splendour unimpaired, clustered 
with medieeval watch-towers and 
kpires, and overtopped, like Prague, 
by its regal pataee. From the tlsing 
groandi N. of Oraeow is a find view of 
the town,Avith ite towers, the vale of 
the Vistula, and a range of the Car- 
pathian mountains. The Eisthaler 
Tburm, 11^ highest of tilt Titra 
'grtmp. Is nraaily covived trfth now. 

The Boyal Castle, called Zamek. is 
situated upon a rock called Wawel, at 

I whose base, Krak, the Polish Cadmus, 
slow tlie dragon tn a oavie. It was 
founded by Casimir the Great, in the 
14th centy., but a very small portion 
of his building alone remains ; the 
rest is of the time of Augustus II., who 
rebuilt it Sigisnmad Ii I. transferred 
tbe emirt to Warsaw in 1610. It is 
now converted into a barrack, and 
partly into a hospital, hut still dis- 

! i^ays much decayed splendour in its 
interior decorations, and bits of late 
Goliile in Iti doew and wiadjowik 

The *CATHELRAX, adjoining the 
palace (1004-1 102)— the Polish West- 
minster Abbey — ^possesses externally 
neiUuBT spleodottr mt regularity of 
I areiiiteGtaio ; while within the nu- 
merous chapels destroy all harmony 
of proportion. The great bell of the 
cathedral is the largest in Poland, and 
was, cast in 1590 by Hans Beham of 
KnremWrg* Tlio T t tt umy ctMAm 
jewelled ornaments, embroideries, and 
vessels of gold and silver, dedicated by 
kings, nobles, and wealthy devotees 
to its numerous shrines (shown before 
10 or nfter 4)# WMria tliii oliai^ 
repose the ashes of the most illastrlous 
men that Poland has produced. 

In the centre of the nave is the 
gorgeous Shrine of St. Stanislaus, 

Ktron saint of Poland, who was slain 
fore the altar by King Boledaw in 
1079. The coffin, supported on the 
shoulders of angels, and the altar, are 
of silver, as well as the candlesticks 
and statues surrounding them. The 
tomb feats nnder a gilded dMite, sup- 
ported by black marble columns. 
'• In front of the high altar t^ie ooro- 

nation of the Polish kings took place ; 
the chair in which they were enthroned 
is still preserved. 

Htsre is a '"Flemisli hnm (muIIt 
oormd with a carpet) on the temh or 
the Cardinal-Bishop Frederic, son of 
Casimir King of Poland, who died 
in the year 1503, aged 35, with a 
relief of 1510 — an important work by 
PsMr TMsr, by wiMHH alto la tiM 
brass of Brter Kmity (IflOiX to Hw it. 
of the entrance. 

The IG chapels contain the tombs 
of many Polish kings, &c., and may 
be examined in the following ordeiv* 
I. W. end. ReenmlMnt effigy of 
Casimir Jagellon (1492), carved by 
Veif Sto^s, of King Wladislaus ( 1434), 
and of Bp. Soltyk, who died a prisoner 
in Russia (17 G7). II. A majestic 
figure of Gnrlst, witii tasti of Ceont 
Arthur Potocki and his mother, all by 
Thorwaldsen. III. Recumbent effigies 
in red marble of Kings Sigismund 
(1548) and Sigismund Augustus Ja- 
gellon (i572),b«MBiiiafoof ofeopper 
gilt : opposite is. ThorwMten^s statue 
of Count Wladimir Potocki, killed 
at Moscow in 1812. VIII. Monu- 
ment of Kings John Albert (1501), 
and Casimir the Great, founder of 
the city (1370), in ltd marble, nnder 
a eanopy, b^ Veil 8tm. XI., once 
connected with the castle, for the pri- 
vate devotions of the royal family : 
here is the red marble throne and the 
monument of King Stephen Bathori 
(1586); behind the high altar, the 
tomb of King John Sobiesky III., the 
conqueror of the Turks i d. 1696). A 
ponderous brazen trap-door in the 

{mvement of the nave, raised by a 
adfl^ tht finttigcr Into a cnrpt 
beneath, within which are depoolad 
the remains of John Sobiesky, in a 
sarcophagus, bearing his crown, scep- 
tre, and sword j of Joseph. Foniatomki, 
drowned near Ijeipzig in 1814$ «f 
ThcMmm Kmmkih who died sn 
exile at Solenre in 1817, and of 
Stephen Bathori. On the walls of 
the nave are some tapestries with 
scenes from the life of Jacob, and 
remains of mnral paintlnpi. In tho 
2nd chaMl ll a' good picture of the 
Craci&iM9» with the two Mairiea* 

Digitized by Google 

286 Bouie 121, — Ormow : Churches: Museum. Stot. lY. 

Beneath the drivoh li ft ItoiwuMi^se 

Among the remaiuiiig churches, 36 
Sn umber, is that of *it. IbaV, ift tbe 

market-flaoe, aa eleguit Gboiio bBUt 

fice dating from 1276, remarkable for 
its size and the decorations of its in- 
terior, surmounted by two taper 
towers encircled near the top "Wm 
iaxtttik In the dioir is an altar by 
JfotaOy and a Gothic altar 'piecct with 
carvinp; in reHcf, a grand work by 
Veit Stoff^, wlio was born at Cracow 
in 1447; also a porphyry monument 
of King Caiianr Jagtfioiit and ft Cro- 
cifix by Veit BUtts. 8t. An]M% ft 
handsome modem church, contains a 
moniniK i)t of Copernicus (d. 1543), 
with suitable emblems aod an inscrip- 
tion. The liftdent wHl be reminded 
hem of the church architecture of 
the shores oif the Wtf o. with itt atajp- 

The Bominioan Church contains, in 
the ehoir, a ^bfonxe tablet to the 

memory of Filippo Buonaccorsi (Calli- 
machus), tutor of Sigismund I. (1496). 
The Church of S. Florian has an *altar 
by Veil StoM* In the 13th cent. 
€hmh ef 8. Aaaele is ft monftment 
of K, Ladislai^ Jagelleii (1434). Tlie 
refectory of the Convent is now an 
Industrial Museom. (daily 10 to I and 
3 to 5, 20 kr.)* 

The fljmagogue— in the iabnrb C^* 

simierz, a separate quarts, on an 
island S. of the town— oont-iirjs an 
aacieat bftmae standard chandelier, 

TIm Itelfersit 7, one of the oldest in 
Btt f e ys , flMuided by seeedei-s from 
Prague, contains a statue of Coper- 
nicus, who was professor here, hy 
ThortoahJsea, The university library 
contains the original wood-blocks of 
one of the first editions of the Bible, 
and other curiosities (open daily, 9 
to 1). Also a series of frescoes by 
the Polish artist Staoliowitz. On the 
ftroond floor is the ArchaBolosploal 
iEftseOft (open daily, 11 to !)• The 
botanic garden and building attftobed 
to it fire pretty and weU ke^ 

The Great Cloth-hall (Tnohhans^ 

Sukiennica), built in 1340, hj Casimir 
the Great, bears witness to the former 
importance of the ti^de of Cracow. 
In the upper part of the resCorad 
biiilding is a small Picture C^aU«ry, 
worth n visit (adm. 30 kr.). The lower 
story is used as a sort of bazaar, and 
occupied by shops* 

Tie ^ftoe between the dty and the 
snbDrbs has been planted and eon* 
verted into a beautiful Public Garden, 
on the site of the old fortifications. 
Here stands, not far from the rly., 
one of the hue&t remains of the old 
defenees, e barbiean, ealled the *Qftta 
of St. Florian. It was erected in 
1498, as a de&aoe of the oity agaioat 
the Turks. 

The Camalduknsian convent of Bis- 
lany, bwlt on a white rook, as its 
name imports, is a favourite resort; 
it is prettily aitaated aboTre tbv 

In the Pauliner Kioster, by the 
river, is shown the exact spot where 
S. Staaidaas was mrdered, together 
with wiods relics of the 8ftiiit» 

The "'Museum Czartoryski contains 
some good portraits by Huibein, Titian, 
and Budo Veffopsie, and ft few pictntei 
by TenierBy Potter^ and Wouwerman. 
Also a fine collection of ancient Polish 
and Tartar saddlery, horse-housings, 
and weapons; some of the armour 
and the bows and arrows are 'ouite 
orientaL Many soils have hfisltese 
crosses on the breast, and some of tbs 
sabres are richly jewelled. The spurs 
are very curious. Round shield of 
John Sobieski, embos^ied with war* 
Tiors ift Greek amoar. Bronae chair 
with arms in the form of serpLnts, 
and at the back the wosds Wiihdm 

The gardens of Couut Wodicki, late 
president of Cracow, are rich, and bo- 
tan ically ammged* 

The Schiesshaus, in the suTmrb JVe$' 
8ola^ is a place of public resort mnch 
fre(|ueuted, and will afford an oppor- 
tnnuy ftr seeing some peenliftrities ef 

Polish manners. 

a «i. |f« of Crft^y^H the oi^eM 

Digitized by Googl( 

•Bokemia. EoiUe 123, — KcjaLein to KaLwarya. 

«f BrmMawa (1090 ft.), It tike Xm- 
eimAiolMrg-, 300 ft. high, raised as a 

monnment to Kosciusko, by the senate, 
nobles, and people of Cracow, -who 
toiled with their own hands fur lour 
jem at tlie emifltractioii of it (1884). 
The ♦▼lew embraces the more ancient 
barrows of Krak and Vanda, dating 
from a period anterior to recorded 
history ; S. are seen the Carpathians, 
W. the Babiagora, and N. the Bielany 

Piaskowa Skala, 10 m. fmm Cracow, 
is a curious old castle of the family 
Wielopolski. It is beyond the Austrian 
firontier, end when vindng it a passport 
is necessary with the Kassian visa. 
It was held by the revolutionists in 
1861-2. It is Fitnnted on a precipi- 
tous ciilf of liiiiestooe, commandiug 
a narrow valley, in the middle of which 
ijflee a iisgnlar and insnlated column 
of rock of great height, called Her- 
cules' Club. The court of the castle 
is surrounded by a triple row of ar- 
cades, and is handsome. Tlie chambers 
contain wioiis cnrioeito of ftmntm, 
Torkkh tapestry, &c. Not &r from 
hence, in a similar valley of white 
limestone, are the caves of Oicow, or 
0|izow, and further on the silver- 
mines Olkan. 

BOUTE 122. 

MUei. 'Statiuiis. Kouteb. 

Weiiiklrcik Jimofe. 121 
2 WeliiUrohaii town 

16 Krasna .123 

17 Widlachisch-Jttefierits 


98 WMtin 

S.E. — The town of Weisskirchen 
lies at some distaucc from the Janet. 
Stat On leaving it, the rt. bank ol 
tlio irinding Bmw It iio«nded to 

Knunta, where the line tarns S. to 
Wallaahtinh'Miiiito. He a * a diL 

runs twice a day to (8 m. E.) Bosnaa 
(1245 ft. 'I, a pretty little Moravian 
town, M'ith vapour baths* whey-cure» 
and Cnrhaasfor eonsomptiTe patients. 
The rly. eontinaes to Wiitlii «a 

•ROOTE m.^ 





Sdjetein • . 

. 188 



11 Zborowiti 



Huiieiii • . 

. 121 







. 122 


Friedland . 

. 121 



. 121 


^MbM, . . 

. 179 


Bielits . . • 

• 181 




&alwarja « 

• 173 

N.E.— The rl^. rung SlE. as far as 
Kremsier, foHowing the river March* 
Here a tortuous branch line diverges 
S.W. to Zborowiiz. Bielitz, a Pro- 
testant msDBfaotanag town* !s sepa* 
rated fi*om BiaUi by the Biala river, 
the boundary between Silesia and 
Galicia. Thence the course ot the 
line is nearly to Kalwarya. 

Digitized by GoogI 

BOUTil m. 


. . X57 

fitmtt ayitn?! OMMp, Seot. IV; 

A University was re-^stabliabed here 
in 16S7« It oocnpiM tb« highest »al 
in thi towa, and possnses a fiiie jUp 

brary, containing 50,000 -volumes and 
many valuable early-printed books. 
An irreparable injury was iutiicted on 
Slavonic literature by the low €f iSbe 
ancient libmy, carried aimj hy the 
Swedish Generals Torstenson and 
Wrangel, when they took the tov> n. 
The Bishop of Oliuiitz is the only 
Austrian prelate who has the right oif 
electing hia own dean and chapter. 

The GatMral is amodem bailding. 
There is a crypt (11 30) or lower chur^ 
below the choir. Kiug Wenzel III. 
was murdered here in 1306, and is here 
buried. The Morltildx^ has a fins 
timer'and a very large organ. In the 
oentre of the Ober-Ring, detached 
from other buildings, stanas the hand- 
some Rathhans ; and a lofty pillar in 
honour of the Holy Trinity, adorned 
with hroase statiiet by Domier, 114 ft. 
high, decorates the same square. 

There is a College of Nobles here. 
Walleustein was eduiiated in it under 
the Jesuits. 

About 4 m. from the city ia the Holy 
Kout, theoalv hill in the neighboav* 
hood, crowned with a pilgriniage 
churoh, which oomavda a £m viaw» 

HUM. SUtions. 


10 Hennersdorf 
M Jftgemdorf m.o. 85a 1 
16 Troppaa Sikrian 

1% Troppau Northern 
Stat. . . 121, 
33 Erbersdorf \ 
U WMaalhal/ 
Krteldorf \ 
9 WniKitodt/ 

SI OuOrS , • 125, 128 

8.--The line at first tfwids 8JS.t 

and crosses the frontier to Hennertdoif, 
Jagenidorf (11,800) is a thriving 
town with cloth factories and a 
ch9,teau of Prince Liechtenstein. [Rly . 
S.E. to (18 m.} Troppau (21,000) on 
the Oppa, the chief town of Austrian 
Silesia, where the first sittings were 
held in 1820 of the Congress after- 
wards removed to Laibach.] Here are 
two rlv. stations. Our line turns S.W., 
asoen/iing the Oppa to Zrbersdorf, 
whence a hraiich rly. runs N.W. to 
Wiirhenihaly still following the rt. 
hank of the river. From Kriegsdorf 
another branch diverges W. to Uiimer- 

. <NUinfTZ (Holomauc), one of the 
strongest fortresses in the Austrian 
dominions, on the March, or Marawa, 
has 21,000 luhab. and a garrison of 
lO/MX) men, with 80 fiold^gons. In 
ease of attack, Olmtitz can be flooded 
to a depth of 5 ft. for a distance of 
3 m. on each side of the fortress. It 
was taken by the Swedes in the Thirty 
Team' War : bat Frederick the Great 
bedeged it m Tain, in 1758, for seven 
weeks, and was tnen compelled to 
retreat by Loudon, who cut off his 
"^plies. Lafayette was confined a 
withia It la 1794, 

ROUTE 126. 


Uiki. Stations. Rontes. 
'*^B()H]L-TBVBATX . 139 

9 Badelidorf \ 

8 Landskron/ 
27 Eohenstadt , » 126 
30 Lukaweti 
34 Hiiglits 
4tL Sehwanbaoh\ 

2 Littau / 
48 Stefanau 

M OlMtfTZ . . 124, 128 1 
19 8. W. CeUMho- 
' witi. 

Digiii<ica by Ct.)0^lL 

S.£.E.->Pragiie to Olmiitz.—From 
BudeUdorf tke thort line to Lands* 
kron runs nearly doe N. HeaM » 

wooded valley is followed to Hohen- 
Stadt, a prethly-situated town at the 
base of the Sufleteii. The river March 
is reached at LiikaweiZt beyond which 
4MI the L tiiei 8Mm HSrom. The 
filUe town of Miiglii/ lit s on the rt. 
of the rly. The March is now crossed 
to Schwarzbach, whence a braueli line 
runs 6. to LittaUf mnnicipal town of 
the Priaoe of Liechtenstein, whose 
mrauraft estatei eztendy almost with* 
out interruption, from Wiifersdorf (on 
the old post -road between Vienna and 
Briinn) to the frontier of Sile^ia, a 
distance of 200 m. Beyond Stefanau 
the riy. trends S. as ihr as Olmllti, 

BOUTE 126* 


Miles. StatkMia. Boutes. 
Hohenstadt . .12^ 
5 Blauda . . . 13a 
I 6 . Hahrisch - Sehdn- 

htitg ... 130 
16 ZSpftan 

1 N.N.E. — The March is crossed 
before reaching JBlauda, where Kte. 
130- U fbllowel as IS SMnherg. 
From Zoptan a dil. runs N. to (25 m.) 
Freiwaiden (124), i hr, to the ,N. of 


Orafenberg, a celebrated hydro- 
inthic establishment iik the Austrian 
fottioft of the doehy of ttlesia, whieh 
; It BOW included in the province of 
Moravia Vincent Priessnitz, the 
water-doctor d. 1851 established a 
sort of colony here, consisting of 
tboot 100 liowes, for ptttiiBts. The 
SaiefaL irater-worshippers ftom Hun- 
gry have raised, as a monument to the 
inventor of the system, a colossal lion 
cast in iron, &om the designs of 


BOUTK 127. 



Brunn 128,129, 

139, 142 









Lundenburg • 

121, 131 






Gansemdorf . 

. 121 




Floridsdoif • 

. 121 


Vleiuift M* 

• 121 

. S^BerUn to Vienm. 

BBUNK (Bohemian, Brno, a ferry \ 
the capital of Moravia (Pop. 80.0<M), 
including 3000 garrison), is built 
partly in a pretty valley, watered* by 
the streams of the Schwarsaim wA 
Zwittawa, which here unite, partly on 
th<^ slope of two hills, the Itist of a range 
stretclunt' from \\w X.W. corner of 
Moravia, aiid here sinking down into 
the plain. At the smnmit of the most 
w ( s t erly of the tiv<o Mllsk the Castle 
of Spielberg, formerly the citadel of 
Bi iimi; but the French d^troyed its 
tortiiicatious, and it was converted 
hrto ft pitem for politiesi edhndeiv. 
It wvs the prison of Silvio Pellteo 

(ft-om 1822 to 1830). 

Mack the incapable, who surren- 
dered Ului to the French, was confined 
here for some lime \ and Treuck, the 
ssTSge leader of the Pteidoiirs, the 
wild vanffuard of the Austrian anny 
in the \var of Suoesssieni died here a 
prisoner in 1749. 

At the foot of the second hill the 
city and Its -estensive snbnrhs afe 
sp ( ;i l out, while its top is erowned 
by the Cathedral of St. Peter. The 
Bishop g Palace near it, and the 
plateau on the summit the hill, 

commands a beautMU Ttow* iiTlmsTliir 

Digitized by Google 



over the plain of Moravia as far as 
the Carpathians. The slopes of this 

liill are laid out as a pii'i lie garden, 
called *rraiizeiisl)erg. Within them 
a monumental obelisk 61 ft. high has 
been erected, to commemorate the 
peace of 1815. 

The most heandfU church la the 
*Jaoobik&rahe, a Gothic building with 
nave and aisles of equal height, and 
lofty piers, built in 1502. It contains 
the monument ut' Fieid-marsiial vou 
Sonches, the defender of Broun In i 
the Thirty Yeats' War. Baron Trenck 
is hurica in a vault beneath the 
Church of the Capuehins. 

The Bikasterial-Geb&ude, formerly 
one of the richest Augustine convents 
in the Austrian dominions, is now the 
seat of the government of the province. 
The Rittersaal, or hall of meeting of 
the Moravian Estates, contains the 
plough with whieh the Esap. Joseph II. 
(in emulation of the Emperor of 
China) tamed a teiow with his own 

Of the Gothic Sathhaus, buUt in 
1611, only the portal remains nn- 

The Moravian National Museum 
contains a library and some interesting 
collections of the production of the 

Brttnn is one of the first manu£u:- 
turing towns in the empire ; its cloths 
and woollen stuffs are very celebrated. 
Several handsome public buildings 
have been erected during the last few 
years, including an Asyfiun, Theatre, 
various Schools, and a tasteful Pro- 
testant cliurch. The Kraatmarkt is 
adorned with a pretty fountain, and 
near the stat. is a Moorish Synagogue. 
The ^AngartsB, in a N. saWb, is a 
pleasant public park, and the ram- 
parts have been laid out in agreeable 
promenades. Outside th. town,S.W. 
of the Snielherg, is the ^Augustine 
ehw^ of the Uth ecnt 

Baigem. Here is the oldest Bene- 
dictine Monastery in Moravia, founded 
in 1048, by Duke Bretislaw, The 
ISth-cent. church is a line buildin^i;, 
•nil libraiy rioh. 

^ Previously to the battle of Anster- 
lita, Napoleon, sagaciously anticipating 
what the movements of his opponents 
would be, posted his VBserve under 
Davoust behind the convent, thus 
laying a snare for them into whiffh 
they afterwards fell. 

B^ond BiaiMnrttai the Hy. erotses 
the Schwarzawa. On the rt. rise the 
lim^tone hills of Polnu. ^v ith a rained 
castle on one of their suniinitR. 

Saitz. To the rt. is seen the Turkish 
Tomtt a Ibllj MO ft. high, in the park 
of Prince Lieelrfmtein. At XmM 
is an ancient church, with a lofty 
tower. To the Irrise the Carpathiam, 

HOUTE 128. 



• . 131 


Xejetein , 

• . 123 



Olmfltz . . 




Sternberg" . 

. . lao 







Brunn 127, i 

29»139, 142 

4 Kdnigsfeid 
9 Zinsendorf 
18 Tisdmsfvriti 

S.W. — The river March is crossed 
before reaching Kojetein. From 
NezamUlitz a rly. strikes N. for 
Sternberg. At the village of Slawi- 
kowitz, near Bansnits, the £m|i» 
Joseph held the plough in 1 7 GO: an 
obelisk of cast iron commemorates the 
event, with the words ^' Agriculturamt 
homani generis mitrieem, nobUltaifit/' 

From Briinn a branch line nam 
N.W., passinff FCunfiish'Jd, ^vith a 
pleasant suburban park and a military 
school, li hr. N. of Zinsendorf is 
WzsAttO, with the ftonily tombs of 

Digitized by Googh 







— K 


• ) 11/ '\ miiswwi ^ - 


iS^. (rem. 


1866. From Neusiedl-Dtlmliols 


Digitized by Google 



^•^ --^>':^ - • '^^•'^^ '^-^ • • 0 \r 


t.t,u>j. H 

IWranau, with the family tombs w 

Digitized by Google 

Bohemia. BmOe ISl.^lAMdmlmrg to ZUkmdorf. 241 

Prince Liechtenstein, -whence it is an 
hour's walk to Af^mmtlial (239). At 
Tlfduuywitz, a pretty town on the 1. 
bank of the Schwarzawa, is abeautifbl 
12th-cent. church of *Himmelspforte, 
a suppressed nunnery, with a richly- 
carved W. doorway and interesting 

KOUTE 129. 


Miles. Statloiu. fiontes. 

Biiinn 187, 128, 139, 142 
16 Austerlita 
49 £isenz town \ 

8 Bisenz-Pisek { • 121 
65 Wessely > 

9 Sudomerit»>Fetnii S 

8i Kunowiti . . • M2L 

3 ITngarisch-Hradisohl 
73 TTngarisoh-Brod 

E — Rtc. 128 is croned shortly be- 
fore reacliini: 

Austerlitx. This little town belongs 
to Prince Kaunit2, and the Austrian 
ininister of that name and family 
is buried there. Here was won the 
greatest of Buonaparte's victories, that 
ofAuUerlitZf or of the Three Emperors 
— ''Dreikaiserschlacht" (Dec. 2, 1805). 
The forces of the Emperors of Aos< 
tria and Russia exceeded bis own, yet 
he took 20,000 prisoners, 40 pieces of 
cannon, and siaudurds almost with- 
oat number. French accounts of the 
battle mention a lake in which 22,000 
Russians were drowned ; and, though 
nothing of the sort exists in the 
summer, the marshy country is flooded 
the winter, and at the time of the 
Dftttte the water was frozen. Napoleon , 
seising the moment when the Kussians 
^^re crossing the ice, turned his 
artillery upon it, breaking it up, and 
thus sending the hostile force to 

S, (hrm* 

BOUTB 180. 


Miles. Stations. IU)ut«8. 
Sternberg • • . 128 
28 Mahrisoh - Schon- 

berg. ... 126 
81 Blavda « . • 126 
44 Hannsdorf 
67 Grulich . . . IQS 
60 Wichstadtl-Licht- j 

enau . » .> 162 

6 Mittehralde .) 162 

N.W.— At Schcinberg the rails of the 
Hohenstadt-Zoptau line are followed 
S.W. as far as Blauda, where the rly. 
turns N., and ascends the 1. bank of 
the March. The river is crossed and 
re-crossed, the line quitting it and 
turning due W. at Hannsdort 

ROUTE 131. 


Miles. * Stattotis. Routes. 

LundenbuciT • 121, 127 

8 Feldsberg 

15 Nikolsburg 

2Z Neusiedl-Diimholsl 

6 Omssbaoh . ./ 139 
32 lAa .... 139 
88 Zellemdorf • . 137 

W.— Feldsberg lies at the foot of 
the BaittenJberg (955 ft.). At nkAli« 
burg Is a ch4teaa of Count Mensdorff, 

where peace was concluded between 
the Austrians and Prussians on July 
2(>th, 1866. From JTensiedl-Dtlmliols 


Digitized by 

a branch rly., continuing W., runs to 
GruMftoe^ while onrline turns S.S.W. 
as far as laiiy following thence a 
somewhat tortttons course due W. to 

ROUTE 132. 


Granica (Busiia) 

3 Saczakowa ) 

8 Myslowits n.g. 85a 3 

1$ Tnebinia ... 121 

S.E. — Warsaw to Vi*'niin. Sleeping 
cars. The branch to M^ ^lowitz turns 

ROUTE 133. 


HUes. StatioBS. Bontes. 

Liebau . M, 83 
8 Konigshan | 

4 Schatzlar / 

12 Parschnitz . . 135 

S9 Starkoticli . . 184 

lotepliitadt» 1 d6» H. G . 8 5 
46 Smiritz ... US 

62 KtfNIQGRATZl 148, 162 

9 Fardubitz j . 139 
00 Stoblewft 
91 Skntsch 

186 Deatsehhred . . 137 

S.— The ihmtier u Teaehed at Sihi* 
igshan, and the Elbe crossed at the 
fortress of Josephstadt. Hence tlie 
rt. bank of the river is followed to 

Koniggratz (Sduu) a town and for- 
tress at the junction of the Adler with 
the Kibe, i in. from the stat. The 
Cathedral, founded in 1302, has a 

Seot. iy« 

beautiM ciborium of 1492t The 
BaMle of KStdg^rtUe (or fladsnra) was 

fought on July 3, 1866, between Bis- 
tritz — where the Austrians under 
Benedek had t;iken up a strong defen- 
sive position — and the Elbe. The 
▼illage of Sadova was iiiTolved in tbe 
fray, although little injured. The 
fiii il stmggle was n^the village of 
Ciiium. Its little church is battered 
with shot, and the surrounding plain 
is one vast grave filled with the 
thousands of tne dain on both sides* 
The Austrians, after 1 1 hrs. fighting, 
were put into full retreat upon Vienna. 
The forces in the field were 200,000 
Austrians and Saxons, and 260,000 

The excursion to the battle-field 
may be tuacle in 10 hrs. Carriage 
from th* hotel, 2 horses, 12 fl. Drive 
to Chium. From the church tuwer 
nearly the wh<de of the batlle-ground 
can be seen. Then drive by the 
Prussian Monument, and through tlie 
Austrian batteries above Lipa to 
Sadowa, While the horses are rest- 
ing, walk to Dub and back to Doha- 
licaka, and cross the Bistrils to the 
wood above Salowa, where wai| the 
thickest of the fight. 

The Elbe is crosseii again beyond 
Steblowaf and the rly. bends first S.E. 
and afterwards S.W. to reach Dentseh- 

BOUTE 134, 





. 139 


. Iti2 






Wenzelsber^ ) 

2 Starkot&ch j 


liachod . 

N.G. 85 


Weekalsdorf . 

N.Q. 83 


Halbstadt . . 

N.o. 84 


Branaaii , , 

M.G. 83 

JBoNia 132. — Qrcmca io TrzMuia. 

Digitized by Goo 

^hQmia, Bnute 136. — Sddenberg to Joae^isUidt. 

N.— The Une bem N.W. at ilr at 
Tinist. At Opo«no is a large resi- 
deuce of Prince Colloredo-Mansfcld. 
The Castle of Senstadt an der Mettau 
giTen in KMM f» Walter Connt 
iie^ of the Balquhain family in 
Scotland, for his services in the affair . •amrrn? i o/j 

of Wallenstein. Thence by the Krein HUUlil. 
viaduct to Nachod. The stat. of WecJc- 
eUdorJ is nearly 3 m« distant from the 
oeielMrated LaftyxiBlk tiBtaii. 


KOUT£ 135. 


lines. Stations. Boatei. 
Parsohnitz , . 133 
% Trautsnaii 

14 Aman 

flO Pelsdorf \ 

3 Hohenelbe N.r..| 84 
37 Altipaka ... 136 
4^ Ifflupakft 

M Wostro]n6r\ • • 148 
12 Jicin / , • 141 

88 Smidar \ 
6 Hoohwesselyj 

If MuiWli • • • 189 

S.S.W. — Breslau to Prague. From 
Trav^TMu^ the branch line toPreiheit- 
^Qhamdibad strikes N.W. 

TkA Elhft ii oPoaMd St Axmh, and 
re-crossed betee reaching Pelsdorf, 
the line following its banks N.W. 

At Pelsdorf a branch line runs N. 
to Hohenelbe. The rly. then crosses 
the iif«r for tba thim time, and at 
Altpaka assiflMta a 8.E. direction as 
far as Wostromer (branch N.W.W. to 
Jicin). Thence S. to Smidar, from 
which the line to fioohwMaely turns 


Miles. stations. Bootes. 
Beidenbezg ] 
10 Madlaiia. • k.o.82 
18 Raspenan 

27 Reichenberg )i.G. 84a 
83 Langenbruok 
37 Beichenau , 
41 Kiebaiuni 

60 Tumau . « • 143 
55 Kleinskal 
69 Sisenbrod \ 
12 TanxLwaldj 

T4 Alt-UTA .r. 136 
78 Falgendotf 

85 Mastig 

93 Xbniginhof 
102 Josephstadt . 133 

S.E. — The direction is generally S, 
as far as Tumau. Luggage is ex- 
amined at Seidenbere. The Indus- 
trial Mnaenm at BaidMbaif eontaiiis 
an interesting collection of carvingi^ 
glass, objects in metal, a good library, 
and various curiosities. The Jeschlcen 
(3325 fU) may be ascended in 2 hrs. 
Hence the line aaeendi to Laagan* 
bxnal^ on the -wat^vhed between the 
Iser and the Neisse (1645 ft.)* Much 
glass is made at Beirhenau and Lfeh' 
emit, beyond which the valley of 
the Mohelka is crossed by a long 
viaduet. A tomiel ia paand on tlie 
way to Tnmau (5000), rising above 
the' 1. bank of the Iser. 2 m. S. are 
the hydropathic baths of Warten' 
herg, which may be visited in oombi- 
nation wltii gfaai8lral and its flmtas- 
tic sanditone rocks — an interesting 
excursion. Close by is the castle of 
Waldstein, an old seat of the Wallen- 
stein family. From Kleinskal it is a 
pleasant walk (6 m. N.W.) to Reich- 
anas, the rlj. hsvisff deievlbecl 
conflate hofaeshoe of 18 m. P 

» 2 

Digitii;oG by CjOO^u 

244 Boute 137.— Vienna lo IMhm, Seot lYt 

pcvfiuming the same distance. The 
acenery now becomes remarkably at- 
tractive, and numerous tunnels thread 
the rocks along the wooded valley of 
the Iter. From BMBbrod a branch 
line runs N. to Tannwdldf and from 
86mil» where there is an old Schloss, 
a dil. plies twice daily to (8 m. N.E.) 
Mochstadt. The narrow valley of the 
Woleschka Is now trsversed to *Att- 
pikft, whence the rly. ascends to its 
summit level of 1600 ft. a little 
beyond Falgendorf (fine view of the 
Schneekoppe): 3 m. S. of Maatig, 
where are mineral baths, rises toe 
Swifiicliiii (2210 ft.), commanding a 
good view of the Giant Mountains. 

Kbniginhof lies nearly 2 m. N. of 
its Stat., on the 1. bank of the Elbe. 
In the market-place is a monument 
eomraenaoratin^ the discovery, in 1817, 
of the Kunigmhof M.S.» jgeneraliy 
believed to be a forgery. The line 
continues bt'autiful all the way to 
Josephstadt, a fortress on the 1. bank 
of the Elbe. 

ROUTE 137. 


Miles. ^Stations. Bootes. 
4 Jedlesee 
10 Komeuburg 
17 Stockerau 
33 Ober-Hollabruim 
47 ZlSWtSlNIBV . 181 

berg-Boni . •/ 

62 Betz 

63 ZSAJM ... 139 
1€6 Okrissiiko ... 148 

125 lOLAU ... 161 

141 Deutsckbred . . 133 

175 GfaaUii ^ ^ , 138 

Miles. Stations. KoatQib 

180 Sediets-Kuttenberg 

187 Xelim • ... 188 

188 Or. Wossek • • 188 

197 Fodebrad 

888 KlMBUBa . 141, 162| 
20 Jungbimslau > 
143, M.O. 34| 

819 £1884 » » • • 188 

227 VBetstMm. • 148 

233 Melnik 

239 Liboch 

264 Leitmeriti 

888 Belwiietii 

870 8okreckexi8tiiA\ 

2 Anssig . /139, 147 

887 Tetsoken 

144, 145, N.O. 88 

N.N.W.— Viemia to Dresden ni 
Berlin.— After crossiog the DeDiibe 

by a long bridge, the rly. passes along 
the 1. bank, under the vine-clad bill of 
Bimmberg, and in sight of Kloster> 

Stockerau is a hHSif siarket-towii* 

with a brisk trade in grain. Numerous 
local trains run between this place 
and the capital. Nearlv 2 m« N.£. 
of OtaAuabnom is the efavseh of 
8ehasgf8]ie8, m beautiful edifice sup- 
posed to have been built by the 
Templars, and principally remarkable 
for the grotesque figures of the Fall, 
in niches outside its apse. FlMS 
gellemdorf > line runs to Biyi mm tl9 ' 
herberg-Horn. From Bets a diL runs 
to (15 m. N.W.) llardegg (see below). 
The deep valley of tbe Thay a is crossed 
on a viaduct 150 ft. high to 

iBolBt (13,000), a picturesqeotowa, 
and a good starting-i)oint for excii8> 
sions in the romantic Thaya-Thal. 

Here the Archduke Charles con- 
cluded an armistice with Napoleoa 
after the battle of Wagram. Tlw 
OoMb OB the height, the andott 
realde&oe of the princes of Moravia, 
is now a military hospital. Near it is 
a circular Church, probably as old as 
U8U. The Church of St NichoUu is 
m handsome Golbie baildinft. There 
is a Gothic Cross (Denks&de), richij 

1 ornamented M'lth carvings, and dating 
from 1404, which deserves notice. 

Digiti<iOG by Cookie 

ITie markets of Vieniia ire supplied 
"with vegetables from this neighbour- 
hood. To the E. of the towu is the 
convent of Bnick, now a barrack ; out- 
side the E. gate are uiouumeots to 
Colonel Kopal (1848>and the noTelist 
Kiri PoBlel (1864)» 15 n. W., in the 
ivtndiiig inllegr, is the ruined castle of 
Mardegg ; 5 m. further rises *Behlos»- 
Vraia 0^ helow). 

IglmjL (21,000) is IB ancient ternn 

€n the Iglawa, with a flourishing cloth 
and plush trade. The Gothic Church 
of St. Jamu lia# ai| altar-j^eoe vorth 

Just outside the town on the N., 
two granite obeliska mark tiw baand- 
nry of Bohemia and tlM spot where 
the national deputies received their 
king Ferdinand T. in 1527. The 
river Iglawa divides Bohemia from 

Dentschbrod (5500;, a manufac- 
turing tow n on the ^nzaica. Ziskabeat 
the £mp, Sigismuud here in 1422. 

<kadan(7000> Tlie bliml Hosnte 
General Ziska was buried in the 
church, rlistin^uished by its high 
tower. During the rcijiu of Ferdi- 
nand II, (1623), his body wa:> torn 

Iron the grwa^ aad his tomb de- 
stiojod. Frederiok of Pmssift'dcleated 

the Austrians at Ci^otaatfs, near 
Czaslau, in 1 742. 

Sedletz has a fine old abbey church 
(1280-lSSO) with double aisles. Hence 
« brSBoh ilj. rant S.W. to (S m.) 

Knttenherg- (13,500), a once im- 
portant raiiiiHiT town, on t!ie slope 
ot a hill winch jjroduces lead and 
copper* Its Teins of siWer heeame 
exhausted in 1600. A mint -was esta- 
blished in the Wiilschcr Ilof by 
Wenzel IT. The *Church of 8ta. 
Barbara (13S0- 1 4S3) is a noble late- 
GotUe fragment, consisting of a 
grsndehoi^ w|th 8 radiating chapels, 
and part of a naye with double aisles. 
The choir jms handsome staUs. 

Xolin (12.000) has a large Church. 
irith tiro towara and a lolly ohoir. 

Rt. on a height is seen flu obelisk, 
eraeted ui 1848 by tho Aastrfaaa ai s 

monament of a victory, one of the 
most deo!«iivo of the Seven Years* 
War. Mai bhal Daun, at the head .of 
the allied Austrian aud Saxon armies^ 
here deDnted Fnderiek the Great, 
on June 18, 1757, and thereby rescued 
Austria from thn hatul'; of the I'nis- 
sians. Frederick commanded his army 
from the windows of a solitary inn 
(the S«i)» wldeh still exists, and 
serres to mafh tho eantra of hia 

At Podebrad, where is a Schloss 
and a chain bridge, George Podiebrad 
Kifig of Bohcniia waa born <d« 1481 >. 
From Kimbnrg (5500), an old town 
with a brick and stone church (»f 
1305, and extensive engine-factories, 
a line runs N.W. to Jungbumlau. 
Opposite Malnlh^ a town belonging to 
Prince Lobkowits, the MoMans flow* 
into the El bo. 

N, of Liboch. sti otches the romantic 
TAhochtr Grundet near which is the 
Slawjn, a Bohemian Valhalla or Pan- 
theon, ereetod by a eitlaen of Pragnev 
in wliich are plBced braaae statues 
of ]?o]iomian worthies, executed in ; 
Schwanthaler'g studio in Munich. 

The train now leaves the Elbe, 
whieh sweeps to Ae S., and njoiaa 
the riTor again at loitmerita (1 1,000) ; 
its houses are seen rising one over 
another against the slope of the hi!!. 
The chief buildmgs are the Uishop's 
Palace and the Jesuits' College, (hie 
of tho ehurehea has a tower shaped 
like a cup, the symbol of those fleroe 
religious contests respecting the use 
of thv Clip in the Sacrament, which 
desolated Bohemia iu the I5th cent. 
Much of the Bohemian glass is polished 
here. The sun oanding district is one 1 
of abundant tei tility, and is laid out 
in corn-lielJs, vineyards, hop-grounds, 
and orchards. The best Bohemian 
wines, the Meliuker and Tachemo- 
seker, are prodnoed in the cirelo of 

Dil. to (27 ra. N.E.) Bdhmisch- 
Leipa (145), passinir (H m.) Li&be^ 

IschiiZf wkcuce a ualh icads N. thxo»' 
IVnodrcmd la Shis, to the ramp 

Digitizoa by Guv.( 


Boute 138. — Czeslau to Zawratetz* 

Sect. IV. 

the*Geltscliberg (2400 ft.), conuuand- 
ing a fine view. 

Sebusein is charmingly situated on 
the Elbe, facing Zaled. 2 m. E. lies 
Knndratitz, a favourite summer re- 
sort, in a neighbourliood of pictur- 
esque excursions. Further on, 2fiQ ft. 
above the river, rises the ruin of 
*Bchreckenstein, which well deserves 
a visit on account of its fine view. 
It is a bold rock, crowned by a castle, 
and projecting so far into the river as 
to occasion a slight rapid in the midst 
of a wild defile through which the 
Elbe forces its way. 

Tetsohen (6000) is a flourishing 
little town, in one of the most roman- 
tic situations which the banks of the 
Elbe afford. It has several important 

manufactures, and is connected with 
Bodenbach by a chain bridge and a 
rly. bridge. Its baths, supplied from 
a chalybeate spring, are resorted to 
in summer. The most prominent 
object is the OowiZe, belonging to 
Count Thun, who has vast possessions 
in the neighbourhood. The Gardens 
and hot-houses are famous throughout 



Miles. Stntions. Boutcs. 
Czaslau • • • 1^ 

4 Skowitzl 
6 Wrdyj 

5 Zleb 

U Zawratetz-Tremosnitz ' 

* E. — From STcowitis a branch line 
turns N.E. to Wrdy. 



lliles. Stations. Pontes. 





AuBsig . • 187, 14Z 


TiObositz 1 

9 Libocbowitrf 








Weltrus • 




Kralup . . 143, 







PRAOITE (Staats) 










Pecek . . • , 



KOLnr . . . 





Prelouc \ 

14 a. Kalk-Podoi; 


Pabbttbitz . . 



Chotzen . . O 


Ifi S.£. Leitomischlj 




Wildenschwert, V.'W. 


Wild en sell wert . 















Briinu 127,128,129,142 


Strelitz . . . 






Omssbach'^ • • 


17 Znaim/ . 



Laa .... 



STApLAV . . . 



VIBFU A (Staats) 




8.E. — Dresden to Vienna. Lug- 
gage examiued at ik>deubach. 

Bodenbach, on the Aiistiiau frontier, 
lias a Bafli-boiise supplied iH^ Mij- 
beate waten. On the opposite bank 
is TeUrhm, conneeted by a chain 
bridge (137). 

On the 1. bank, below the bridge, 
it theTiltageof Obergnmd, a fbToiinte 
summer resoit. The rkf, Aseoidi the 
1, bank 1o 

Aussig (1600 ft.), a town of 1 7,ooo 
iuhab., at the junction of the Biela 
and the Elbe. It has an important 
eoaUng^harbonr, riTer barges 

tale in their cargo. Raphael Mengs was 
bom here in 1728. The Ferdinands- 
hahe (i- hr. S.) and the Schreckemiein, 
On the opposite bank of the river, are 
irorth aieeiidiDg fbr the view. 

LolbOitts (3000), a munufhoiaifng 
town on the 1. bank of the Elbe, at 
the foot of hills covered with vine 
yards. Here the Austrians, under 
Bfanlial Brown, ifere defeated by 
Frederick the Great in 1756. TTiis 
was the first battle of the Serea Tears' 

Branch line S. to Idbocfwwitx on 
the li^er. 
Orem^Cemmk, on fhe rt batik, ig 

noted for its wine* The Hradek 
(1180 ft.) may be ascended for the 
view. 3 hrs. N.W. rises the Mile' 
tchauer (147). 1^ m. from its rly. 
Stat, lies 

Theresieutadt, bniii in 1 780 by the 

Emp. Joseph IT., in the midst of 
morasses, at the junction of the Eger 
With the Elbe. It is a place of great 
strength, constructed on the most 
appfOTod principles of military sdenoe^ 
never yet captured by an enemy ; and 
the country around can be laia under 
water by means of sluices. A remark- 
able *view is gamed trom the stat, 

Bandnits (6000), on the Elbe, has 
a rn.^fle of Prince Lobkowitz, with a 
lildiiry of 45,000 vols., an armonry, 
and a collection of paintings from the 
time of Charles iV. to &e TMrty 
Tears* War. Here Hienzi the Tri- 
iMme, when driven from Rome, was 
confined by the Emperor for a year in 
1950, before his remoyaL to Ayignon. 


The Georgenherg (1325 ft.), con- 
spicuous from its white chapel, rises 
3 m. S.E. 

At Beifteiwittf Ae rly; leaves the 

Ell u? S m. below its junction with tile 
Moldan, wliich falls into it at Mehiik, 
" the town of bops^" and renders it 

'Wilfana. Opposite, on the rt baak 
of the MoUau, is the village of 
Weltrus, attacbeii to which are the 
chateau and park of Count Chotek, 
prettily laid out in an island of the 
Moldaa, and intersected with running 

xmiUiansen, with im oM eastle of 

Prince Lobkowitz. 

A tnimel lends to Kralup, near 
which, on the rt. bunk of the Moldau, 

is flie rained eastte of ChwOim^* 
Bflitlik lies in a picturesque valley. 

On an eminence, f.^iry UrfrdrJc, said 
to be the oiliest church in Bohemia. 

The rly. continues along the narrow 
▼alley, which opena at 

Bnbenz, near the BaumgaH&nt * 
charming public garden, much re- 
sorted to in summer. A fine viaduct 
of 88 arches, 1200 yds. long, spans 
the CardiiientJiol, and sevend arms 
ef the Mdldaoy erected at a cost of 


PEAGUE (615 ft.) in Bohemian 
FrahUf the capital of Bohemia, sur- 
passlBg in its grandeur and impostnff 
character the appearance of almost any 
other city in Germany, has 180,ooo 
inhab., or, including the suburbs, 
260,000, of whom 4tn are Germans, 
and .about 20.000 Jews. The «ty, 
whi6h measures & m. in dremnference, 
is situated in a basin-shaped valley,' 
cut in two by the Moldau, surrounded 
on all sides by rocks or eminences, 
upon whose slopes the buildings of the 
town ifse tier abOTt tieraf they recede 
from the watei^e edge. Aboye the 
numerous domes, turrets, and spires, 
which rise up on all sides, towers the 
imposing mass of the Uradschin, the 
pamce Of the BeheBoten hihgs, rimning 
along the crest of an eminence, and 
backed by the heights of the I^anren7i- 
berg, where the patran ii:)humian.s are 
sidd to haye celebrated, in ancient 

34d Bonto 189.— IVo^M.* ^BaMam; Sdot. XW 

t'mios, the ritps of their fire-'worsliip. 
'i'hose who converted them to Chris- 
tianity, perceiving the difficulty of 
Imiibiiig altogether the former 
iMsati^nish associations connected with 
the spot, substitntf'd in their place the 
more holy fires >v iiich consumed the 
martyr St. Lawrence, whose church is 
Mlt there. On the other side of the 
river, lookinj^ up the stream, are the 
hlnck precipices of the citadel of 
Wyschehrad (Acropolis). Behind the 
towers of the Altstadt rises Ziska's 
HiU^ which wm ftrlifiedhy the blind 
Hnnite chief whose ntme it hears, 
and serves to recall thr recollection 
of those religious troublLS in which 
Prague suflTered so grievously. 

The Moldau divides the quarters 
called Altetodtt Neostadt, and Jotef- 
stadt, on its rt. hank, from the Klein> 
feite (small ^xde} and Hradschin on 
its 1. Thit city contains 62 Catholic 
churches and. cliapels, 19 monasteries, 
4 nimneriesi 3 trotettant ohikrohes» 
and 9 tynagogaea. 

The restored Pnlverthurm (E. 2), 
a lofty square Gothic tower of 1484, 
fimnerly raraioimted a gateway in the 
iralls which separated the Altstadt 
from the Neustadt. Adjoining it on 
the N. is the Konigshof, once a royal 
palace, now a Caciets School. 

Hence the Zeltnergasse leads W. to 
tha Grosse Ring, in which stands the 

Karieuanle, with 4 statues at the 
angles, erected in !$)50, when the 
Swedes withdrew from the city. N.E. 
rises the 

Teynkirche, the Gothic church of 

the Hussites, distinguished by its two 
tall towers with taper roofs, and 4 
small turrets at the angles, built in 
1407, at the expense of three German 
nerdiaats residing in Prague. In 
1457 the Estates of Bohemia, as- 
sembled in this ch., unanimously 
elected George Podiebrad King of 
Bohemia. Here the doctrines of lluss 
were long preached by the prdate, 
John of Kokyzan, whoae body, buried 
tmder the hijih altar, was afterwards 
torn up and burned in 1622. Against 
the 8.SL pier ia the red marble effigy 

of Tijrho Brahe (1601), the Dncish 
astronomer. In the adjacent Mauen* 
Kapelle is a finely executed maiMa 
group of the Bohemian Apostles 
and Methodius, by Emanuel JkLuc, 
presented by the Emperor Ferdinand 
T. in 1845, with a bronze relief below 
til cm. Opposite is a tripod bronze 
fbnt (1418). The fine organ in \^ 
Breaoihow of Breslau. The noip^ 
from whrch S. John Nepomnk and 
Hnss are said to have preached, iias 
panels of Saints on the stairs. 

The Bathhaus (Town-hall), oppo- 
site on the W., a Gothic edifice, was 
rebitilt in 1848, except the tower^ 
which is probably as old as 1474, the 
S. doorway, and chapel, whose fine 
projecting oriel window has been pie* 
served. In the Cooncil Chamber are 
portraits of former Bur^master?, and 
a colossal modern painting of liuss 9% 
the Council of Coustauce. 

A Tenr cariona dock omamenta the 
tower. It was constructed by Hanusch 
in the year 1490, and repaired in 1865. 
It registers the time from sunset to 
sunset, i.e. from 1 to 24, and also the 
hours at which the son and moon rise 
on each day of Uie year. Aa each 
hour strikes, a door opens, and 12 
figures, representing the Apostles, 
appear, and pass from right to left 
along a little platform, re-entering at 
ano^er door. 

The Bathhaus, and the irregular 
square in which it stands, are histo- 
rically remarkable for the deeds of 
violence and blood that have taken 
plaoe in them. 

In 1420, ;the HntiiteB» having, by 
the tolling of the storm-hell , assembled 
here, proceeded in marching array to 
the different churches of the town in 
succession, plundering, destroying, and 
setting fire to all that fell in th^ way* 
This will account for the small number 
of ancient churches at present existing 
in Pragne, and for the defective state 
of the lew ihut remain. Twenty -sevoi 
Protestant leaden were exeeatcdhcra 
after the battle of White Hill in 16^1 ; 
and eleven officers of high rank, by 
command of Wallen stein, in 1633, for 
ruiiumg away at the battle of Liit^en. 

Digitized by Goo< 

e r s I f. u G. 



Thor }\,Ut»f thta m E 2 

llftneiituium D 3 

^ lUfiiuuati < fiuversity- ' K 3 
RatJihaus lAhjtUuit > E 3 

Sviutffupue I .J 


E 3 

I .» ^ WaUejts^ui P<tl<n-e V 2 
f] \\ ICatheJt-al B C 2 

' B.!hr,irf*' E 1 

\\ l\><it Vftis:<. ±1, ;i 

Digitize^y Google 

Digiii^uu by G(.)0^1c 

Bohomia. MonU 139.^Uidverm^f; KariBdetikmal 249 

■ The University, or CaroUnum (E. a) 

feveIllarkable as the first great pnbUc 
hool established in Germany. It 
was founded on the nioclol of that of 
Paris in 1348: the existing ediiicf 
dales from iilS. The fame of the 

fecheri of fhe nniTendty, and the 
vileges granted to scholars, soon 
attracted hither students from nU 
parts of Europe. A measiiru proposed 
in 1^09 by John Uuss, for abridging 
ithe privU^ef of the foreigners and 
truinSBrring the prepondiBnuioe from 
them to tke Bohemians, occasioned 
the secession in one week of 15,000 
stud tilts, who dispt^rsed themselves 
over Europe, and became the founders 
; of the nniyemties of Leipzig, Hcddfl- 
herg, and Cracow* From henceforth 
the Carolintim became the school of 
those new opinions in religion pro- 
mulgated by Huss and Jerome of 
Prague, which gradually sepaxated the 
Bohemians from tho Bomish Ohurch. 
Huss himself was rector of the nni- 
Tersity, and here first taught those 
doctriues which he derived from liie 
Eoglish reformer Wicklitfe. After 
theihtel battle of White Hill, however, 
ill privileges and faculty of theology 
were trans^rred to the Jesuits' College 
of the Clementinum, and the Caro- 
lioum converted into a School of 
Medimne and Law, It now numbers 
2000 ISohemian stndenta, and 1600 

The massive stone *Bridge (C'arls- 
l)riicke), over the Moldau, connecting 
the Altstadt with the Kleinseite (1357- 
1903) measares 540 yds., and is om^ 
mented with 28 statues of saints* The 
eighth on the rt., in going fh>ni tln^ 
Altstadt, is a well-execnted brooze 
statne, hj Bauchmiiller of Nuremberg, 
ereeted m 1683, of 8t John Nepomukf 
who aeoording to the Popish legend, 
was thrown from the bridge into the 
river and drowned (1383), by order of 
King Wenceslaus IV., because lie re- 
fused to betray the secrets confided 
la him the qneen in confession. 
The spot whcnoe he was cast into the 
♦ river is still marked by a 

cross with five stars on the 
parapet, in imitation of the 
miracoloDS flames which 

three days after he was drowned were 
said tobeseenflidkeringOTcr theplaoe 
where his body lay under the water. 

Tie was canonized in when his 

body ■wn<^ eucased in tlie gorgeous 
Sliver shrine placed in the cath^raL 
From the cirenmstanees of his death, 
this saint has become the patron of 
bridges, and his statue occupies in 
many Catholic couutries the same 
situation as at Prague. 

The Festival of St. John Nepotmk 
is celebrated every year from the 16th 
to the 24th of May* On this occasion 
thonsnnds of persons assemble, not 
oulv f]'oui Ijoli'Miiia, but from all the 
surroundiiij^ couutries, on a pilgrimage 
to his sfarme. Anoflier popular holi- 
day is the FeoMt of 8L Wenee$lam 
(Sept. 28), when a solemn high mass 
is celebrated in the cathedral, and 
festivities of various kinds are held* 

The old WaUh-towor, at the end of 

the bridge next the Altstadt, oma- 

TTiented with sculptures and arms of 
the countries allied with Bohemia, 
aione preserved that part of the town 
ftom ihllinp; into the hands of the 
Swedes during the Thirty Years' War 
in 1G48, They had quickly mastered 
the Kleinseite, and, their attack being 
quite unexpected, the bridge^sate was 
so ill-guarded that they had nearly 
surpriMd it, when a Jesuit, rushing 
out of the college close to the bridge, 
let down the portcullis in haste, and 
with the aid of only three soldiers 
defended the post until the <ntizens 
and students or the university came up 
to support them. The Swedes were 
thus defeated in attempting to carry 
tlir Lzatt' by a roup-de-main, and no 
subsequent assauit ukct with better 
success, though they besieged and 
bombarded the gate for 14 weeks. 

At the 1^. enrl of the bridge is the 
^Earlsdenkmal, a monument to King 
Charles IV., modelled by H'abnel of 
Dresden, and cast in bronze by Burg^ 
schmiet of Nuremberg. It was ereeted 
by subscription in 1848, to commemo- 
rate the sooth anniversary of the 
fonndntion of the university. Innich'- 
ou Its sides are sitting figures of 

I four ftcolties^Theology, Philosor 

Digiti/oa by 

JuiisprudeDOe, aud Mediciiie ; aud at 
tlw angles, ipwtnii statm of ftrar of 
Charles's contemporaries, — the tiro 
first archbishops of Prague, Ernst von 
Pardubic, and Ocko '?on Wlaschjm, 
Benesch von Kolowrat, and Matthias 
of Arras, the architect of the fiathedral. 

dose to the Caiishrilcke ii the ^st 
pile of the Clementinum, or Boinan 
Catholic College (D. 3). It wns ori- 
ginally built by Fei'dinand ill., in 
1653, as a convent and seminary for 
Hie JeSQite. It now oontahn the 
Seminary for the education of between 
200 and 800 pupils, nnder the super- 
intendence of the Arciibishop, and the 
faculties of theology aud philosophy 
helooging to theunifmitir. ItS'ViBg- 
nificent halls, in the nek style of 
Italian architecture, serve loctiire 
rooms. It also includes a Library of 
100,000 volumes, particularly rich in 
Bohemian literature, and 3700 manu- 
scripts: amODgtiMm autograph theses 
|Did sermons of J<An Huss ; a Hussite 
liitur^y (Canzionale) most richly 
illuminated ; the paintings are illus- 
trations partly of the Bible, partly of 
the lift of Ram $ it iras exeevtea at 
I9ie cost of tiie §^lds of Prague. In 
one of its pages* occur 3 miniatures 
of Wickliffe striking the h^ht, Huss 
blow ing the flame, and Luther holding 
the biasing tor^ t here are Ziska's 
military orainances, Huss's autograph 
comments on the Book of Wisdom, 
and Tycho Br;ihe's on the (Jopernican 
8^'Stem ; bebiiit& various other collec- 
tions, and an observatorv, with Tycho 
BnheTB sextant. Hflthm the ^ronlt 
of the Clementinum are the churches 
of St. Clement and St. f^nlvator, two 
chapels, the residence of many pro- 
fessors, and several public offices. In 
l3ie courtyard is a stone statne of a 
volunteer, erected in 1864, in memory 
of the aid rendered by the students in 
the defence of the city against the 
Swedes in 1648. 

The SnspenfiMl Bridge (Kaiser 
Franzensbrilcke) was const meted 
(1839-1842) at a cost of 33,800?., 
by a company ; the centre rests on the 
Miltcen Island (CD, 4). Aion^ the 
hanky between the two hridges. 

dwt IV; 

extends the Franzensquaij and upon 
it wM ereetsd in 19$0 a hteoM eq^ea-^ 
trian statue, by Max, of the Stty. 
FraTicis I., beneath a Gothic atone 
canopy, designed by Kranner. ^The 
base is surrounded by allegorical 
figures representing tile 46mm of 
Bohemia. It has also a 'ibttnfatn' 
attached. This quay is a favotxrite 
walk of the inhabitants of PraAoe. 

Above the Sophien - Insel is the 
Palael^ MOfe, opened Sn* 18T8 
(D, »). " 

The Franz - Josefs - Briicke (1868) 
crosses the river opposite the Mudolf- 
invm jinlageny or BelTedere gpoands, 
prettily laid out and comrmandin^ fine 
views (E. 1). Between these tAvo 
bridges is auother, the Kettensteg, 
opened in 1869. 

At this E. end of the Ketlei»teg 
stands the Bndolfiiliim, a handsome 

Renaipsance building by Zlteik and 
Sehnh, oioncd in 1885. Tn the S. 
wing is a concert room, with a line 
organ by 8«mr of Prarimirt. Hie N. 
wing contains various Art collections, 
inchid^n^ the PlOTTTKE (JAIIERY of 
ihe l>ohemian Society for the en- 
couragement of the Fine Arts. Adm. 
11 to^ 8$ FiM. and Snn. fWte; Ttaes., 
Thnrs., Sat., 90 kr. The furthest room 
E. contains a collection of Engramngs, 
by Wenzel Hollar of Pragae, who died, 
in liondonin 1677. 


Attt taa Veer: Moonlight 


Brtiighel: Four small rooAd pic> 


Campagnola : Vir^ and Child 
with Sahits 

Cavaszola: Portrait, ^ 

Cn3rp : River Scene. 

Bierick Bouts : Entombment. 
' Elsheimer : Temple on a lake. 

Eyerdingsn : Scene in Norway. 

Qwrtgen mm 8Il Jtm: Adoration 
of Ihe Kings. 

Grenze ; Girl. *^ 

Hans Baldung Gxien: Martyrdom, 
of S. Dorothea. 

XUm: St, Lulie paintlngt the 

Digitized(by Google 

tMe 139.— iVd^.* VOm^ €hdikifff ; 


Virgin ; on -^ in^s, S. Jofan in the 
Caldroii nud atPatmos. 

Master of tlie Beatk of the Yirgin : 
•Ahlfrfieee with wings. 

XM«L9 FlinlMeller^ 

Patinir: Hermit. 

Bnbens : Sketch for the ExgmJomi 
from Edrn (Antwerp). 
. Snyders : Large Cock-fight. 

'•iMftS Oonetri of Oati. 

. Theodore of Prague: Virgin and 

Child, with Charles IV. and his son, 
SS. bigismiiud and Wenceslaus, and 
ibur patron baiuts ot Jboheniia (1375). 

. WoMPA DttUk Mtilat: Tvniig 

Lady (IC2»>— Old WomUL ' 

W«iBix : Gane. 

The OsTfebriicke leads to liie Khdn- 
BeUe (small side), at the foot of the 
BmdMMn. la IAm smftU sqmure or 
Ring is a *8tatne of Field Marshal 
Badetzky, erected in 185R (the yt*ar 
of bis death); it is raised on a shield 
by eight soldiers, and was cast by 
Bnfgmnitfl^ ^ Nuremberg, from 
100 bronse otsmmi tal^eu from the 
P'u dtnoTitese ; the principal figure 
^vas dcsifmed hy Emanuel Msx^ the 
soldiers by Joseph Max. 

The Kldnseite if the seat of the 
P a h a m ian magnalM, and contains 
some of their most splendid palaces. 
T!ie most hiter««tiiig amOBg tlitm is 
the ' 

Mm «f WiilliaMit, boUt in 

by Albert Duke of Friedland, 
the p'eiieralissimo of the Thirty Years* 
War, at the time when he was first 
dismissed the Imperial service. It 
Ins hem mtoved br his collateral 
deBceii4nit Count Waldstein. The 
only relics of the great Wallenstein 
are a bad portrait, and the favourite 
charger which bore him at Tjiitzen, 
! Stuffed. In ordel: to make room for 
hk reAteattf 100 houaet wm pur- 
I erased and pullad down. l}jre-vit- 
' ncsscs hare loft a surprising ncronur 
I of its splendour, and of the regal state 
maintuiiied by Wallenstein himself. 

The Palace of Count KoBtiti (open 
daily), in the MaltJeser Platz (C. 3), 
Mntaiaft a Jribrmrff of 6000 yoIs., 


including a MS. in the handwriting 
of Copernicus, upsetting the Ptole- 
maic system. The Ficture (raUery 
(oatalogue, 80 kr.) numbers 2Ui 
paintings. The bevt are a porCrall 
by Anthony More ; partraite by JBa«m* 
sfetti; a Rnbbi by F^^mhrandt : a 
portrait of General Spiiiola, hy liiilhus^ 
a forest scene by liuysdael j and St, 
Brano, by Vandyck, 

The ^Hradsohin (hrad, in Bohe- 
mian, means a castle), the palace of 
Bohemian kings and emperors /or cen- 
turies, is a 'Vaal and pRnalneiit pile, 
more impoi)ng tift its extant and 
position than fVom the beauty of its 
nrchitecture. TIk' present building 
was begun by Ferdinand I. in 1541. 
Mathias I. erected the western portion, 
and Maria Theresa completed it in 
1775. The greater |mrt of it, how- 
ever, dates from the reign of Ferdi- 
nand and that of his successor. It 
contains some tumiiy portraits, in- 
cluding those of Marfa Theresa and 
her SOB. The rooms cont^n some 
modem works of art and command 
fine views (open 1 1 to 1, fee 1 fl. each^ 
less in proj^ortiou for a party). 

The Burg, or Imperial Fabfie, was 

originally built by Charles IV. in 

1.^'):^. Of this njro are 3 picturesgne 
and Gothie-lookiug towers. 

The XiOflfgirngssaal, hnilt by Kiiy 
Ladidatis in 1522, is a fine Gothic 

ha!h unsupported hy pillars. This 
hall was nsed for tournaments, and m 
it the Bohemian nobles swear allegi* 
ance to Cbslr aorefelgn after us 

On the narrow terrace immediately 
under the palace walls two small stone 
obclibks mark the spot where the 
nobles Slawata and Jaroslaw ^o.n Mar- 
tSnlft, llie tiro tmpopnlar memhevtf 
of the Imperial government, with 
their erf-nture and secretary Fabricins, 
were lliiown out of tiie window of 
the council-cliamber (Landtag-Stube) 
hy tilo armed noMes and deputies, 
23ya Kay, 1618. They fell o& soft 
proTind inaditch, 80 ft. t>elow, nnd were 
picked up alive. The st<me8 bear the 

fiottle 13d. — Pictures; Palaces, 



Soute lZ%^Praffm : Cathedral; 


arms of the two nobles. *' This foolish 
exploit was the first act of violence in 
the great stni^le of Thirty Year^^, 
and the war whi(*h ended in 1648 with 
the uusucce.Hsftil siege of Prague was 
begun in 1618 ua tiie spots oi giouad 
•till marked o«t hy fheee obeUua."— 

On the terrace between the Ring 
and the Cathedral is an equestrian 
atatae of St. George, by Clussenberg, 
cast in 1373, bat the hone hat been 

The ♦CATHEDRAL of St. Veit sUnds 
within the enclosure of the Hradschin. 
It was commenced in IZ4A, in the 
Teign of John of Lnxemherg, by 
Matthias of AmUf and continued 
during the rei^^n of Charles IV. by 
the architect Peter Arler, of Gmiind 
in Swabia. The only parts completed 
wore the ehour and one of the towofs. 
This tower was S06 ft. high, but was 
reduced to its present height, 314 ft., 
in 1514, after a *rreat fire, by which 
the cathedral was much iojured. The 
view from the tower is uncommonly 
fine. The eathedf«I» thoo^ rich ia 
Gothic ornament, is deformed as an 
edifice by havinp: been left incomplete, 
and b\ the (1:iiiui^m> which it sutiered 
from Ilu&sitc ravages, aud from even 
more serions iigaries inffieted ia 
1757 during the S^en Years* War, 
by the bombardment of Fredoriclv the 
Great, when 215 balls passed through 
the roof alone, and in the end the 
church received more than 1500. It 
▼as afterwards partially rtpaiied by 
order of the Empress Maria Theresa. 
Notwithstanding the irreparable da- 
mage which it sustaincMi, it is a 
most interesting buildiug — a perfect 
museum of oonotities— and is nodeiw 
going slow compledon. 

Tho lofty nave (118 ft.) contains 
the ^Mausoleum, executed in white 
marble by Cvlin of Mecldin, and 
erected by Rudolph II. in 1589, as 
a monument to iiimself and other 
kings of Bohemia and princely persons 
who lie interred in the vault below it, 
amon^ whom are Kings VVenceslaus 
IV* (1419) and George Podiebrad 
1458); Einperon CharGi IV,(ia78X 

Ladislaus Po^mnus (1458), IMft* 
nand I. (1 5H4), MaximilUui 11. (1577), 
Kudolph II. (iei2); Archdncliess 
Maria Amelia (1804). The ^ tligic' 
u[)on it, and the earrings around, 
merit minute inspection. handsome 
iion faUiag oaelMes the tombw 
The first chapel OA the rt. iatfaat fC 

*St. 'WerLzel, pntron saint of Boheima. 
Its walls are inlaid with Bohemian 
amethysts, jaspers, and clirysopra&e, 
whi^ serve as bovdenfo a aenesef 
maadotbla anoient fresco-paintings, 
executed by order of the Emp. 
Charles IV., about the year 1347. 
Those in the lower row represent 
scenes from our Saviour's life, eifid- 
ently by the hand of an able early 
master: they aie ailtflhated to tfae 
artists Wurmser of Strasaburg and 
Theodorich of Prague, and are curious 
as specimens of the iiohemian school 
of paittting fai the I4th eenty. ; they 
have, however, faded so much aa tobe 
scarcely distinguishable. The upper 
paintings, representing the ie^^end of 
St Wenzel (Wenceslaus), are of later 
date (1500), and by an infexior iMsd. 
The mndnaef the s^nt aie inleifcd 
in this gorgeously decorated sanctuary. 
Here are preserved his armour and 
s%vord. His statue, standin;^ under 
a shrine, said to have been cast from 
ihe first cannon taken fnm John 
Ziska, and executed hy Peter Vischer 
of Nuremberg, in 1532. The brass 
rinpr on the door is looked on with 
gi eat veneration, as it is asserted that 
the saint cluns fast to it when he was 
mafdered hy his brother BoleslaT 
986, ill the ch. of Alt-Bunzlau ; & 
scene represented by the picture, dated 
1543, aud attributed \o Cranach. The 
fine serpentine font in this chapel 
deeenres notioe^ 

The Martinits Chapel, adjoining the 
latter, contains the tomb of JaroslaW 
von Martinitz (see above), and a hand* 
some altar of white marble by Aeht^ 
flMNNiof Bome (1884). Intheehapel 
of SS. Simon and Jude hangs a re« 
mrtrkable head of Christ, which the 
Kmp. Charles IV. brought from Italy J 
it wab copied h um an original in the 

I Vatlflaa, 1^ Thomas of Mntina, ia 

Digiti/ea by ^^j. ■ ^ 

Bohemia. ' Boute 139. — Guijpela; Sehakikammer^ 


1S68« On the frame are the six patron 
saints of Boheiiiia» original works .liy 
tkc iumd* 

Over the S. door is the Soyal 
CMtmy, with good stooe Tanltiiig of 
1498. Neorly opposite is a carious 

representation in wood of the de- 
vastation of the church by Prot^tants. 
Beyond in the choir is the chapel and 
sMso of flt. JskA Vsipsmk, one of tho 
richest in the wodd; a eostly accumu- 
lation of ornaments in solid silver^ 
executed in 1736, and utterly valueless 
as a work of art. The entire weight 
of silTor expended on the shrine is 
flsld to amoiiiit to 87 ewt» 

Tn the Sternberg^ chapel is the tomb 
of King Ottokar, who was kiUt^d in 
battle, fighting against Kudolph of 
Hai^sliarg. On tlie door of the chapel 
railing is hung up one of the cannon- 
balls which fell into the church diirin ir 
the bombardment b^ Frederick the 

The Mmity Cliafsl contains a can- 
dolabrum, the foot of which is said 
to have come from Solomon's Temple, 
aiid to have been brought to Prague 
from MiUin by King wladislaw in 
1169. The fool waa inobolily made 
la tbe 1 1th centy. ; the upper part 
-was executed for Leopold, Bitikop of 
Brtslau, and is dated 1641, 

Opposite, at the back of tlie high 

altar, is the tomb of 8t» Tttns, patron 
Saint of the church, with a slatae by 
Job, Max* 

The Chapel of St. John Bantist has 
a glazed rdief of SleranoB upon 
the GfOH^ oanred m wood, on the 1* 

The Chapel of St. Anna has frescoes 
by Sioerts, and statues by Schimek. 
Opposite, on the walls of the efaoir 
aro two wooden reliefs, representing 
Fragile before 1G20, and the flight of 
Kiu^^ Frederick after his defeat at 
White Hill. 

Orer the N.W. door is a fresoo of 
the Adaratkm of the Cross, intro- 
dttoing portraits of Ferd. II. and III., 

and the two wives of the btter* It 
dates from 1562, Imt WIS entirdy re« 
painted in 1631* 

The Schatzkammer of the Dom 
eontahM the original plan upon which 
the di« was intended to have been 

built, a quantity of church -plate, 
several illuminated service-books, a 
collection of priests' vestments, and 
fine ezainples of embroidery ; one of 
them was worked by Maria Theresa, 
another is made out of her bridal 
dress, a third out of the bridal dress 
of a Countess Czernin. The most 
remarkable is a linen robe, embroidered 
with flowers and figures by the himds 
of the Bohemia Queen Anne in the 
14th centy., the last scion of the royal 
line of Przemysl. Here are also a 
number of religious relics used at the 
coronation of the Bohemian kings. 
To see thesA, a special request must 
be made to one 01 the caaotts of ^e 


The crown, sceptre, and globe, 
Ibnning the Bohemian regalia, are 
kept in the crown room above St 
Wenzel's ciuipol, but csii onty" be seon 
by special permission. 

On the outside wall of this chape 
is a mosaic representing Christ in 
glory, sorronnded by ancels, with the 
six patron saints of Bcmemia below, 
and the Emp. Charles IV. and his 
wife, who caused it to be made in 
137 i by Greek artists. At the sides 
is the lisst Judgment; it is Ueached 
by the weather, and was restored in 
1837. It is only curious as a specimen 
of early art, and as perhaps the only 
specimen of mosaic used as an exterior 
decoration to be found N. of the 

To the E. of the cathedral is the 
Church of St. George, with brick 
towers, the oldest buildmg in the 
Hradschin, having been founded about 
920, by Wradislaw I. The abbess of 
the adjoinmg convent was endowed 
by Charles IV. with the right, which 
existed up to 1782, of pfacino: the 
crown on the head of the Queen at the 
ooronation. ▲ baloony to the rfe.» 
entered firom the circular povtlco 
(30 kr,), commands a striking *view* 

Digitized by Google 

Opposite the ex^n^ve Csemin i 
palace (A. 2% now the Fram»^oi&ph i 
Sdrroc^, and adjoining the Capuchin 1 
monadery, is the Loreto Chapel, an i 
exact copy, within and without, of 1 
the famous wandering house of Loreto. i 
The sculpture and m»rbU ifodk of 
the exterior of the real chap^ ve i 
earefblly modelled, by Agosto, in < 
plaster-of-Paris, apparently from casts ; i 
and tlie interior, even to the black 1 
deity of this extraordinary shrine, is i 
exactly imitete^ The inamury (6 
perBone admitted at a time, 20 kr. < 
each) contains the embroidered gar- 
ments of the image, aud a good deal 
of church-plate, among which is a 
nonitra^ mm to ' oonlale .,6,666 • 

JTiMfc within tlw SnehtOuir (A. 3) U 

^Monastery of Strahow, an estab- 
lishment of Canons lie^ular of the 
PremonBtratensian order, better kiiowB 
as "White Canons," from the colour 
of their habit. It was founded by 
Duke Wladislaw II., and completed 
ia its present state by the Italian 
erchitecte Chitne^U and Oudoni, 
late in the 17th cent. [Visitora are 
admitted in the morning, but the cus- 
todian is very irregular in his atten- 
dance. To prevent disappointment, 
trayellers are strongly recommended 
to write befordumd to the Saperior.] 
Theliihrary (open from 8 to II a.m. 
only), is lined with polished walnut- 
wood, and richly ornamented with 

g'lding (1794). Its coutenta amount 
70,000 Tola.* and 1000 M88. ftom 
the 11th to the 15th cent. One of its 
curiosities is the autograph of Tycho 
Brahe. Here is preserved a portrait 
of Ziska, the blind leader of the Huss- 
ites. ** Although it has been cruelly 
retonchedf the muaeulef ftatufSf^ miSl 
the gigantic hand with which, he 
grasps the spiked mace, probably pre- 
serve some likeness to the perbon of 
the Bohemian Samsou." — Jieeve. The 
VIotiiie Oalleiy, founded in 1837, 
contains an ♦Adoration of the Virpn 
and ChilJ, by Albert Diirer, the wor- 
shippers consisting of 20 or 3ii figures ; 
with portraits of Uie J£mp. jyiaximilian 
a Pope, 8e¥eral biabofeandpiinQei, 

and the painter hiamlf ; m eorl^ nd 
intereating work, painted at Vmueiti 
1506, but much injured .by roBtorations 
in 1840. The mineral cabinet, foundc'd 
by Zeidler in 1870, is worth ioapeci- 

The ehmih oentaine thio tomfan of 

St. Norbert, founder of the oitev wd 

of King Wladislaw I. ; also a monu- 
ment (1861) to Count Pappeuheim, 
the Imperial general, killed at liiitieB 
in 1632, 

The windows of the npner lioer 
comnuuad one of tho faesl r f m a n «f 


The Belvedere, E. of the KaisGt- 
garten (C. l),an Italian pavilion bailt 
by Soifk Ferdinand I., 1536, for hit 

empress Anne, is adorned with frescoes 
illustrating the history of Boliemia, 
and commands a very fine view. It 
is erroneously called the Observatory 
of Tyeho Brahe : that enlnenft aatn^ 
nomer, when invited by the Emp. 
Rudolph II., one of the most distin- 
guished patrons of art and science in 
Europe, to settle in Prague, rested 
in a how Mur the Loieto nlnye^ 
now no longer remaining. 

10 min. walk beyond the Sandthor, 
to the N., is the Baomgarten, on the 
1. bank of the Moldau, much resorted 
to in summer, and especially on Snnday 

E. of the Belvedere is the FoBw- 
garien, and beyond it, on charming 
slopes al)ove the river, the "^Belvedere 

The Keustadt, built by the Emp^ 
Charles IV. in 1.348, entirely encom« 
passes the old town on the laud si«ie; 
It was originally separated Xrom it by 
walls, and by a ditch now filled up, 
and ezistiug only in the name of the 
ateeet eiUed the iWbn, in whiohthe 
handmmeat shope are li t uat ed. 

The Bohemian Museum (EL 3) is 
open fVee en 'Diei, ffid Md., 9 te I. 
It containe vaiiane aatiqaiHes, {band 

principally near Pi*ague. Among them 
is a bronze idol, a specimen of one of 
the deiticis of the paffaa Slavs, repre* 
.Mating a taale hMdiag ease of ooin; 

Digiti^ioa by Coo 

llli^^Qmia, Bmte 139. — L^urff^ flUUtary Hoepitah 

a copper-plate, with a similar effigy ; 
bangles or bracelets, and sickles, of 
bronze — all dug ap in the country. 
AIs9 ^pui relios of tbfi iiiiddle ages : a 
^radfi^ m the ttyle of Byzantine art ; 
a spoon, such as was used to administer 
the Sncrnment, in both kind*^. to the 
Utraquistb; arms of the Hussites, 
inclnding a formidable weapon used 
by ZiskarB ttoo^, in the shape of a 
flail, bound with, iro^ .and bristling 
with spikes; a sword of Gustavus 
Adolphus ; sword with which the Pro- 
teblaut nobles were beheaded alter ^'aq 

liatae #f tlie Whit^ HUl m 1631, 

The Library is well provided with 
works Oil natural history, and is also 
rich in collections relating to Bohe- 
tBiaa liistory, and la books in . the 
Bohemian tongue. The earliest book 
printed in Bohemia — a History of 
Troy, Pilsen, 1468; printed l^ible 
14fc>0; 9th-:cent. Slavonic poem on 
parchment ; Missal, of 1360 ; decorated 
with exquinte mmiatmes. There are 
many editions of the Bible in the 
Bohemian laDgnapre : indeed, the Bohe- 
mians possesseil n<» less than 7 trans- 
lations of the iScriptures previous to 
the Mblieatioii ct Lathera Geniiaa 
transhtioik But Uie gieatest curio- 
sities are the autograph challenge 
affixed to the gate of the University 
of Pragae by John Huss, otierin^ to 
dispute with all comers on the articles 
.of liis belief; an autograph lekter ef 
Ziika; aadMSS. of TyehoBfahe, 1599. 

The Natural Histoxy collection is 
abnofit entirely devoted to the pro- 
daettoiiB of Boheniat whieh mkea H 
the mofo interesting to travellers. In 
the zoology of the country it is yeiy 

The fossils are very nuoierous, and 
inelnde the collections made b^ Count 
Caspar Sternberg, deeeetbed by 
him in the * Flora der Vorwelt/ The 

gigantic ferns, impressions of plants, 
;c., brought from Durovain, tlie circle 
of Pilsen, and IVom the great Bohemam 
eoalfieUl of Swina, N.W. of Peagne, 
are eoKlmiely beautiful and perfect. 
The rt'iiiains of a mastodon were found 
pn thfi Laurei^iberg^ the skull of a 

hippopotamus was also dug up near 
Prague. There is an extensive series 
of meteoric stones which have fallen 
in Beheaiiai vhere such occurrences 
seem frequent. 4- separate building 
has been erected at toe back of the 
premises to contain the geof^t^Ufol 
section, wl^ich is rich in dossils. 

The WeoMUhHats, at right angles 
to the Graben, is a fine wide street 
asoendiug sli^rhtly to the S.E., nnd 
bounded at its upper end by thr larjje 
and^ handsome Bohemian Ifational 
XnieniB. Gloie to it is tiie Sinr Oer* 
man neMm» Stretehing NJi. from 
this building, on tho site of the old 
walls, is the Stadt f arkt a delightful 
Public Garden. 

At the E. end of the Ferdinand 
Strasse, opposite the choroh of Maria 
Schned' (SL 3), is a moniunent to Joseph 
Jungmana (1847). At the W. end of 
th*;^ same street, near the bridge, is the 
iai>lelui Eohemian Theatre, a Benais- 
saace building bj Zitek, ereoted 
national labaer^tion. 

The Eathhaus, iu the Karlsplatz 
(£. 4), was tjie scene (3uth J uue, Hid) 
of a tisiilfir «et of violeaee %a that 
which took plaoe in the old town : linr 
when the insurgent Hussites, in 141 S, 
under Ziska, on their first rising, were 
marching through the city in armed 
array, a stone was thrown at them 
tnm tfahl buiUing; wkieh so enngpBd 
them that they burst into the oomeU 
chamber, and, seizing 13 German 
councillors, threw them out of the 
window. The building was so coiu.- 
pletely altered by repure made in 
that a corner tower of 1570 ie 
the only aneient part Kemat«ing» 

In the same square stands the HiU- 
tary Hospital, a magnificent and exr* 
teasive e&ice, with a facade 208 yds. 
long, erected by the Jesuits as a col- 
lege, and converted to its pr<'sent use 
after the suppression of the ovdvv. On 
the W. side is tUe new lechnical 
Sohool, and on the & eevfiial Hospital 
and Asylums. 

N. of the G^Tstengnsse (E. 5) is St. 
Ste|theA 6 Churoh, a Gothio beilding 

Digitized by 

250 Bmie Prague: OhmAei; Sytiagogu^; IY» 

of 1.367, with pulpit, font, and seYeral I 
moQumeuts worth notice. 

The Benedictine 01»ix^ of SmM 

(D. 5), of similar date, recently re- 
stored, contains some interesting tres- 
coes of a pilgrimage in the time of its 
founder Charles IV. In this monas- 
tery was formerly the Book of Qospels 
on whieh tlw French kings took tile 
o«tli» now preserred at lUms, 

The Karlshoi, uiitside tlie plan (£. 5), 
was tSm ftmoded by Chanee IV. in 
memory of Charlemagne. The church, 
almost entirely mined by the Hussites 
and again in the Thirty Years' War, 
retains only its 14th-cent. dome, a 
marrei of boldness and ingenuity, and 
a small quantity of pcdnted glass in 
the K windows. 

The citadel of the Wyschehrad at 
the S. extremity of the town, and on 
the 1 1, bank of the Moldau, commands 
a fine Tiew. The lbftillcations» con* 
stnicted Cliarles IV., were nearly 
destroyed m the Hussite wars of 1420, 
and the present works date from 1848. 
Within the enclosure are the churches 
af 8S. JPeter and JRcmI, ftnnded in 
1080, with some curions paintinp and 
toml^, and S. Martin, a still earlier 
building — both moch modernised. 

The Jews' quarter, or Josephatadtt 
«tnated upon the low banks of the 
Moldau, cCmo to the rirer, is a laby- 
rinth of nrirrow dirty street*; nnd low 
houses, swuruiiiiL^ m iih population lilvc 
an aiii-hiii. TradiUuu declares this 
eolony to have existed b^ore the de- 
struction of Jerusalem, and there is 
little doubt that it is one of the oldest 
Hebrew settlemeuts in Europe. Tn 
1290 the Jews were almost exter- 
minated by the £matioism of the 
ignorant populace, stirred up by 
rumours of their having insulted the 
Ho'^t — n prevalent accusation — which 
caused :iliuost universal massacre 
of liieui ihioughout Germany. 

The Jews or Pra^ have piesemd 
more strictly than in most other parts 

of Europe their aneient manners and 
customs. 'I'iiey have even retained 
thmr own institutions* Besides syna- 

gogues J^nd schools, they have magis- 
trates and a town*hall, in which they 
manage the affidrs of the conmnBity ; 
and these privileges have been oon- 
firmed by the 1 a ter Austrian aoTOTeiflii^ 
especially by Joseph II« 

*The Old JtmUk Bnial-groimi 
(Alter Friedhof% open daily mm 8 

to 5, 50 kr., is a vast enclosure in the 
middle of the Jewish city, piled up 
with the dead of centuries, and 
crammed with giavestones, the olde&t 
^tinf from A.i>. 606. It has not beat 
need fbr neirly a century. One of 
the most respected is that of FJa! l i 
Abiguor K;iro (1439): pilgrimages 
are even now made to it by the Jews 
from distant lands. Rabbi Lowi's 
tomb bears date 1609. The monu- 
ments are generally slabs of rough 
sandstone, covered with Hebrew cha- 
racters deeply cut in ; those of th« 
Rabbins, or or the more w^lthy, are 
boilt in tiie Ibrm of houses, with sloping 
roofs. Many bear the symbols of the 
tribes to which the dead belonged — 
thus, a pitcher marks Levi, the two 
hands the descendants of Aaron . Upon 
Ae top of them, and on etery project- 
ing ledge, little heaps of stones are 
piled. These have been placed there 
by the friends of the dead in their visits 
to the graves — a practice which is con- 
sidered even now a token of respect to 
aneeslors whom the Hving know onl^ 
by name; 

The *01d Synagogue f Altneuschule) 
is a small but remari^abie buildup 
pt«ibably ereeted after the fire in ifii 
Jews' quarter, in U16, on the site 

of an earlier edifice. The women sit 
in a gallery running along the N. side, 
with narrow round-headed openings, 
through which they can see without 
being seen. The My books of tte 
Law occnpy the place where the 
altar stands in a ch. ; they are enclosed 
in a fire-proof cabinet of iiiut;il, and 
consist of double rolls of parchment. 
The robes and brsast|iiaSN ui tfas 
priests, and the hangings ftr thii 
enbinet, emhroiflered -with pomegra* 
nates, am! )iimil': with belis, arecurioiig, 
though very dingy in appearauce. 

Digiti/oa by G(.)0 

The jfiag stretched across the roof was 
Drescmted to the Jewi ibr their bravery 
dofiag the nege m 1648* 

The Carol inenthal, or N.E. suburb, 
over which the rly. passes oo a long 
viaduct on approaching the stat (F. 2), 
basA large modem G^miio church, and 
agreeable Public GardcTis. S.W. of 
the town, o^i the 1. bnnk of the Moldau, 
is the bubui b of Smichow, with a fine 
church dedicated to St. Wenzdy in the 
eiriy Benaiagance style (1885). On 
thelielghts to tbe W.of it is the Villa 
Xinsky (Adm. on Mon,, Wed., and 
Fri.), commanding a sole n< lid Yiew 
(B. 4). S.G. of the church is the 
Botajuo Chufdan* 

The ♦Sophion-Insel, (D. 4) which is 
most frequented by the higher classes, 
has a very handsome bathing establish* 
ment, with a ball-room and pleasant 
gardena. In the MilltBiB-Iiiaal a eLub 
of marksnifln bold thair aieetiagR; 

Environs. — The Ziskaberg, ^ m. 
outside the New Town, to the E., com- 
mands a goodviev. Itraadveaitsname 
from John iiSkt (at Zi^u^ as the name 

is usually though improperly written), 
of Trocznow (pron. Trotsnof), the blind 
chieftain of the Hussites, who led out 
a host of followers firom the city, and 
eoQeeted othera from yarious parts of 
Hnngary, on this spot, to oppose the 
Emp. Sigismund, the betrayer of 
Huss, who had been Inirned at Con- 
slancet in vioiutiun of the Imperial 
lalbHMmdnot. Ziska Intrenehea his 
amy within fortifications of bis own 
contriving, and at length, descending 
from behind his rrtmparts, defeated the 
emperor in a pitciied battle under the 
walls of Prague, 1420. Ziska was of 
noble birth* and for seyeral years the 
chamberlain and favourite of Wen- 
eeslaus IV. lie had lost one eye in 
his youth, and was deprived of the 
Other by a spimter from a tree struck 
by a cannon-ball at the uege of the 
j Castle of Raby in 1421 ; but he con- 
I tinned, though totally blind, to com- 
* mand the Hussite army with his 
wonted skill and success until his 
death In 1424. 

The village of Sterhokol, a m. £., 
is the scene of the BaUla of Prague, 
0uned»6th May, 1757, by Frederick the 
Great in the Seven Years' War, in 
which his favourite freneral Schwerin 
fell. The stone monument was erected 
to his memory in 1824, the bronze 
one in 18S9. 

The valley of Soharka, a tributary 
riviib't running into the Moldau, near 
the \illage of Podbaba, is a retired 
glen, presenting samples of the most 
romantie sesneiy. It lies beyond the 
Baumgartenf outside the Sandthor 
(C. 1). The mu'tp Jim on the road 
to Saxony was mentioned above, on 
entering Prague. 

Bohemian Glass. — This very beauti- 
ful ninnnfacture is produceo in the 
forests oil the slopes of the Bohmer- 
wald hills, in the S.W. of Bohemia. 
There are 75 glasa-hooses, and 22 
grinding and polishing mills, em- 
pIoyinjT {WM^ famili(^s, in the whole of 
; Imt the iiidn^lry is chiefly 
situated at Liebenau, Adolphshiitte, 

Gabions, SUberberg, GeorgentbaI» 

and Defereck. Tlie glass is polished 

chiefly at I^eitnieritz. 

Music. — The military bands, which 
may be heard in public places, espe- 
cially of an afternoon, in the Sophien' 
and iSdUtoff-JiMef, are admiraUe. 
The Bohemian music has a very plaint- 
ive and peculiar character, differing 
front all ita copnates in Polish as well 
as iiussiau meiudy. 

Chrondogical Table of RemarkahU 
Evenit v^A haw ooemntA at Prague. 

1348, The Emp. Charles IV. founds 
here the first naiTernty in Germany. 
1419. Hnssite insorreetion nnder 


1420* Emp. Sigismund de&ated by 

1438. The conn^ of Basel concedes 
the use of the sacrament cup to the 


1611. Rudolph II. besieged in his 
palace by the Bohemians ; is compelled 
to abdicate in fiivour of his brother 


D i y i li eil U by Google 


1618. liartfnHf and SIvimta thrown 
out of the windows of the Hradscbin 

hy the Protestants — signal for the com- 
mencemeut of the Thirty Years' War. 

1620. The Protestants defeated on 
tlM White Hin by the Imperialists 
imfler Maximilian of Bavaria and 
Buquoi; Frederick V. driT«n from 
the throne of Bohemia. 

1631. Prague taken by the Elector 
of Saxony, John George. 

1688. Betaken by Wanenalein. 

1648. Prague taken and plundered 
by the Swedes, who, however, obtained 
possession only of the Kleinseite. 

1741. Pr^ue occupied by the 
French and Bavariang under IfiBrslial 

1741-2. Prague besieged, or rather 
blockaded, by Prince Charles of 
Lorraine, with an army of 70,000 men. 
Yet, notwithstanding this formidable 
Ibfce, Marshal Bn^o elfbeled hla 
escape ; and, at a later period of the 
blockade, Belleisle, at the head of 15,000 
men, forced the Austrian lines, and 
made a masterly retreat to Eger. The 
remainder of the garrison under Che- 
vert capitnlatedtnmrched out with the 
honours of war, and joined the French 
army at Eger. 

1744. Prague taken, after a short re- 
sistance^ by Ij'rederick the Great. 

17S7. The Anstrians under diatles 
of Lorraine defeated by Frederick the 
Great, who besieged Prague, where 
the Prince had taken refuge. Daun 
hastened to the Prince's relief, and 
defeated Frederick at Kolin, in con- 
sequence of which the Prussians irere 
obuged to raise the siegeand evaeoate 

1866. Prague occupied by the Prus- 

•1866 (August 23). The Treaty be- 
tween Austria and Prussia was signed 
at Prague, which ceded to the latter 
power the protectorate over the Ger- 
man Federation. 

On leaving Prague by tbe filaafs- 

hahnhoff the rly. runs at the foot of the 
Ziskaberg, with the Carolinenthal on 
the 1. At Auwal the valley is crossed 
by a lofty viaduct. 
Bflbmisek-Brod. The Hussite in- 

Sect. IV. 

surrection was pot down by a ^^elory 

gained in 1434 over those savage 
fanatics by Meinhard of Neuhaus at 
Lippau, between this and Podiebrad. 
Procopius the Greater and the Less 
both fnL heve« 

The riy. beyond tins approaches the 
valley of the Elbe, which river it 
joins before reaching Kolin. To the 
rt.,near Elbe-TeinitZytLre several quar- 
ries. To the 1. of Fardubitz rise the 
ridnsof JTufisMte. 

Beyond this the rly. leaTW the 
valley of the Elbe, and enters that of 
the Lauckabach. By a tunnel of 200 
yds. the line enters the valley of the 
Adler, a fteder of the Elbe* near 
Ohotsen. The winding sd*eam is 
followed to Brandeis, with a ruined 
castle, formerly a Moravian settle- 

Wildensohwert is a thriving town 
with two rly. stalionB, nearly a mile 


Zwittau (4000), an old walled town 
and bisliop's see, has considerable 
manufactures of cloth and linen. From 
this to Brium the riy. runs down the 
valley of the ZwHta,passmg LelirvttL 
a picturesque town, with castle and 
abbey church. The extensive ruins 
on the 1., beyond Skalits, are those of 

BbuulMfw; On the summit of a 
limestone rock, between this stat. and 
Wranau, stands the castle of Nowihrad, 
the finest feudal ruin in Moravia. 
Several small tunnels. 

Adamsthal. In the vicinity of this 
village is a chfttean of the £iediten- 
steins, and some caverns of great 
extent. 6 short tunnels. 

Beyond Briinn the rly. crosses the 
Schuoarzateaf and at £anitz-£ibea- 
s^ti traverses a viadnct over ^ 
Iglawa-Thal. At Xromau is a parlL 
and chateau. From Grussbach a rly. 
runs W. to Znaim. The Thaya is 
crossed before reaching Laa, a small 
town with walls. 

On the approach to Vienna, the 
Danube is crossed by a long bridge 
and viaduct, the Prater is intersected, 
and the train passes over two canals 
to reach the ^tcuUsbahnho/f near the 
Arsenal (G, f.}. 

Digiti<ioa by Cookie 

Bauie 13d, — Bohmiach-Brod — Adamthal. 

Bouie 14:3,— 'Prague to Tumau. 


BOUTB 140. 

raCER TO GB0fl8-BE0rAB. 

Miles. Stations. Eoutes. 

Peook • ... 139 

5 Planan 
8 BoscMtz 1 
2 Xaurim I 
15 OroBf-Beovar 

S.— The Kanrim branoh strikes off 
to the W. 

BOUTE 141. 


aUIaii Stations. 

9 Nimburg 
19 Xrinec 

. . 139 
. 137, 162 

10 XMgitadl} 

27 Eopidino • . . 146 
88 Jitiefain ... 135 

N.W. — The Elbe is crosbed just 
before reaching Nmburgt where the 
Hue to Jungbanzlau is followed N.E. 
for a short distance. At Krineo, the 
Konigstadl branch runs a little S. of £. 

ROUTE 142. 


Miles. Stations. Routes. 

Brttan m» 128, 129, 139 
9 Strelitz . „ . 189 

14 Eossitz-Pendorf 

15 Segen-Oottes 
82 Stndenetz \ 

8 Gross-Meseritschj 
40 TkehltwflL 

48 OkriMihko ... 187 

W.-— Eossitz, on the Ohrmm, has a 
cbftteau of Baron Hirsch. At fiegen- 
Oottes aieeztensiyeoeal-mines. From 
Stndenetz the hranch line turns N.W, 
Trebitsch (1330 ft.) on the Iglawa, 
with 8100 inhab., has an interestin*^ 
*abl>ey church of the 13th cent., of 
hadlioa fi>nii, "with a fine Romanesq^ue 
doorway, and a crypt below the choir. 

BOUT£ 143. 


Miles. Btatfoiuu Routes. 

Pragne (Pr.los.) . 160 
4 Vysocan . . . 162 
22 Keratowitz \ 

U Eralup/. 139,152 
25 Vsetat-Ptivor . 137 
46 Jtmgbniudaii . . 187 
52 Bakov . . • 146 
56 Miinclieiigratz 
65 Turnau ... 136 

N.E.— The Elbe is crossed to 
Ncratowitz, whcuec tho Kraltip branch 
runs W. ear Miiachengratz (3 700 ), 
Prince Fred. Charles of Prussia de- 
feated the Anstrians in 1866. In a 
chapel of the Schloss is the mTe of 

bd? itized by Google 


SoiUe liiir^Bodenhacli to Wamadorf. SMt IV. 

BOUTE 144, 

IfllM. Stations. Routes. 
Boflenbach 13»»146,149 
2 Tetsollea . • • 13J 
6 Beusen • . • l'^^ 
16 Kanmiti 

S , 

25 Taanenberg . . 14G 
82 Kreibitz Neudftrf • 146 
86 Niedergrund 
88 WaniBdorf M.O' 8^ 

N.E.— The Elbe is crossed to 
Tetfolieii, and the line runs a little 
S. of E. as far as Beusen. From Kam- 
nitz a brauch strikes N.W. to ttoim- 
idiflBiA. Hcnoe the rly. follows a 
very tortuous course to Wanisdori^ on 
the frontier of Saxony. 

EOUT£ 146. 



SUUons. Routefc 

6 Bnmbnxg 

12 Xreibitz • • • 

13 ITixdorf 
18 Tannenberg . . 
23 Ebhrsdorf \ 

84 Bolimiscli-Leipft) 
12 Niemet ^ J 
44 Kirschberg 
60 Bosig 
62 Bakoy . • • 
88 Eopidiiio • • 





ROUTE 145. 

S."EJ. — Tlic line runs a little W. of 
S. as far as fiumburg, where the 
Niidorf bnmeh ^yerges N.W^ and 
muntaios tbe sam direction until 
after quitting Kreibiti. From SShre- 
dorf a branch strikes E. to Zwichau, 
and from Bohmifloh-Leipa another in 
tlie same direction tO NUmm* Pretty 
scenery near^mndibWf (2150). On a 
rock abovie BQtoSg » a pietuMqne 



. 146 


8 Btravsralti 

18 Bensen . . • • 144 

18 Tetschen 144, N.o. 88 

80 BOSZHBAOHl39,144,149 

W.— BnuBiicli- Letya (9100) is an 
old town on the Polsen, with import- 
ant manufactories. To the W. rises 
the Kahlenberg, a hill laid out in pretty 
walks, whicli command pleasing views. 
8 nu N. stsnds flie Spimtrg (1460 It.), 
sannoanted by a belvedere. 

BOUTB 147. 







Aussig . . 

17 Bilm 


18 lepUts 

197, 189 

.} ^« 


Digitizoa by Guv. 

Boute 117.— TurmiU — TepUiz. 


Miles. SUttoMi Kout^t). 
18 Dux . . . . 15G 
28 Brilz .... 154 

18 FotBoherad .} 

38 Udwitz-GiJrkaTi 

42 "KoxaxAiradyioo, 151, 

N.U. lid 

fi^W.^BerHii to (Msbtd. 

On quitting Aussig the rly. tarns 
ftiray from the Elbe, through 

Turmitz, where are brown-coal 
miues. Here the riy. to Bilin con- 
tinaes S.W., while our I'me turns W. to 
SchdnMd, on the ii?er Biela, and 
Xarbiti, a manu&cturing town. 

Maria-Schein, with a red-tiled 
convent and pilgrimage church, 
rebuilt by the Jesuits in 1706. The 
paaofamafim tiie wamoAt is extens- 
ive and Yeiy flne. Hills and monn- 
tains rise on all sides like waves, 
on tlie li. appear the I>nsntinn hills, 
and those which bound the vale 
of the Elbe; on the W. range 
the Brsgebirge ; and to the 8., across 
the vale, rises the bold pyramidal 
Tolcanic group of ^ JCilesehanr 

(2740 ft). 

Passing under the height of the 
JfiMoit&er^, the tram leaehea 

TEPIITZ (7-25 ft.), Bohemian Tcp- 
lice, with a permanent pop. of 17,000, 
renowned for its baths, is pleasantly 
situated on the Saubach (pig's 
rivulet), in a valley between the 
Bn^bnge and Hittelgebiige. The 
piineipal building ia the 

6chlo8»f or Palace of Prince Clary 
(Aldrtnger), a Boliemian nobleman to 
wiiom a great part of Teplitz belongs, 

as well as 70 villages besides, situated 
on his estates ni the surround inc: 
country. The Schlossgarten, situated 
hdiind the ch&teau, is the principal 
plaoe of resort. It abounds in tall 
groves of forest-trees and long alleys, 
which afford a cool shade in tbe height 
of sn miner, and are varied with lawns 
and line sheets of water. Within their 

eiremt lies tiie ^mOm, attached to one 
wing of the palac^andthe €kuien$aal, 
a handsome building, serving the dif- 

ferent purposes of reading* dining, and 

On the ^Koniffshahe ^820 ft.) is a 
manwmmt to Fnderiiit Wm. IH,, 
King of Pruma^ who visited Tepliti 
regularly for many years. 

Heyond it rises a hill crowned \\ ith 
a strange kind of imitation castle, 
ealM tb» fehlaekenbnrf, with a 
prospeet4ower commanding a wide 

The hot-springs of Teplitz, 11 in 
number, rise out of the sienitic por- 
phyry composing the masa of the Erz- 
gebirge (Ors Mountains), within a 
space of about a mile and a half. 
1'hi y sre almost exdnsively used for 

The principal and warmest sprinjg;, 
UrqueHe (ISO^ Ftiir.), rises in the 

town, under the Stadtbad: it sup- 
plies the Sophieniiad, the FUrBtenhad 
(Prince's Bath) and the Kaiwrnimd, 
In the neighbouring suburb of /ScA(^u, 
also composed almost exclusively of 
lodging- iMHises, are the BMmad, 
SchtangetiMdt and Neuhad, supplied 
by springs of theur own (90° to liO^ 

The water, though it appears green 
in the bath, is perlbetlj coloniless, 

and, if protected from the atmosjdiere, 
remains for days without leaving any 
deposit. It contains carbonate of soda 
aud carbonate of iron, and it has ^eat 
virtue in restoring persons sflicted 
with gout, rheomansm, sdff Joints, or 
crippled limbs, which to a certain 
extent it probably owes to its hip^h 
temperature. During the earthquaite 
at Lisbon, in 1755, the waters of 
Teplits eessed to flow Ibra short time, 
and afterwards returned Uood-ied in 

Teplitz is one of the most fashion- 
able watering-places of Germany 
frequented not only by the nobility of 
Prusria, Rusna, and Austria, but by 
the Sovereigns of those countries, and 
by members of the Royal and Imperial 
families in Europe. The late Kiug of 
Prussia repaired thither regularly 
during the season, and gave unpert^ 
anee to the place by his visits. V 
seveml ooeasions Teplits has beeir 

Digiti/oa by Guv.( 


Bouie 147. — T^Uz—Eomoiau, Sect. IV. 

scene of A diplomatic congress. Sach 
a one was^tid in 1813, and again in 
1835. The mouths of July and August 
may be regarded as the seasou, and 
the annual number of visitors exceeds 

Between Teplitz and Schonau is 
the Austrian MfSUUary BtUh^hoim for 
invalid soldiers. 

There is a large colony of Jews 
here, who are settled in a qoiuler by 
themselves, in a back street, the empo- 
rium of rags and old clothes. 

The scenery around Teplitz is pleas- 
ing without auv features of beauty 
sufficient to render it very striking. 

The Seimni-Fark is a memoriad of 
the poet J. 6. Seume (1810). From 
it may be ascended the Monte de 
Ligne (670 ft.), whence there is a fine 
pauorama of the town and neighbour* 

The Schlossberg, f hr. E. of Schonau, 
commands a delightful prospect. It 
is surmounted by the shattered ruins 
of the Ga&tle of Dobrowska Mora, 
hoilt, or perhi^ reibiiilt,]]! the begin- 
ning of the 16th century. A century 
later Teplitz devolved to the Kmsky 
family, and after the murder of Count 
William Kinsky, the adherent of 
WaUmsCein at Eger, was bevtowf^ on 
the Aldringer fiEonily* 

The- Park of Doppelbuig exhibits 
wild woodland scenery. 

Near it, 3 m. N.W. of Teplitz, is 
XiAwalA (1380 lt\ a faYOiirite 
summer resort* witti BttlJis and 

The *liLleschaur or Donnersberg 
(2740 ft.), the most elevated of the 
minor range of hills c^led Mlttelge- 
birge, is mken yisited on acooont of 
the fine view* Oandl^ to (7 m.] 
Pilkau, whence the summit is reached 
in less than an hour. The view ex- 
tends to the Schneekopfe in Siiet>ia, 
along Uie £rsgeb&iige in Saxony, and 
over a part of the oonrae of the BSlbe 
and Ep-er. 

The Kly. proceeds in view of the 
Krzgebirg^ hills to 

DiDEf a Tillage belonging to Oonnt 
WMtmOf the desnendant of a eoUa- 

teral branch of the oslsibrated Wallen- 

stein. The Chateau contains a fine 
library, a museum, a collection of 
armour, and one or two relies of 
Wallenstein, sack as haSbert wUh 
which he was mardeied, a fragment 
of his skull taken from ius gra^e, his 
sword, portions of his dress, his em- 
broidtMod shirt-collar, stained with 
the blood of his death-wound ; his 
portrait fay Yamdyckt and other pie- 
tures. In the Gardens are beautiful 
shady wjill:?;. The hronze basin in 
the fore-court was made ont of camion 
taken by him. 

Bribe is a town of lO^OOO Inhah^ 
who chiefly live by the aMNgbboiiring 

coal-mines, and by preparing salts 
from the Sedlitz water. In the 
Market-place is an old EatiUuius, and 
a fimntain eovered with statues of 
saints. On a hoght rises the mined 
castle of Laudswart. 

From Wutwam a rlj. runs to 

l> m. S. of Briix lie the mineral 
springs of FfiUiu^ wheoe a bitter 
water, strongly impregnated with 
Ep?om and Glauber salts, is obtained 
from pits sunk in the ground, which 
are mled by the water percolating 
through it The water does not 
aeqnire itamineral qnalities nntll U has 
stood several weeks. 

Passing UdwitB-CKjrkau, a place of 
cotton faetories^ the riy. reaches 

Eemotau (10,000), a pretty town 
with a late Gothic clmich, in a 
sheltered situation at the foot of the 

Digilizuu by Gc. 



BOUT£ 148* 

Miles. StatioDB. 

KoniggrEti • 133» I6S 
9 Sadowa > ^ 

9 SmkiU . .J 
17 HoKto 

« . 135 

N.W. — ^This line nearly intersects 
the battle-field of Koniggriitz, or 
SftdowA. From the Utter pmee e rly. 
rune E. to Smittti. 



MOm. Stations. Rentes. 
Bodenbaeb 139, lU, 146 
6 Etdau 

11 Eidakalift 

16 Kulm 

18 Hohenstein 

19 Mariaschem . 

20 BoAeuUial-Graiipeii 

29 T^tfr-WaldQior 
98 Xoiteft 

30 Ossegg- 

86 Oberleutenedoirf 

42 EiBeuberg 

47 CKSrkai 

50 XomoCuL tmn 

59 XoaofcnJviietl47,160 

S.W. — The rly. threads the uui row 
Tallqr of the Ettlaaevbaeh^ through 
noft attmetive sceuery. At Tyssa, 
3 m* N. of KonigBwaldt ere the 


(Mirious sandstone clifis of the Tjrsaaer 
Wande. On a hill od th